Studies published on COVID-19, pregnancy and neonate disease until 30 April 2020 are revised. We found 33 articles including 553 pregnant women and 456 deliveries. The more frequent symptoms in the pregnant women were fever, cough and dyspnoea. About two thirds deliveries were carried out via Caesarean rate; 5.9% women were admitted in the ICU and 4% required mechanic ventilation. No maternal death was reported. Prematurity occurred in 22.3% deliveries and 38.3% neonates required admission in the ICU. Only one neonatal death was reported (0.4%) and 13 neonates (3.4%) suffered COVID-19. The available information does not allow to state whether transmission to neonates occurred transplacentarily.

Article here.

Background: The risk of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. Positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates and placental tissue have been reported, and immunoglobulin M antibodies have been detected in neonates born to mothers with infection.

Cases: The first case is a woman at 22 3/7 weeks of gestation with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who was admitted to the intensive care unit. In the second case, the patient remained at home with mild symptoms, starting at 20 weeks of gestation. In both cases, fetal skin edema was observed on ultrasound examination while maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results were positive and resolved when maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results became negative. The RT-PCR test result for SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid was negative in both cases. The two pregnancies are ongoing and uneventful.

Conclusion: Transient fetal skin edema noted in these two patients with COVID-19 in the second trimester may represent results of fetal infection or altered fetal physiology due to maternal disease or may be unrelated to the maternal illness.

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Aim: Our aim was to describe the clinical features of mothers infected with COVID-19 and examine any potential vertical mother to newborn transmission. We also assessed how effective the discharge recommendations were in preventing transmission during the first month of life.

Methods: This multicentre descriptive study involved 16 Spanish hospitals. We reviewed the medical records of 42 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 March to 29 March 2020, when they were in their third trimester of pregnancy. They and their newborn infants were monitored until the infant was one month old.

Results: Over half (52.4%) of the women had a vaginal delivery. The initial clinical symptoms were coughing (66.6%) and fever (59.5%) and one mother died due to thrombo-embolic events. We admitted 37 newborn infants to the neonatal unit (88%) and 28 were then admitted to intermediate care for organisational virus-related reasons. No infants died and no vertical transmission was detected during hospitalisation or follow up. Only six were exclusively breastfed at discharge CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of COVID-19 transmission in any of the infants born to COVID-19 mothers and the post discharge advice seemed effective. The measures to avoid transmission appeared to reduce exclusive breastfeeding at discharge.

Article here.

Background: Compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) spread more rapidly and widely. The population was generally susceptible. However, reports on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were very limited. By sharing the clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 18 patients with COVID-19 during late pregnancy, we hope to provide some references for obstetric treatment and management.

Methods: A total of 18 patients with COVID-19 treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, chest CT and pregnancy outcomes were performed for analysis. Results: 1. 18 cases of late pregnancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were delivered at 35 + 5 weeks to 41 weeks. According to the clinical classification of COVID-19, 1 case was mild type, 16 cases were ordinary type, and 1 case was severe type. 2. According to imaging examinations: 15 (83%) cases showed unilateral or bilateral pneumonia, 2 (11%) cases had pulmonary infection with pleural effusion, and 1 (6%) case had no abnormal imaging changes. 8 (44%) cases were positive and 10 (56%) cases were negative for nasopharyngeal-swab tests of SARS-CoV-2. 3. Among the 18 newborns, there were 3 (17%) premature infants, 1 (6%) case of mild asphyxia, 5 (28%) cases of bacterial pneumonia, 1 (6%) case of gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (6%) case of necrotizing enteritis, 2 (11%) cases of hyperbilirubinemia and 1 (6%) case of diarrhea. All the newborns were negative for the first throat swab test of SARS-CoV-2 after birth. 4. Follow-up to Mar 7, 2020, no maternal and neonatal deaths occurred.

Conclusions: The majority of patients in late term pregnancy with COVID-19 were of ordinary type, and they were less likely to develop into critical pneumonia after early isolation and antiviral treatment. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not detected, but the proportion of neonatal bacterial pneumonia was higher than other neonatal diseases in newborns.

Article here.

Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is highly infectious, with the recent World Health Organization decree confirming a global public health emergency. The outcomes related to maternal and fetal health among pregnant women infected with the virus are still poorly understood. The world population has been waiting for answers and remains constantly alert about the pandemic's progress. It is not yet known what impact this pandemic experience will have on the population's mental health, especially pregnant women.

Method: We aim to understand and discuss the experiences of women who were infected by COVID-19 during pregnancy, in relation to the illness process, community relations, and social media influences. This is a qualitative study in which we will interview women who were infected by COVID-19 during pregnancy and received medical care from a tertiary university hospital specializing in women's health in Brazil. We will use the techniques of Semi-Directed Interviews of Open and In-depth Questions, socio-demographic and health data sheets, and Field Diaries. We will use purposive sampling and the criterion of theoretical saturation for its construction. The interviews will be conducted by phone or video call, with audio recorded for later transcription.

Discussion: It is expected that the results contribute to the understanding about the demands that come to the health professional of women infected by COVID-19 during pregnancy in a pandemic situation. INTRODUCTION: The disease caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) is highly infectious, with the recent declaration by the World Health Organization confirming a global public health emergency. The outcomes related to maternal and fetal health among pregnant women infected with the virus are still poorly understood. The world population has been waiting for answers and is constantly on the alert about the progress of the pandemic. It is not yet known what the impact of the pandemic experience will be on the mental health of the population, especially among pregnant women. Method: The aim of this study is to understand and discuss the experiences of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy, in relation to the illness process, community relations and the influence of social media. This is a qualitative study in which women infected with COVID-19 will be interviewed during pregnancy, attended at a tertiary university hospital specialized in women's health in Brazil. The techniques of Semi-Directed Interviews of Open Questions in Depth, sociodemographic and health data sheet and field diaries will be used. The sample will be selected intentionally, using the theoretical saturation criterion for its construction. The interviews will be conducted by telephone or videoconference, with audio recorded for later transcription. The treatment of the data will follow the Thematic Analysis and the results will be discussed under Health Psychology concepts, with the production of categories that answer the proposed research questions. DISCUSSION: The results are expected to contribute to the understanding of emerging demands among health professionals for women infected by COVID-19 during pregnancy in a pandemic situation.

Article here.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, an optimal management of vulnerable patients, such as pregnant women, has been regarded as a challenge for healthcare professionals. Although thrombocytopaenia is considered a minor criterion for admission within an intensive care unit, a low platelet count has been observed in COVID-19 patients, including a pregnant woman, who developed severe pulmonary complications. Furthermore, thrombocytopaenia has been proposed as a potential biomarker in order to identify cases at high-risk complications. Nevertheless, thrombocytopaenia is a relatively frequent condition observed in pregnancy. In this context, a differential diagnosis is essential for the correct management of COVID-19 pregnant women.

Article here.

Initial reports at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic indicated that the obstetric population did not appear to be at higher risk of developing severe symptoms of COVID-19 than the general population.[1] However, following recent publications showing that pregnancy and the postpartum period might indeed pose additional risks for both women and babies, these preliminary observations urgently require review.[2] Explanations for heightened risk may include relative immunodeficiency associated with maternal physiological adaptations, as well as organic response to virus infections

Article here.

Background: Limited data are available on the management of pregnant women with severe or critical forms of COVID-19, such as the optimal timing of provider-initiated delivery, and post-partum care, including antithrombotic prophylaxis. We present the clinical course, pre- and post-partum management, and outcomes of two pregnant women critically ill with COVID-19.

Cases: Both women had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with rapid clinical decompensation that required admission to the intensive care unit, intubation, and delivery by emergency cesarean section at 32 and 29 weeks. Both patients clinically improved in the first two postoperative days, but this was followed by clinical, laboratory and radiological deterioration on the third postoperative day; however, they both improved again after full anticoagulation. This pattern suggests the possible formation of pulmonary microthrombi in the early puerperium. We discuss the challenges faced by the multiprofessional team in the management of these patients.

Conclusions: There are few resources to guide health professionals caring for pregnant women with critical COVID-19. These two cases contribute to the rapidly evolving knowledge on the management and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19.

Article here.

Background: Limited data are available on the management of pregnant women with severe or critical forms of COVID-19, such as the optimal timing of provider-initiated delivery, and post-partum care, including antithrombotic prophylaxis. We present the clinical course, pre- and post-partum management, and outcomes of two pregnant women critically ill with COVID-19.

Cases: Both women had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with rapid clinical decompensation that required admission to the intensive care unit, intubation, and delivery by emergency cesarean section at 32 and 29 weeks. Both patients clinically improved in the first two postoperative days, but this was followed by clinical, laboratory and radiological deterioration on the third postoperative day; however, they both improved again after full anticoagulation. This pattern suggests the possible formation of pulmonary microthrombi in the early puerperium. We discuss the challenges faced by the multiprofessional team in the management of these patients.

Conclusions: There are few resources to guide health professionals caring for pregnant women with critical COVID-19. These two cases contribute to the rapidly evolving knowledge on the management and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE To review the immunological aspects of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pregnancy, based on the scientific evidence currently available. METHODS An integrative review was performed by two independent researchers, based on the literature available in the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and LILACS databases, using the descriptors "pregnancy" and "COVID-19". This search included articles published up until 14th April 2020 published in English, Spanish or Portuguese. After reading the articles available in their entirety, those related specifically to the immunological aspects of the disease in pregnancy were selected. We initially found a total of 62 articles; 52 were accessed in full-text, and 5 were finally selected. RESULTS Pregnant women are more affected by respiratory diseases possibly because of physiological, immune, and anatomical changes. Some studies highlight the important shift to a T-helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) immune response in pregnancy, as a potential contributor to the severity in cases of COVID-19. Additionally, the cytokine storm present in severe cases leads to an increased inflammatory state, which may deteriorate the clinical prognosis in this population. Therefore, pregnant women may represent a vulnerable group to COVID-19 infection, primarily due to the immune imbalance in the maternal-fetal interface. CONCLUSION Maternal immune response probably plays an important role in the pathophysiology of this infection, although some details remain unsolved. Although further studies are needed to deeply investigate the immunological aspects of the disease in pregnancy, our findings may provide insights into the possible immune mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

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Background: Information regarding the incidence and characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia amongst pregnant women is scarce.

Methods: Single-centre experience with 32 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 5 to April 5, 2020 at Madrid, Spain.

Findings: COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed in 61·5% (32/52) women. Only 18·7% (6/32) had some underlying condition (mostly asthma). Supplemental oxygen therapy was required in 18 patients (56·3%), with high-flow requirements in six (18·7%). Eight patients (25·0%) fulfilled the criteria for acute distress respiratory syndrome. Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in two patients (6·2%). Tocilizumab was administered in five patients (15·6%). Delivery was precipitated due to COVID-19 in three women (9·4%). All the newborns had a favourable outcome, with no cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Severe cases of pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen were more likely to exhibit bilateral alveolar or interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray (55·6% vs. 0·0%; P-value = 0·003) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels >10 mg/dL (33·0% vs. 0·0%; P-value = 0·05) at admission than those with no oxygen requirements.

Interpretation: Pregnant women with COVID-19 have a high risk of developing pneumonia, with a severe course in more than half of cases. The presence of bilateral kung infiltrates and elevated serum CRP at admission may identify women at-risk of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Article here.

Objective: To describe differences in outcomes between pregnant women with and without COVID-19 DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of pregnant women consecutively admitted for delivery, and universally tested via nasopharyngeal (NP) swab for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All infants of mothers with COVID-19 underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing.

Setting: Three New York City hospitals POPULATION: Pregnant women > 20 weeks' gestation admitted for delivery METHODS: Data were stratified by SARS-CoV-2 result and symptomatic status, and summarized using parametric and nonparametric tests.

Main outcome measures: Prevalence and outcomes of maternal COVID-19; obstetric outcomes; neonatal SARS-CoV-2; placental pathology.

Results: Of 675 women admitted for delivery, 10.4% were positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 78.6% were asymptomatic. We observed differences in sociodemographics and comorbidities between women with symptomatic vs. asymptomatic vs. no COVID-19. Cesarean delivery rates were 46.7% in symptomatic COVID-19, 45.5% in asymptomatic COVID-19, and 30.9% without COVID-19 (p=0.044). Postpartum complications (fever, hypoxia, readmission) occurred in 12.9% of women with COVID-19 vs 4.5% of women without COVID-19 (p<0.001). No woman required mechanical ventilation, and no maternal deaths occurred. Among 71 infants tested, none were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Placental pathology demonstrated increased frequency of fetal vascular malperfusion, indicative of thrombi in fetal vessels, in women with vs. without COVID-19 (48.3% vs 11.3%, p <0.001).

Conclusion: Among pregnant women with COVID-19 at delivery, we observed increased cesarean delivery rates and increased frequency of maternal complications in the postpartum period. Additionally, intraplacental thrombi may have maternal and fetal implications for COVID-19 infections remote from delivery.

Article here.

Little data are available on the management of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We conducted a retrospective study of 100 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4 obstetric units in the Paris metropolitan area of France during March 12-April 13, 2020. Among patients, 52 (52%) were hospitalized, 10 (10%) in intensive care units (ICUs). Women with higher body mass indexes (BMIs; median 30.7 kg/m2) were more likely to be hospitalized in ICUs than other women (median BMI 26.2 kg/m2). Women hospitalized in ICUs had lower lymphocyte count at diagnosis (median 0.77 × 109 cells/L) than women not hospitalized in ICUs (median lymphocyte count 1.15 × 109 cells/L). All women requiring oxygen >5 L/min were intubated. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women at the time of diagnosis can identify patients at risk for ICU hospitalization.

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Congenitally- or perinatally-acquired viral infections can be harmful to the fetus but data are limited about prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 disease during the first trimester of pregnancy. We report epidemiologic data from a study investigating a cohort of women who became pregnant just before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 138 consecutive pregnant women attending for first trimester screening (11-13 weeks of gestation) at Sant'Anna Hospital, Turin, Piedmont, Italy, during the plateau and the falling phase of the COVID-19 epidemic curve. Patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2 detection in sera and nasopharyngeal swab samples. COVID-19 cumulative incidence during the first trimester was of 10.1% with high prevalence of asymptomatic patients (42.8%). Similar to the course of the disease in non pregnant adults, 80-90% of infections were not severe. The prevalence of reported symptoms was four-fold higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (57%) than in those negative (13%) (p<0.001), suggesting that direct self-testing should open doors to confirmatory testing for COVID-19. Our findings support the need for COVID-19 screening in early pregnancy in epidemic areas to plan materno-fetal health surveillance programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Objectives: The primary objectives of the study are: 1. To assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding by PCR in infected pregnant women with mild symptoms. 2. To assess the efficacy of HCQ to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women in contact with an infected or suspected case. 3. To evaluate the effect of HCQ in preventing the development of the COVID-19 disease in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women. The secondary objectives are: 1. To determine the effect of HCQ on the clinical course and duration of the COVID-19 disease in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women. 2. To determine the impact of HCQ on the risk of hospitalization and mortality of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women. 3. To assess the safety and tolerability of HCQ in pregnant women. 4. To describe the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. 5. To describe the effects of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by treatment group. 6. To determine the risk of vertical transmission (intra-utero and intra-partum) of SARS-CoV-2.

Trial Design: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled two-arm multicentre clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCQ to prevent and/or minimize SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Participants will be randomized to receive a 14-day oral treatment course of HCQ or placebo, ratio 1:1.

Participants: : Study population: pregnant women undergoing routine prenatal follow up or attending emergency units at the participating hospitals who report either symptoms/signs suggestive of COVID-19 disease or close contact with a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case. Inclusion criteria Women will be invited to participate in the trial and sign an informed consent if they meet the following inclusion criteria.

  • Presenting with fever (≥37.5°C) and/or one mild symptom suggestive of COVID-19 disease (cough, dyspnoea, chills, odynophagia, diarrhoea, muscle pain, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache) OR being contact* of a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected case in the past 14 days
  • More than 12 weeks of gestation (dated by ultrasonography)
  • Agreement to deliver in the study hospitals Exclusion criteria
  • Known hypersensitivity to HCQ or other 4-amonoquinoline compounds
  • History of retinopathy of any aetiology
  • Concomitant use of digoxin, cyclosporine, cimetidine
  • Known liver disease
  • Clinical history of cardiac pathology including known long QT syndrome
  • Unable to cooperate with the requirements of the study
  • Participating in other intervention studies
  • Delivery onset (characterized by painful uterine contractions and variable changes of the cervix, including some degree of effacement and slower progression of dilatation up to 5 cm for first and subsequent labours) The study participants will be stratified by clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Assignment of participants to study groups will be as follows:
    • SARS-CoV-2-PCR confirmed, infected pregnant women: a. symptomatic (n=100) b. asymptomatic (n=100)
    • • SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative pregnant women in contact* with a SARS-CoV-2-infected confirmed or suspected case (n=514). *The ECDC definition of close contact will be followed. The trial will be conducted in five hospitals in Spain: Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, in Barcelona, and HM Puerta del Sur and Hospital Universitario de Torrejón, in Madrid.

Intervention and comparator: Participants will be randomized to HCQ (400 mg/day for three days, followed by 200 mg/day for 11 days) or placebo (2 tablets for three days, followed by one tablet for 11 days).

Main outcomes: The primary outcome is the number of PCR-confirmed infected pregnant women assessed from collected nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs at day 21 after treatment start (one week after treatment is completed).

Randomisation: Allocation of participants to study arms will be done centrally by the trial's Sponsor (the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal) by block randomization. This method will ensure balanced allocation to both arms. The electronic CRF will automatically assign a study number to each participant, depending on her study group and recruitment site. Each number will be related to a treatment number, which assigns them to one of the study arms.

Blinding (masking): Participants, caregivers, investigators and those assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. Study tablets (HCQ and placebo) will be identically packaged in small opaque bottles. Numbers to be randomised (sample size): This study requires 200 SARS-CoV-2 infected and 514 contact pregnant women, randomised 1:1 with 100 and 227 respectively in each study arm.

Trial status: Protocol version 1.0, from May 8th, 2020. Recruitment is ongoing (first patient recruited the 19th May 2020 and recruitment end anticipated by December 2020).

Trial registration: EudraCT number: 2020-001587-29, registered 2 April 2020. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04410562 , retrospectively registered 1 June 2020.

Full protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.

Article here.

Background: There are limited data regarding treatment options for pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Case: A 35-year-old primigravid patient at 22 weeks of gestation presented with 7 days of fever, cough, anosmia, and dyspnea. Nasopharyngeal swab was positive for the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral patchy infiltrates. Laboratory evaluation was notable for marked elevation of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. On hospital day 3, owing to increased dyspnea and oxygen requirement, the patient was treated with tocilizumab followed by 5 days of remdesivir. She responded well, recovered to room air, and was discharged home after a 9-day hospitalization.

Conclusion: Tocilizumab and remdesivir may be effective for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy, but additional data are needed to guide risk-benefit considerations.

Article here.

Pregnancy and early parenthood are life-changing periods characterized by intense emotions and a high vulnerability to emotional problems. Overall, 10-20% of pregnant women and women in the early postpartum period suffer from mental health problems. In the first months of 2020, pregnant and breastfeeding women have also needed to face the COVID-19 pandemic, including the exceptional quarantine measures that have disturbed private and professional life.

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This review evaluates whether pregnancy is a risk factor for COVID-19 by looking at the expression of immune markers such as immune cells and cytokines in order to have a better understanding on the pathophysiology of the disease, thus reducing maternal deaths. Pregnant women are more at risk of contracting COVID-19 due to their weakened immune system. Studies demonstrate that COVID-19 is an immune condition which is marked by reduced lymphocytes and elevated selected proinflammatory cytokines. Similar immune expression has been demonstrated in pregnancy by several studies. In addition, the placenta has been shown to possess ACE2 receptors on the villous cytotrophoblast and the syncytiotrophoblast and findings suggest that the coronavirus enters the host cells via these ACE2 receptors. The immune response in pregnancy increases the risk of contracting COVID-19. Both normal pregnancy and COVID-19 are marked by decreased lymphocytes, NKG2A inhibitory receptors, and increased ACE2, IL-8, IL-10, and IP-10 it therefore safer to conclude that pregnancy is a risk factor for COVID-19 development. Furthermore, the presence of the ACE2 receptors in the placenta may increase the risk of mother to baby transmission of the virus. Therefore, more studies investigating the link between pregnancy and COVID-19 are needed.

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This paper presents a narrative review study of five popular data repositories focusing on challenges of pregnant women protection during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study concludes that the likelihood of a vertical transmission of COVID-19 infection from pregnant women to neonates was not observed. Nevertheless, it remains a serious risk for them during their earlier stage of pregnancy, thus, special attention from health professionals has been recommended.

Article here.

Pregnant women are a potentially highly vulnerable population due to anatomical, physiological and immunological changes under the Covid-19 pandemic. Issues related to pregnancy with Covid-19 attracted widespread attention from researchers. A large number of articles were published aiming to elaborate clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women infected with Covid-19, in order to provide evidence for management. The existing data suggest that the overall prognosis of pregnancy with Covid-19 is promising when compared with that of other previous coronaviruses. There is still maternal morbidity and mortality related to Covid-19 reported. However, the optimal management of severe and critically ill cases of Covid-19-infected-pregnancy is poorly clarified. The possibility of postpartum exacerbation in pregnancy with Covid-19 is also worthy of attention for obstetricians. This review makes further elaboration of the above issues.

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For last months, humanity has faced a formidable unknown enemy, which is presented as a new coronavirus infection. Despite the fact that the causative agents of new diseases appear at a certain frequency and that the virus SARS-CoV-2 has certain common properties with its predecessors, at the moment we are dealing with a new unknown pathogenesis of the development of severe complications in patients with risk factors. A final understanding of pathological process mechanisms is the goal of the scientific community. Summarizing research data from different countries, it became obvious that in severe cases of viral infection, we are dealing with a combination of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Thrombotic microangiopathy is represented by a group of different conditions in which thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and multiple organ failure occur. The article reflects the main types of TMA, pathogenesis and principles of therapy. The main participants in the process are described in detail, including the von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS-13. Based on the knowledge available, as well as new data obtained from patients with COVID-19, we proposed possible models for the implementation of conditions such as sepsis, TMA, and DIC in patients with severe new coronavirus infection. Through a deeper understanding of pathogenesis, it will be possible to develop more effective diagnosis and therapy.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new coronavirus, was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly, affecting many other countries. The disease is now referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The Italian government declared a state of emergency on 31st January 2020 and on 11th March World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. Although the COVID-19 incidence remained considerably lower in Sardinia than in the North Italy regions, which were the most affected, the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis was modified because of the emerging pandemic. Data on COVID-19 during pregnancy are so far limited. Since the beginning of the emergency, our Ob/Gyn Department at Microcitemico Hospital, Cagliari offered to pregnant patients all procedures considered essential by the Italian Ministry of Health. To evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the activities of our center, we compared the number of procedures performed from 10th March to 18th May 2020 with those of 2019. Despite the continuous local birth rate decline, during the 10-week pandemic period, we registered a 20% increment of 1st trimester combined screening and a slight rise of the number of invasive prenatal procedures with a further increase in chorionic villi sampling compared to amniocentesis. Noninvasive prenatal testing remained unvariated. The request for multifetal pregnancy reduction as a part of the growing tendency of voluntary termination of pregnancy in Sardinia increased. The COVID-19 pandemic provides many scientific opportunities for clinical research and study of psychological and ethical issues in pregnant women.

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Since SARS-COV-2 appeared in Wuhan City, China and rapidly spread throughout Europe, a real revolution occurred in the daily routine and in the organization of the entire health system. While non-urgent clinical services have been reduced as far aspossible, all kind of specialists turned into COVID-19 specialists. Obstetric assistancecannot be suspended and, at the same time, safety must be guaranteed. In addition, as COVID-19 positive pregnant patients require additional care, some of the clinical habits need to be changed to face emerging needs for a vulnerable but unstoppable kind of patients. We report the management set up in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit during the COVID-19 era in a University Hospital in Milan, Italy.

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Background: Studies on COVID-19 infection in pregnancy thus far have largely focused on characterizing maternal and neonatal clinical characteristics. However, another evolving focus is assessing and mitigating the risk of vertical transmission amongst COVID-19-positive mothers. The objective of this review was to summarize the current evidence on the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in the third trimester and its effects on the neonate.Methods: OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) were searched from January 2020 to May 2020, with continuous surveillance.Results: 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, consisting of 157 mothers and 160 neonates. The mean age of the pregnant patients was 30.8 years and the mean gestational period was 37 weeks and 1 d. Currently, there is currently no conclusive evidence to suggest that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs. Amongst 81 (69%) neonates who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5 (6%) had a positive result. However, amongst these 5 neonates, the earliest test was performed at 16 h after birth, and only 1 neonate was positive when they were later re-tested. However, this neonate initially tested negative at birth, suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2 infection was likely hospital-acquired rather than vertically transmitted. 13 (8%) neonates had complications or symptoms.

Conclusions: The findings of this rapid descriptive review based on early clinical evidence suggest that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to neonate/newborn did not occur. Future studies are needed to determine the optimal management of neonates born to COVID-19-positive mothers.

Article here.

There are concerns regarding the risk and the course of COVID-19 in pregnancy and in the neonates. In this review, we aimed to present the current understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and neonatal periods considering diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention. Few studies on pregnant women with COVID-19 have been conducted between December 2019 and April 2020. The majority of patients applied in the third trimester and presented with fever and cough. Ground-glass opacities and consolidation on computed tomography were reported to be common. COVID-19 was proposed to have a milder course than SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in pregnant women. Hydroxychloroquine and antiproteases (lopinavir/ritonavir) were reported to be safe; however, therapeutic efficacy and safety of remdesivir still lack evidence. As ribavirin and favipiravir have teratogenic effects, there are some debates on the use of ribavirin in severe cases. There is still no clear evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during delivery. Occupational safety issues of pregnant healthcare workers on the frontline should be considered as their risk to develop severe pneumonia is higher because of altered maternal immune response. Knowledge about neonatal outcomes of COVID-19 was based on studies of the last trimester of pregnancy. There is much to be learnt about COVID-19 in pregnant women and in the neonates, especially concerning prognosis- and treatment-related issues.

Article here.

Objective: To investigate the computed tomography (CT) characteristics and diagnostic value of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP or COVID-19) in pregnancy.

Methods: This study included ten pregnant women infected with COVID-19, treated in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 20, 2020 to February 6, 2020. Clinical and chest CT data were collected and clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators, and CT images were analyzed to explore CT characteristics and diagnostic value for COVID-19 during pregnancy.

Results: Laboratory examination showed that white blood cell count was normal in nine patients, and slightly higher in one patient (10.23 × 109). The lymphocyte ratio decreased in two patients by 12% and 14%, respectively. The levels of C-reactive protein was elevated in seven patients (range, 21.16-60.3 mg/L) and the levels of D-dimer was increased in eight patients (range, 507-2141 ng/mL). Six patients had low levels of total protein (range, 35.3-56.5 mg/L). Two patients showed small patchy ground glass opacity (GGO) involving single lung, while eight patients showed multilobe GGO in both the lungs, with partial consolidation. Peripheral and non-peripheral lesion distributions were seen in ten (100%) and four (40%) patients, respectively. There were four patients who had signs of intra-bronchial air-bronchogram, six patients had small bilateral pleural effusions, while none had lymphadenopathy. Dynamic observations were performed in four patients after COVID-19 treatment. Among these four patients, one patient showed normal on the initial examination, and new lesions were observed after 3 days; 1 patient showed progression after 7 days of treatment, with expansion of the lesion area; and the other 2 patients showed improvement after 14 days of treatment, with reduction in the density and area of lesions and appearance of linear opacity.

Conclusions: The CT characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy were mainly observed in early and progressive stages, and multiple new lesions were common. And there were consolidations of varying sizes and degrees within the lesion. Moreover, the original ground glass lesions could be fused or partially absorbed. Six patients had small bilateral pleural effusion. In summary, CT scans can play an important role in early screening, dynamic observation, and efficacy evaluation of suspected or confirmed cases of pregnant women with COVID-19.

Article here.

We present a case of a 38+1 weeks pregnant patient (G1P0) with a proven COVID-19 infection, who was planned for induction of labour because of pre-existent hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, respiratory problem of coughing and mild dyspnoea without fever during the COVID-19 pandemic in. March 2020. To estimate the risk of vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during labour and delivery, we collected oropharyngeal, vaginal, urinary, placental and neonatal PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 during the period of admission. All PCRs, except for the oropharyngeal, were negative and vertical transmission was not observed. Labour and delivery were uncomplicated and the patient and neonate were discharged the next day. We give a short overview of the known literature about SARS-CoV-2-related infection during pregnancy, delivery and outcome of the neonate.

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Study question: Is SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) expressed in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, and does it participate in endometrial decidualization?

Summary answer: ACE2 protein is highly expressed in human endometrial stromal cells during the secretory phase and is essential for human endometrial stromal cell decidualization.

What is known already: ACE2 is expressed in numerous human tissues including the lungs, heart, intestine, kidneys and placenta. ACE2 is also the receptor by which SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells.

Study design size duration: Proliferative (n = 9) and secretory (n = 6) phase endometrium biopsies from healthy reproductive-age women and primary human endometrial stromal cells from proliferative phase endometrium were used in the study.

Participants/materials setting methods: ACE2 expression and localization were examined by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence in both human endometrial samples and mouse uterine tissue. The effect of ACE2 knockdown on morphological and molecular changes of human endometrial stromal cell decidualization were assessed. Ovariectomized mice were treated with estrogen or progesterone to determine the effects of these hormones on ACE2 expression.

Main results and the role of chance: In human tissue, ACE2 protein is expressed in both endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, and expression increases in stromal cells in the secretory phase. The ACE2 mRNA ( P < 0.0001) and protein abundance increased during primary human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization. HESCs transfected with ACE2 -targeting siRNA were less able to decidualize than controls, as evidenced by a lack of morphology change and lower expression of the decidualization markers PRL and IGFBP1 ( P < 0.05). In mice during pregnancy, ACE2 protein was expressed in uterine epithelial and stromal cells increased through day six of pregnancy. Finally, progesterone induced expression of Ace2 mRNA in mouse uteri more than vehicle or estrogen ( P < 0.05).

Large scale data: N/A.

Limitations reasons for caution: Experiments assessing the function of ACE2 in human endometrial stromal cell decidualization were in vitro . Whether SARS-CoV-2 can enter human endometrial stromal cells and affect decidualization have not been assessed.

Wider implications of the findings: Expression of ACE2 in the endometrium allow SARS-CoV-2 to enter endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, which could impair in vivo decidualization, embryo implantation, and placentation. If so, women with COVID-19 may be at increased risk of early pregnancy loss.

Study fundings/competing interests: This study was supported by National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grants R01HD065435 and R00HD080742 to RK and Washington University School of Medicine start-up funds to RK. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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There has been significant concern regarding fertility and reproductive outcomes during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. Recent data suggests a high concentration of SARS-Cov2 receptors, ACE2 or TMPRSS2 , in nasal epithelium and cornea, which explains person-to-person transmission. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 receptors among reproductive tissues by exploring the single-cell sequencing datasets from uterus, myometrium, ovary, fallopian tube, and breast epithelium. We did not detect significant expression of either ACE2 or TMPRSS2 in the normal human myometrium, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tube, or breast. Furthermore, none of the cell types in the female reproductive organs we investigated, showed the co-expression of ACE2 with proteases, TMPRSS2 , Cathepsin B ( CTSB ), and Cathepsin L ( CTSL ) known to facilitate the entry of SARS2-CoV2 into the host cell. These results suggest that myometrium, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tube, and breast are unlikely to be susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV2. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 is unlikely to contribute to pregnancy-related adverse outcomes such as preterm birth, transmission of COVID-19 through breast milk, oogenesis and female fertility.

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Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of antenatal attendees towards COVID-19 in Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 430 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinics between March 1 and May 30, 2020, using pretested questionnaires.

Results: The mean age and mean gestational age of the respondents were 30.04 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.9-31.1) and 26.3 weeks (95% CI 23.3-29.3), respectively. More than four-fifths (82%) of the women believed that COVID-19 is real and their main source of information was mass media. The majority had adequate knowledge of COVID-19. More than half of the respondents said COVID-19 is a curable disease and that chloroquine can be used. The majority showed a good attitude and preventice practice of COVID-19 disease; however, one-fourth (24%) thought that infected individuals should be killed to prevent the spread of the virus.

Conclusion: The study population has good knowledge, attitude, and practice of COVID-19 disease. However, it is worrisome that some respondents thought that infected individuals should be killed. Proper education must be given to the populace to avert these negative attitudes while promoting a positive preventive attitude.

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Objective: to map the production of knowledge regarding recommendations for providing care to pregnant women dealing with the novel coronavirus.

Method: scoping review, using a broadened strategy to search databases and repositories, as well as the reference lists in the sources used. Data were collected and analyzed by two independent reviewers. Data were analyzed and synthesized in the form of a narrative.

Results: the final sample was composed of 24 records, the content of which was synthesized in these conceptual categories: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, working pregnant women, vaccine development, complications, prenatal care, vertical transmission, and placental transmissibility. It is recommended to confirm pregnancy and disease early on, to use technological resources for screening and providing guidance and support to pregnant women.

Conclusion: recommendations emphasize isolation, proper rest, sleep, nutrition, hydration, medications, and in the more severe cases, oxygen support, monitoring of vital signs, emotional support, and multiprofessional and individualized care. Medications should be used with caution due to a lack of evidence. Future research is needed to analyze the impact of the infection at the beginning of pregnancy and the psychological aspects of pregnant women infected with the virus.

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COVID-19 pandemic is affecting various areas of health care, including human reproduction. Many women with reproductive failures, during the peri-implantation period and pregnancy, are on the immunotherapy using immune modulators and immunosuppressant due to underlying autoimmune diseases, cellular immune dysfunction, and rheumatic conditions. Many questions have been raised for women with immunotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic, including infection susceptibility, how to manage women with an increased risk of and active COVID-19 infection. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus, and not enough information exists. Yet, we aim to review the data from previous coronavirus outbreaks and current COVID-19 and provide interim guidelines for immunotherapy in women with reproductive failures.

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Recently, in China, in 2019, a new type of disease has arisen caused by a new strain of coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, considered extremely worrying due to its high infectivity power and the easy ability to spread geographically. For patients in general, the clinical features resulting from respiratory syndromes can trigger an asymptomatic condition. However, 25% of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 can progress to severity. Pregnant women are an unknown field in this complex process, and although they have symptoms similar to non-pregnant women, some points should be considered, such as complications during pregnancy and postpartum. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the consequences on pregnancy and fetal development, caused by infections by the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Among the aforementioned infections, MERS-CoV seems to be the most dangerous for newborns, inducing high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, pneumonia, acute renal failure, and multiple organ failure in mother. This also causes a higher occurrence of emergency cesarean deliveries and premature births, in addition, some deaths of mothers and fetuses were recorded. Meanwhile, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 appears to have less severe symptoms. Furthermore, although a study found the ACE2 receptor, used by SARS-CoV-2, widely distributed in specific cell types of the maternal-fetal interface, there is no evidence of vertical transmission for any of the coronaviruses. Thus, the limited reported obstetric cases alert to the need for advanced life support for pregnant women infected with coronaviruses and to the need for further investigation for application in clinical practice.

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Objectives Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a new respiratory disease that is spreading widely throughout the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women in Italy. Methods We considered 200 pregnancies attending our antenatal clinic. A questionnaire was sent to each woman in the days of maximum spread of COVID-19. Sectional was finalized to acquire in 18 items maternal characteristics and to test the women's perception of infection. Section included the State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) 40 items validated test for scoring trait anxiety (basal anxiety, STAI-T) and state anxiety (related to the ongoing pandemic, STAI-S). An abnormal value of STAI was considered when ≥40. Results The questionnaire was completed by 178 women (89%). Fear that COVID-19 could induce fetal structural anomalies was present in 47%, fetal growth restriction in 65% and preterm birth in 51% of the women. The median value of STAI-T was 37 and in 38.2% of the study group STAI-T score ≥40 was evidenced. STAI-S values were significantly higher with an increase of median values of 12 points (p≤0.0001). There was a positive linear correlation between STAI-T and STAI-S (Pearson=0.59; p≤0.0001). A higher educational status was associated with increased prevalence of STAI-S ≥ 40(p=0.004). Subgrouping women by the other variables considered did not show any further difference. Conclusions COVID-19 pandemic induces a doubling of the number of women who reached abnormal level of anxiety. These findings validate the role of the remote use of questionnaire for identifying women at higher risk of anxiety disorders allowing the activation of support procedures.

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Continued employment of pregnant women related to COVID (Corona Virus Disease) should only be considered if the risk of infection in the workplace is not higher than that of the general population. This option should therefore be carried out after an individual risk assessment with a precise description of the patient clientele and definition of the activities to be performed.

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Currently, limited data on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with infection and pneumonia related to SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are available. Our report aims to describe a case of placental swabs positive for the molecular research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 RNA in an asymptomatic woman with positive rhino-pharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 who underwent an urgent cesarean section in our obstetrics unit. Sample collection, processing, and laboratory testing were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. In the next months, conclusive data on obstetrical outcomes concerning the gestational age and pregnancy comorbidity as well as the eventual maternal-fetal transmission are needed.

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Objectives: From 2016 to 2018 Florida documented 1471 cases of Zika virus, 299 of which were pregnant women (Florida Department of Health, https://www.floridahealth.gov/diseases-and-conditions/mosquito-bornediseases/surveillance.html, 2019a). Florida's response required unprecedented rapid and continuous cross-sector communication, adaptation, and coordination. Zika tested public health systems in new ways, particularly for maternal child health populations. The systems are now being challenged again, as the Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic spreads throughout Florida. This qualitative journey mapping evaluation of Florida's response focused on care for pregnant women and families with infants exposed to Zika virus.

Methods: Fifteen focus groups and interviews were conducted with 33 public health and healthcare workers who managed outbreak response, case investigations, and patient care in south Florida. Data were thematically analyzed, and the results were framed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Healthcare Systems Framework of six building blocks: health service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership and governance (World Health Organization, https://www.who.int/healthsystems/strategy/everybodys_business.pdf, 2007, https://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/monitoring/en/, 2010).

Results: Results highlighted coordination of resources, essential services and treatment, data collection, communication among public health and healthcare systems, and dissemination of information. Community education, testing accuracy and turnaround time, financing, and continuity of health services were areas of need, and there was room for improvement in all indicator areas.

Conclusions: The WHO Framework encapsulated important infrastructure and process factors relevant to the Florida Zika response as well as future epidemics. In this context, similarities, differences, and implications for the Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic response are discussed.

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Objectives: To investigate the mental status of pregnant women and to determine their obstetric decisions during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Two cities in China, Wuhan (epicentre) and Chongqing (a less affected city).

Population: 1947 pregnant women.

Methods: We collected demographic, pregnancy, and epidemic information from our pregnant subjects, along with their attitudes towards COVID-19 (using a self-constructed five-point scale). The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety status. Obstetric decision-making was also evaluated. The differences between cities in all of the above factors were compared, and the factors that influenced anxiety levels were identified by multivariable analysis.

Main outcome measures: Anxiety status and its influencing factors. Obstetric decision-making.

Results: Differences were observed between cities in some background characteristics and women's attitudes towards COVID-19 in Wuhan were more extreme. More women in Wuhan felt anxious (24.5% vs 10.4%). Factors that influenced anxiety also included household income, subjective symptoms, and attitudes. Overall, obstetric decisions also revealed city-based differences; these decisions mainly concerned hospital preference, time of prenatal care or delivery, mode of delivery and infant feeding.

Conclusions: The outbreak aggravated prenatal anxiety, and the associated factors could be targets for psychological care. In parallel, key obstetric decision-making changed, emphasising the need for pertinent professional advice. Special support is essential for pregnant mothers during epidemics.

Article here.

As of June 16, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in 2,104,346 cases and 116,140 deaths in the United States.* During pregnancy, women experience immunologic and physiologic changes that could increase their risk for more severe illness from respiratory infections (1,2). To date, data to assess the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among pregnant U.S. women and determine whether signs and symptoms differ among pregnant and nonpregnant women are limited. During January 22-June 7, as part of COVID-19 surveillance, CDC received reports of 326,335 women of reproductive age (15-44 years) who had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Data on pregnancy status were available for 91,412 (28.0%) women with laboratory-confirmed infections; among these, 8,207 (9.0%) were pregnant. Symptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19 reported similar frequencies of cough (>50%) and shortness of breath (30%), but pregnant women less frequently reported headache, muscle aches, fever, chills, and diarrhea. Chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease were more commonly reported among pregnant women than among nonpregnant women. Among women with COVID-19, approximately one third (31.5%) of pregnant women were reported to have been hospitalized compared with 5.8% of nonpregnant women. After adjusting for age, presence of underlying medical conditions, and race/ethnicity, pregnant women were significantly more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (aRR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.8) and receive mechanical ventilation (aRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Sixteen (0.2%) COVID-19-related deaths were reported among pregnant women aged 15-44 years, and 208 (0.2%) such deaths were reported among nonpregnant women (aRR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.5-1.5). These findings suggest that among women of reproductive age with COVID-19, pregnant women are more likely to be hospitalized and at increased risk for ICU admission and receipt of mechanical ventilation compared with nonpregnant women, but their risk for death is similar. To reduce occurrence of severe illness from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the potential risk for severe illness from COVID-19, and measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families.

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Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus infection (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, there have been many concerns about pregnant women and the possible effects of this emergency with catastrophic outcomes in many countries. Information on COVID-19 and pregnancy are scarce and spread throughout a few case series, with no more than 50 cases in total. The present review provides a brief analysis of COVID-19, pregnancy in the COVID-19 era, and the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy.

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Ethical issues abound during this unprecedented international public health crisis of Covid-19. While the trade-off between societal and individual interests that occurs at the intersection of public health ethics and clinical ethics affects all populations, this calculus has particular relevance for pregnant women and the question of when they will have access to new Covid-19 therapies and vaccines. Pregnant women are a "scientifically complex" population whose inclusion in clinical research must be done with consideration of the unique state of pregnancy. Yet research on the impact of Covid-19 on pregnant women is lagging. In a rush to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is crucial that the interests of pregnant women be prioritized to enable them to make autonomous, informed decisions about participating in clinical trials. The global pandemic calls for a revisiting of frameworks for the inclusion of pregnant women in research, as these women have an important stake in the prevention and treatment of Covid-19.

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No abstract.

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Background The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pregnancies is currently under investigation. There is a significant overlap between the clinical findings in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP). Cases Patients presented at 22 and 29 weeks of gestation with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. While the patient at 22 weeks of gestation subsequently had an intrauterine fetal demise, the patient at 29 weeks of gestation delivered via an emergency cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status. Both patients also developed transaminitis, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation with a proof of hemolysis on peripheral smear. Conclusion Clinicians are encouraged to consider both of these diagnoses when caring for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic to assure that both maternal and fetal concerns are addressed and treated appropriately.

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The Novel Coronavirus disease that started in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 has emerged as one of the fastest spreading pandemics all over the world affecting millions of people and causing millions of deaths worldwide. In an attempt to control its spread, countries have imposed local and national lockdowns, affecting many healthcare services, especially sexual and reproductive health services which are actually essential and lifesaving. In near future this will result in a large number of grave consequences including increased unmet need for modern contraceptives, unintended pregnancies, increased unsafe abortions, maternal and neonatal deaths and other harmful practices like female genital mutilation and child marriages in developing countries. The present short review focusses on such issues which will be dramatically increased depending on the duration of lockdowns and the time for which the sexual and reproductive health services will remain halted. It also reflects the need for considering reproductive health services as essential, allowing the people to avail these services without any fear and hence, saving many more lives which will be lost not due to coronavirus infection. Methodology: The data was searched from various governmental and non-governmental organisation sites including the World Health Organisation, United Nations, United Nations Population Fund, Guttmacher Institute and many PubMed indexed journals.

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In this issue of BJOG, Mendoza and colleagues report in an observational study the occurrence of a preeclampsia-like syndrome in six out of eight pregnant patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe pneumonia (Mendoza M, et al. BJOG 2020). There were no symptoms of preeclampsia amongst the 34 pregnant women who had mild forms of COVID-19.

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The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread globally. Little is still known about the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and neonates. A review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guideline recommendations, searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies' quality assessments were performed using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist. A total of 37 studies were included, involving 275 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 248 neonates. The majority of pregnant women presented with mild to moderate symptoms, only 10 were admitted in the ICU, and one died. Two stillbirths were reported and the incidence of prematurity was 28%. Sixteen neonates were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR, and nine of them were born from mothers infected during pregnancy. Neonatal outcomes were generally good: all the affected neonates recovered. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 yielded negative results on amniotic fluid, vaginal/cervical fluids, placenta tissue, and breast milk samples. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women appeared associated with mild or moderate disease in most cases, with a low morbidity and mortality rate. The outcomes of neonates born from infected women were mainly favorable, although neonates at risk should be closely monitored. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new type and rapidly spread viral pneumonia, is now producing an outbreak of pandemic proportions. The clinical features and laboratory results of different age groups are different due to the general susceptibility of the disease. The laboratory findings of COVID-19 in pregnant women are also conflicting. Para-clinical investigations including laboratory tests and radiologic findings play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of COVID-19. The majority of previous reports on the COVID-19 laboratory results were based on data from the general population and limited information is available based on age difference and pregnancy status. This review aimed to describe the COVID-19 laboratory findings in neonates, children, adults, elderly and pregnant women altogether for the first time. The most attracting and reliable markers of COVID-19 in patients were: normal C-reactive protein (CRP) and very different and conflicting laboratory results regardless of clinical symptoms in neonates, normal or temporary elevated CRP, conflicting WBC count results and procalcitonin elevation in children, lymphopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in adult patients, lymphopenia and elevated CRP and LDH in the elderly people, leukocytosis and elevated neutrophil ratio in pregnant women.

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Introduction: The fact that little is yet known about the possible implications of COVID-19 for pregnancy, puts pregnant women at greater risk of heightened anxiety and psychological distress. In this study, we sought to explore the psychological distress and COVID-19-related anxiety of pregnant women during the crisis.

Methods: Israeli Jewish and Arab pregnant women (n = 336) aged 20-47 completed a set of questionnaires during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020.

Results: The levels of all COVID-19-related anxieties were quite high (much or very much), with the highest regarding public places and transportation (87.5%, 70%, respectively), followed by concerns over the possible infection of other family members and the health of the foetus (71.7%, 70%, respectively), going for pregnancy check-ups (68.7%,), being infected themselves, and the delivery (59.2%, 55.4%, respectively). Although COVID-19-related anxieties were shared by pregnant women characterised by diverse sociodemographic variables, with very small nuances, Arab women were more anxious about each of the issues than Jewish women.

Discussion: Our findings highlight the importance of assessing anxiety and distress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the need to be attentive to the double stress of pregnant women in times of crisis and to the potential vulnerability of subgroups, such as cultural minorities.

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Background: The effects of Covid-19 in pregnancy remain relatively unknown. We present a case of second trimester pregnancy with symptomatic Covid-19 complicated by severe preeclampsia and placental abruption.

Methods: We analyzed placenta for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular and immunohistochemical assays and by and electron microscopy, and we measured the maternal antibody response in blood to this infection.

Results: SARS-CoV-2 localized predominantly to syncytiotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface of the placenta. Histological examination of the placenta revealed a dense macrophage infiltrate, but no evidence for vasculopathy typically associated with preeclampsia.

Conclusion: This case demonstrates SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the placenta, highlighting the potential for severe morbidity among pregnant women with Covid-19.

Article here.

Background: The effects of Covid-19 in pregnancy remain relatively unknown. We present a case of second trimester pregnancy with symptomatic Covid-19 complicated by severe preeclampsia and placental abruption.

Methods: We analyzed placenta for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular and immunohistochemical assays and by and electron microscopy, and we measured the maternal antibody response in blood to this infection.

Results: SARS-CoV-2 localized predominantly to syncytiotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface of the placenta. Histological examination of the placenta revealed a dense macrophage infiltrate, but no evidence for vasculopathy typically associated with preeclampsia.

Conclusion: This case demonstrates SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the placenta, highlighting the potential for severe morbidity among pregnant women with Covid-19.

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The risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to maternal and newborn health has yet to be determined. Several reports suggest pregnancy does not typically increase the severity of disease, however, several cases of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth have been reported. Reports of placental infection and vertical transmission are rare. Interestingly, despite lack of SARS-CoV-2 placenta productive infection there are several reports of significant abnormalities in placenta morphology. Continued research on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 and their offspring is vitally important.

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The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is currently prevalent all over the world, causing thousands of deaths with relatively high virulence. Like two other notable beta coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe contagious respiratory disease. Due to impaired cellular immunity and physiological changes, pregnant women are susceptible to respiratory disease and are more likely to develop severe pneumonia. Given the prevalence of COVID-19, it is speculated that some pregnant women have already been infected. However, limited data are available for the clinical course and management of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Therefore, we conducted this review to identify strategies for the obstetric management of COVID-19. We compared the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19, SARS, and MERS in pregnancy and discussed several drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

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At the end of 2019, in Wuhan (China), the onset of a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was observed. The disease, named COVID-19, has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic or mild to critical, and for some patients the disease is even fatal. Apparently, being a child or being pregnant does not represent an additional risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this mini-review was to investigate what is in the scientific literature, so far, in regard to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data were obtained independently by the two authors, who carried out a systematic search in the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, Cochrane, Scopus and SciELO databases using the Medical Subject Heading terms "coronavirus," "COVID-19," and "vertical transmission." Few studies about the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are found in the literature. In all case reports and case series, the mothers' infection occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy, there were no maternal deaths, and most neonates had a favorable clinical course. The virus was not detected in the neonate nasopharyngeal swab samples at birth, in the placenta, in the umbilical cord, in the amniotic fluid, in the breast milk or in the maternal vaginal swab samples in any of these articles. Only three papers reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is a bias that positive pharyngeal swab samples were collected at 36 h and on the 2nd, 4th, and 17th days of life. The possibility of intrauterine infection has been based mainly on the detection of IgM and IL-6 in the neonates' serum. In conclusion, to date, no convincing evidence has been found for vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects people at all ages and it may be encountered in pregnant women and newborns also. The information about its clinical features, laboratory findings and prognosis in children and newborns is scarce. All the reported cases in pregnant women were in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and only 1% of them developed severe disease. Miscarriages are rare. Materno-fetal transmission of the disease is controversial. Definitive diagnosis can be made by a history of contact with a proven case, fever, pneumonia and gastrointestinal disorder and a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of nasopharyngeal swabs. Lymphopenia as well as liver and renal dysfunctions may be seen. Suspected or proven cases of newborns with symptoms should be quarantined in the neonatal intensive care unit for at least 14 days with standart and droplet isolation precautions. Asymptomatic infants may be quaratined at home. Transport of the neonates should be performed in a dedicated transport incubator and ambulance with isolation precautions. There is no specific treatment for the disease, but hemodynamic stabilization of the infant, respiratory management and other daily care are essential. Drugs against cytokine storm syndrome such as corticosteroids or tocilizumab are under investigation. Routine antibiotics are not recommended. No deaths have been reported so far in the neonatal population. Families and healthcare staff should receive pyschological support. Since the infection is quite new and knowledge is constantly accumulating, following developments and continuous updates are crucial.

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Introduction: Descriptions of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have focused on the non-pregnant adult population. This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Methods: We searched databases from December 2019 to April 30th, 2020. Eligible studies reported clinical characteristics, radiological findings and/or laboratory testing of pregnant women during infection. Data were pooled across studies using random-effects model.

Results: Twenty-four studies (136 women) were included. Most common symptoms were fever (62.9%) and cough (36.8%). Laboratory findings included elevated C-Reactive Protein (57%) and lymphocytopenia (50%). Ground-glass opacity was the most common radiological finding (81.7%). Preterm birth rate was 37.7% and cesarean delivery rate was 76%. There was one maternal death. There were two fetal COVID-19 cases.

Conclusion: The clinical picture in pregnant women with COVID-19 did not differ from the non-pregnant population, however, the rate of preterm birth and cesarean delivery are considerably higher than international averages.

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Since December 2019, the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported unexpectedly in Wuhan, China, with staggering infection speed across China and around the world. To date, seven known strains of HCoVs belonging to four genera (i.e., α?, β?, γ, and δ-CoV) have been recognized; the latest one has been identified as the SARS-CoV-2. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. Although there are no biological markers to predict the susceptibility of humans to COVID-19, several risk factors have been identified to predict the susceptibility of patients to COVID-19. Initial data revealed that males, pregnant women, elderly, and underlying conditions predispose patients to higher morbidity or mortality and also might be at risk for a severe infection of COVID-19. There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. To date, despite the whole world effort to review various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options, there are still gaps in the knowledge of this disease and many issues remain unclear. Therefore, there is an urgent need for update data on SARS-CoV-2. Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020.

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Background: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major health problem that is spreading all over the world. Several viral infections such as SARS, MERS, and influenza have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The question arises whether pregnant women are at greater risk of complications related to COVID-19 compared to other people What complications should we expect in the fetuses whose mothers were infected?

Aims: This review aims to provide a summary of studies on symptoms of COVID-19 and the possible risks of COVID-19 among pregnant women, as well as complications in fetuses and neonates whose mothers were infected with COVID-19.

Methods: The included data were provided from Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus which are extracted from the published studies in English until April 2nd, 2020 that contained data on the risk of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Results: The early symptoms of patients with COVID-19 were fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, and fatigue; while production of sputum, headache, hemoptysis, and diarrhea were other symptoms which were less common. There is no evidence of vertical maternal-fetal transmission in pregnant women with COVID-19.

Conclusion: The clinical findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are not significantly different compared to other patients, and pregnant women with COVID-19 are not at a higher risk of developing critical pneumonia compared to non-pregnant women. Although, there has been no sign of vertical infection in infants, but maternal infection can cause serious problems such as preterm labour and fetal distress.

Article here.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created anxiety among members of the public, including all women over the childbirth continuum, who are considered to be at a greater risk of contracting most infectious diseases. Understanding the perspectives of health care consumers on COVID-19 will play a crucial role in the development of effective risk communication strategies. This study aimed to examine COVID-19-related risk perceptions, knowledge, and information sources among prenatal and postnatal Chinese women during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted, and a four-section online questionnaire was used to collect data. Using a social media platform, the online survey was administered to 161 participants during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Nanjing, China, in February 2020.

Results: The participants perceived their risk of contracting and dying from COVID-19 to be lower than their risk of contracting influenza, however many of them were worried that they might contract COVID-19. The participants demonstrated adequate knowledge about COVID-19. The three major sources from which they obtained information about COVID-19 were doctors, nurses/midwives, and the television, and they placed a high level of confidence in these sources. There was no significant relationship between the perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 and knowledge about this disease.

Conclusion: The present findings offer valuable insights to healthcare professionals, including midwives, who serve on the frontline and provide care to pregnant women. Although the participants were adequately knowledgeable about COVID-19, they had misunderstood some of the recommendations of the World Health Organisation.

Article here.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has represented a major impact to health systems and societies worldwide. The generation of knowledge about the disease has occurred almost as fast as its global expansion. The mother and fetus do not seem to be at particularly high risk. Nevertheless, obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine practice have suffered profound changes to adapt to the pandemic. In addition, there are aspects specific to COVID-19 and gestation that should be known by specialists in order to correctly diagnose the disease, classify the severity, distinguish specific signs of COVID-19 from those of obstetric complications, and take the most appropriate management decisions. In this review we present in a highly concise manner an evidence-based protocol for the management of COVID-19 in pregnancy. We briefly contemplate all relevant aspects that we believe a specialist in obstetrics and maternal medicine should know, ranging from basic concepts about the disease and protection measures in the obstetric setting to more specific aspects related to maternal-fetal management and childbirth.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

Background: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unique challenges in healthcare. In obstetrics, there is little information available to guide practice. As new data emerge, the spectrum of initial presenting symptoms has expanded from fever, cough, and dyspnea to gastrointestinal and other symptoms in both pregnant and non-pregnant patients.

Case: A 36-year-old woman, G4P2, at 33 weeks of gestation presented very early in the COVID-19 course with four days of cough and fever, without recent travel or known exposure. She appeared well, with stable vital signs, and was sent home to self-quarantine after a specimen for COVID-19 testing was collected. Two days later, she presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis.

Conclusion: To date, no cases of human pancreatitis have been identified as related to a COVID-19 infection, although multiple other gastrointestinal symptoms have been described. Given the lack of other etiology, we consider the possibility that patient's acute pancreatitis could be secondary to COVID-19 infection.

Article here.

Study question: Will a delay in initiating IVF treatment affect pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve?

Summary answer: A delay in IVF treatment up to 180 days does not affect the live birth rate for women with diminished ovarian reserve when compared to women who initiate IVF treatment within 90 days of presentation.

What is known already: In clinical practice, treatment delays can occur due to medical, logistical or financial reasons. Over a period of years, a gradual decline in ovarian reserve occurs which can result in declining outcomes in response to IVF treatment over time. There is disagreement among reproductive endocrinologists about whether delaying IVF treatment for a few months can negatively affect patient outcomes.

Study design, size, duration: A retrospective cohort study of infertile patients in an academic hospital setting with diminished ovarian reserve who started an IVF cycle within 180 days of their initial consultation and underwent an oocyte retrieval with planned fresh embryo transfer between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2018.

Participants/materials, setting, methods: Diminished ovarian reserve was defined as an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) <1.1 ng /ml. In total, 1790 patients met inclusion criteria (1115 immediate and 675 delayed treatment). Each patient had one included cycle and no subsequent data from additional frozen embryo transfer cycles were included. Since all cycle outcomes evaluated were from fresh embryo transfers, no genetically tested embryos were included. Patients were grouped by whether their cycle started 1-90 days after presentation (immediate) or 91-180 days (delayed). The primary outcome was live birth (≥24 weeks of gestation). A subgroup analysis of more severe forms of diminished ovarian reserve was performed to evaluate outcomes for patients with an AMH <0.5 and for patients >40 years old with an AMH <1.1 ng/ml (Bologna criteria for diminished ovarian reserve). Logistic regression analysis, adjusted a priori for patient age, was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% CI. All pregnancy outcomes were additionally adjusted for the number of embryos transferred.

Main results and the role of chance: The mean ± SD number of days from presentation to IVF start was 50.5 ± 21.9 (immediate) and 128.8 ± 25.9 (delayed). After embryo transfer, the live birth rate was similar between groups (immediate: 23.9%; delayed: 25.6%; OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.38). Additionally, a similar live birth rate was observed in a subgroup analysis of patients with an AMH <0.5 ng /ml (immediate: 18.8%; delayed: 19.1%; OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.65-1.51) and in patients>40 years old with an AMH <1.1 ng /ml (immediate: 12.3%; delayed: 14.7%; OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.77-1.91).

Limitations, reasons for caution: There is the potential for selection bias with regard to the patients who started their IVF cycle within 90 days compared to 91-180 days after initial consultation. In addition, we did not include patients who were seen for initial evaluation but did not progress to IVF treatment with oocyte retrieval; therefore, our results should only be applied to patients with diminished ovarian reserve who complete an IVF cycle. Finally, since we excluded patients who started their IVF cycle greater than 180 days from their first visit, it is not known how such a delay in treatment affects pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles.

Wider implications of the findings: A delay in initiating IVF treatment in patients with diminished ovarian reserve up to 180 days from the initial visit does not affect pregnancy outcomes. This observation remains true for patients who are in the high-risk categories for poor response to ovarian stimulation. Providers and patients should be reassured that when a short-term treatment delay is deemed necessary for medical, logistic or financial reasons, treatment outcomes will not be affected.

Article here.

We describe our experience with three pregnant women with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who required mechanical ventilation. Recent data suggest a mortality of 88% in nonpregnant patients with COVID-19 who require intubation and mechanical ventilation. The three women we report were intubated and mechanically ventilated during pregnancy due to respiratory failure and pneumonia resulting from COVID-19. After several days of ventilation, all three were successfully weaned off mechanical ventilation and extubated, and are continuing their pregnancies with no demonstrable adverse effects. Our experience suggests that the mortality in pregnant women with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation is not necessarily as high as in nonpregnant patients with COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a pandemic.. · COVID-19 may cause pneumonia or respiratory failure in pregnant women.. · Approximately 5% of women with COVID-19 will develop severe or critical disease.. · Mechanical ventilation in pregnant women may not necessarily result in high mortality rates..

Article here.

Background: This study's aims are to assess the current evidence presented in the literature regarding the potential risks of COVID-19 infection among pregnant women and consequent fetal transmission.

Methods: A systematic literature review assessing papers published in the most comprehensive databases in the field of health intended to answer the question, "What are the effects of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, and what is the neonatal prognosis?"

Results: 49 papers published in 2020 were eligible, presenting low levels of evidence. A total of 755 pregnant women and 598 infants were assessed; more than half of pregnant women had C-sections (379/65%). Only 493 (82%) infants were tested for SARS-CoV-2, nine (2%) of whom tested positive. There is, however, no evidence of vertical transmission based on what has been assessed so far, considering there are knowledge gaps concerning the care provided during and after delivery, as well as a lack of suitable biological samples for testing SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusions: We cannot rule out potential worsening of the clinical conditions of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, whether the infection is associated with comorbidities or not, due to the occurrence of respiratory disorders, cardiac rhythm disturbances, and acid-base imbalance, among others. We recommend relentless monitoring of all pregnant women in addition to testing them before delivery or the first contact with newborns.

Article here.

No abstract

Article here.

Background and objective: On January 7th, 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified, as responsible for a new human disease: COVID-19. Given its recent appearance, our current knowledge about the possible influence that this disease can exert on pregnancy is very limited. One of the unknowns to be solved is whether there is a vertical transmission of the infection during pregnancy.

Patients and methods: Using the Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids, the possible presence of this germ in vaginal discharge and amniotic fluid was investigated in four pregnant Caucasian patients affected by mild acute symptoms of COVID-19 during the second trimester of pregnancy.

Results: There is no laboratory evidence to suggest a possible passage of SARS-CoV-2 from the infected mother to the amniotic fluid.

Conclusions: It is necessary to expand the investigation of COVID-19 cases diagnosed during pregnancy to clarify the real influence that SARS-CoV-2 has on pregnant women and their offspring, as well as those factors that modulate the disease.

Article here.

The activity of the Reproductive Medicine poses a dilemma in this pandemic Covid-19. In fact, this is a theoretically non-emergency activity except for fertility preservation with oncological reasons. The majority of fertility societies in the world such as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) recommended stopping the inclusion of new patients and continuing only the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycles that have already been initiated by promoting Freeze-all as much as possible. Initilaly, the "Société Tunisienne de Gynécologie Obstétrique" (STGO) issued national recommendations that echo the international recommendations. These recommendations were followed by the majority of IVF center in Tunisia. However, a number of new data are prompting us to update these recommendations.

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The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has prompted healthcare professionals to re-design and modify the standards of care and operating procedures relevant to dealing with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to highlight the key recommendations related to obstetric anaesthesia from scientific bodies in the United Kingdom and United States and to summarize recently developed and implemented clinical pathways for care of obstetric patients - specifically those requiring urgent general anaesthesia for caesarean section within a large maternity unit in London. The need to perform an emergency operative delivery in a timely manner while ensuring clinicians are suitably equipped and protected represents a uniquely challenging scenario, given the higher risk of viral transmission with aerosol generating procedures. In these settings, emphasis needs to be put on meticulous preparation, safety checklists and specific equipment and staffing adjustments. We present a structured framework comprised of four critical steps aimed to facilitate the development of local strategies and protocols.

Article here.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel global public health emergency. Prenatal care (PNC) providing institutes should identify the needs and demands of pregnant women by optimizing the means of PNC services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aims to: a) explain prenatal care experiences; b) assess the factors affecting self-care, and c) present a prenatal care guideline and Strategies to improve the PNC.

Methods: This mixed-methods study with a sequential explanatory design consists of three phases. The first phase is a qualitative study exploring the prenatal care experiences among pregnant women. In this phase, the subjects will be selected through purposive sampling; moreover, in-depth individual interviewing will be used for data collection. Finally, the conventional content analysis approach will be employed for data analysis. The second phase is quantitative and will be used as a cross-sectional approach for assessing the association between psychological factors of self-care. In this regard, a multistage cluster sampling method will be used to select 215 subjects who will be visited in health care centers of Tabriz, Iran. The third phase will be focusing on developing a prenatal care guideline and Strategies, using the qualitative and quantitative results of the previous phases, a review of the related literature, and the nominal group technique will be performed among experts.

Discussion: The present research is the first study to investigate the prenatal care experiences and factors influencing self-care among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic. For the purposes of the study, a mixed-methods approach will be used which aims to develop strategies for improving health care services. It is hoped that the strategy proposed in the current study could lead to improvements in this regard.

Conclusions: COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with maternal morbidity and preterm birth. Its association with other well-known risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in noninfected pregnant women, including maternal age above 35 years, overweight, and obesity, suggests further studies are required to determine whether these risk factors are also associated with poorer maternal outcome in these women.

Article here.

Background: Despite the mainly reassuring outcomes for pregnant women with COVID-19 infection reported by previous case series with small sample sizes, some recent reports of severe maternal morbidity requiring intubation and of maternal deaths show the need for additional data about the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to report the maternal characteristics and clinical outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease.

Study Design: This retrospective single-center study includes all consecutive pregnant women with confirmed (laboratory-confirmed) or suspected (according to version 7.0 of the Chinese management guideline) COVID-19 infection, regardless of gestational age at diagnosis, admitted to the Strasbourg University Hospital (France) from March 1 to April 3, 2020. Maternal characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were extracted from medical records.

Results: The study includes 54 pregnant women with confirmed (n=38) and suspected (n=16) COVID-19 infection. Of these, 32 had an ongoing pregnancy, one a miscarriage, and 21 live births: 12 vaginal and 9 cesarean deliveries. Among the women who gave birth, preterm deliveries were medically indicated for their COVID-19-related condition for 23.8% (5/21): 14.3% (3/21) before 32 weeks' gestation and 9.5% (2/21) before 28 weeks. Oxygen support was required for 24.1% (13/54), including high flow oxygen (n=2), noninvasive (n=1) and invasive (n=3) mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=1). Of these, three, aged 35 years or older with positive COVID-19 RT-PCR, had respiratory failure requiring indicated delivery before 29 weeks' gestation. All three women were overweight or obese, and two had an additional comorbidity.

Conclusions: COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with maternal morbidity and preterm birth. Its association with other well-known risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in noninfected pregnant women, including maternal age above 35 years, overweight, and obesity, suggests further studies are required to determine whether these risk factors are also associated with poorer maternal outcome in these women.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

The impact on healthcare services in settings with under-resourced health systems, such as Nigeria, is likely to be substantial in the coming months due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and maternity services still need to be prioritized as an essential core health service. The healthcare system should ensure the provision of safe and quality care to women during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, and at the same time, maternity care providers including obstetricians and midwives must be protected and prioritized to continue providing care to childbearing women and their babies during the pandemic. This practical guideline was developed for the management of pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in Nigeria and other low-resource countries.

Article here.

The COVID-19 pandemic raises issues about breastfeeding when mothers have tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We don't know whether the virus can be passed to a foetus or baby during pregnancy or delivery and it has not been found in amniotic fluid or breastmilk (1). Separating babies from virus positive mothers make breastfeeding problematic and could prevent possible protection against viruses (2).

Article here.

Objectives:To evaluate the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A retrospective study to review and compare clinical data including electronic medical records and laboratory tests from pregnant and nonpregnant patients admitted the Central Hospital of Wuhan, China from December 8, 2019 to April 1, 2020.

Results: A total of 72 women (30 pregnant and 42 nonpregnant) with COVID-19 were included. No patients developed severe pneumonia during the study. Compared with the nonpregnant group, pregnant patients were admitted to hospital earlier (0.25 vs 11.00 days; P<0.001), presented milder symptoms, had a higher rate of asymptomatic infection (26.7% vs 0%), and shorter length of hospital stay (14.5 vs 17.0 days; P<0.01). Laboratory test results showed that levels of inflammation markers such as white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and D-dimer were significantly higher in pregnant women, whereas mean lymphocyte percentage was significantly lower compared with nonpregnant women.

Conclusions: In some respects, the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results of COVID-19 in pregnant patients seems to be distinctive from their nonpregnant counterparts. Appropriate advice and positive treatment might be critical to the prognosis when dealing with these pregnant patients. Pregnant patients with COVID-19 had their own positive clinical characteristics and special laboratory test results. Responsive medical advice and active treatment for those patients are critical to recovery.

Article here.

ACE2, in concert with the protease TMPRSS2, binds the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and facilitates its cellular entry. The ACE2 gene is expressed in SARS-CoV-2 target cells, including Type II Pneumocytes (Ziegler, 2020), and is activated by interferons. Viral RNA was also detected in breast milk (Wu et al., 2020), raising the possibility that ACE2 expression is under the control of cytokines through the JAK-STAT pathway. Here we show that Ace2 expression in mammary tissue is induced during pregnancy and lactation, which coincides with the establishment of a candidate enhancer. The prolactin-activated transcription factor STAT5 binds to tandem sites that coincide with activating histone enhancer marks and additional transcription components. The presence of pan JAK-STAT components in mammary alveolar cells and in Type II Pneumocytes combined with the autoregulation of both STAT1 and STAT5 suggests a prominent role of cytokine signaling pathways in cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2.

Article here.

Objectives: To describe histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with COVID-19 during pregnancy.

Methods: Pregnant women with COVID-19 delivering between March 18, 2020 and May 5, 2020 were identified. Placentas were examined and compared to historical controls and women with placental evaluation for a history of melanoma.

Results: 16 placentas from patients with SARS-CoV-2 were examined (15 with live birth in the 3rd trimester 1 delivered in the 2nd trimester after intrauterine fetal demise). Compared to controls, third trimester placentas were significantly more likely to show at least one feature of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM), including abnormal or injured maternal vessels, as well as delayed villous maturation, chorangiosis, and intervillous thrombi. Rates of acute and chronic inflammation were not increased. The placenta from the patient with intrauterine fetal demise showed villous edema and a retroplacental hematoma.

Conclusions: Relative to controls, COVID-19 placentas show increased prevalence of features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM), a pattern of placental injury reflecting abnormalities in oxygenation within the intervillous space associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Only 1 COVID-19 patient was hypertensive despite the association of MVM with hypertensive disorders and preeclampsia. These changes may reflect a systemic inflammatory or hypercoagulable state influencing placental physiology.

Article here.

Objectives: To describe a national cohort of pregnant women admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the UK, identify factors associated with infection, and describe outcomes, including transmission of infection, for mothers and infants.

Designs: Prospective national population based cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).

Setting: All 194 obstetric units in the UK.

Participants: 427 pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 March 2020 and 14 April 2020.

Main outcome measures: Incidence of maternal hospital admission and infant infection. Rates of maternal death, level 3 critical care unit admission, fetal loss, caesarean birth, preterm birth, stillbirth, early neonatal death, and neonatal unit admission.

Results: The estimated incidence of admission to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 5.4) per 1000 maternities. 233 (56%) pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy were from black or other ethnic minority groups, 281 (69%) were overweight or obese, 175 (41%) were aged 35 or over, and 145 (34%) had pre-existing comorbidities. 266 (62%) women gave birth or had a pregnancy loss; 196 (73%) gave birth at term. Forty one (10%) women admitted to hospital needed respiratory support, and five (1%) women died. Twelve (5%) of 265 infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, six of them within the first 12 hours after birth.

Conclusions: Most pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection were in the late second or third trimester, supporting guidance for continued social distancing measures in later pregnancy. Most had good outcomes, and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to infants was uncommon. The high proportion of women from black or minority ethnic groups admitted with infection needs urgent investigation and explanation.

Article here.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), an RNA virus which has caused pandemic in the whole world. It has put an unprecedented burden on healthcare system globally, and neither obstetricians nor labour rooms are spared as deliveries and caesarean sections cannot be postponed. There is a threat of collapse of healthcare system in maternity wards and labour rooms due to risk for transmission to healthy patients, obstetricians, midwives and other staff. It is not possible to screen all pregnant women especially in developing countries but due to asymptomatic cases, risk of infection looms large. Many countries including India have declared lockdown to stop the transmission but delivery services have to continue. Proper planning and division of the healthcare system into COVID-positive and negative areas with separate staff can help minimise the spread and preserve precious resources. Hospital staff must protect themselves by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in COVID-positive and suspected cases.

Article here.

Objective: To ascertain the frequency of maternal and neonatal complications, as well as maternal disease severity, in pregnancies affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Ovid, ClinicalTrials.gov, MedRxiv, and Scopus were searched from their inception until April 29, 2020. The analysis was limited to reports with at least 10 pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that reported on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods of Study selection: Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A systematic search of the selected databases was performed by implementing a strategy that included the MeSH terms, key words, and word variants for "coronavirus," "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "pregnancy.r The primary outcomes were maternal admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), critical disease, and death. Secondary outcomes included rate of preterm birth, cesarean delivery, vertical transmission, and neonatal death. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages with number of cases and 95% CIs.

Tabulation, integration, and results: Of the 99 articles identified, 13 included 538 pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, with reported outcomes on 435 (80.9%) deliveries. Maternal ICU admission occurred in 3.0% of cases (8/263, 95% CI 1.6-5.9) and maternal critical disease in 1.4% (3/209, 95% CI 0.5-4.1). No maternal deaths were reported (0/348, 95% CI 0.0-1.1). The preterm birth rate was 20.1% (57/284, 95% CI 15.8-25.1), the cesarean delivery rate was 84.7% (332/392, 95% CI 80.8-87.9), the vertical transmission rate was 0.0% (0/310, 95% CI 0.0-1.2), and the neonatal death rate was 0.3% (1/313, 95% CI 0.1-1.8).

Conclusion: With data from early in the pandemic, it is reassuring that there are low rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and vertical transmission with SARS-CoV-2. The preterm birth rate of 20% and the cesarean delivery rate exceeding 80% seems related to geographic practice patterns.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted expanded use of prone positioning for refractory hypoxemia. Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of early prone positioning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including decreased mortality. However, pregnant women were excluded from these trials. To address the need for low-cost, low-harm interventions in the face of a widespread viral syndrome wherein hypoxemia predominates, we developed an algorithm for prone positioning of both intubated and nonintubated pregnant women. This algorithm may be appropriate for a wide spectrum of hypoxemia severity among pregnant women. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is responsible for the clinical manifestations of COVID-19. This syndrome can manifest as severe pneumonia complicated by hypoxemia and ARDS. Given the current global COVID-19 pandemic, with a large number of ARDS cases, there is renewed interest in the use of prone positioning to improve oxygenation in moderate or severe hypoxemia. Among the populations who can benefit from prone positioning are pregnant women experiencing severe respiratory distress, as long as the physiologic changes and risks of pregnancy are taken into account.

Article here.

Problem: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. Because of the immune reaction severity, 20.3% of COVID-19 patients required intensive care unit, and 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this regard, the urgent question that needs to be addressed promptly includes whether pregnant women with COVID-19 will develop distinct symptoms from non-pregnant and what are the reasons for that.

Results: According to the literature data, clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 were similar to those of non-pregnant adults and no significant differences in gestational age, postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal resection rates between pregnant women with and without COVID-19 were found. There is also a tendency that COVID-19 disease progresses slowly in pregnant women and does not often result in fatal pregnancy complications.

Conclusion: The predominant Th2-type immunity and the action of T-regs can play an important role in preventing the excess systemic inflammatory reaction and the development of life-threatening complications as ARDS and MODS in COVID-19 patients. This suggests a search for new drugs aimed at the suppression of effector functions and induction of tolerance, which will reduce the frequency of life-threatening complications, including ARDS.

Article here.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third zoonotic coronavirus to be identified in humans during the twenty-first century, after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)(Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy,of Viruses, 2020). The resultant disease, Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) (WHO, 2020), was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China (WHO, 2020) and rapidly evolved into a pandemic (WHO, 2020) within months. In the UK, the first confirmed case was identified in late January 2020 and the first COVID-19 related death was recorded in March 2020 (UK Government, 2020).

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Recently, a novel coronavirus, precisely severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), that causes the disease novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a worldwide pandemic. Over a million cases have been confirmed in the United States. As of May 5, 2020, New York State has had over 300,000 cases and 24,000 deaths with more than half of the cases and deaths occurring in New York City (NYC). Little is known, however, of how this virus impacts pregnancy. Given this lack of data and the risk for severe disease in this relatively immunocompromised population, further understanding of the obstetrical management of COVID-19, as well as hospital level preparation for its control, is crucial. Guidance has come from expert opinion, professional societies and public health agencies, but to date, there is no report on how obstetrical practices have adapted these recommendations to their local situations. We therefore developed an internet-based survey to elucidate the practices put into place to guide the care of obstetrical patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We surveyed obstetrical leaders in four academic medical centers in NYC who were implementing and testing protocols at the height of the pandemic. We found that all sites made changes to their practices, and that there appeared to be agreement with screening and testing for COVID-19, as well as labor and delivery protocols, for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. We found less consensus with respect to inpatient antepartum fetal surveillance. We hope that this experience is useful to other centers as they formulate their plans to face this pandemic. KEY POINTS: · Practices changed to accommodate public health needs.. · Most practices are screened for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on admission.. · Fetal testing in COVID-19 patients varied..

Article here.

The worldwide incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is rapidly increasing, but there exists limited information on coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy. Here, we present our experience with 7 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy presenting to a single large New York City tertiary care hospital. Of the 7 patients, 5 presented with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, including cough, myalgias, fevers, chest pain, and headache. Of the 7 patients, 4 were admitted to the hospital, including 2 who required supportive care with intravenous hydration. Of note, the other 2 admitted patients who were asymptomatic on admission to the hospital, presenting instead for obstetrically indicated labor inductions, became symptomatic after delivery, each requiring intensive care unit admission.

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Maternal circadian rhythms provide highly important input into the entrainment and programming of fetal and newborn circadian rhythms. The light-dark cycle is an important regulator of the internal biological clock. Even though pregnant women spend a greater part of the day at home during the latter stages of pregnancy, natural light exposure is crucial for the fetus. The current recommended COVID-19 lockdown might dramatically alter normal environmental lighting conditions of pregnant women, resulting in exposure to extremely low levels of natural daylight and high-intensity artificial light sources during both day and night. This article summarizes the potential effects on pregnant woman and their fetuses due to prolonged exposure to altered photoperiod and as consequence altered circadian system, known as chronodisruption, that may result from the COVID-19 lockdown.

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No abstract.

Article here.

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered medical practice in unprecedented ways. While much of the emphasis in obstetrics and gynecology to date has been on the as yet uncertain impacts of COVID-19 in pregnancy and on changes to surgical management, the pandemic has broad implications for ambulatory gynecologic care as well. In this article we review important ambulatory gynecologic topics including safety and metal health, reproductive life planning, sexually transmitted infections, and routine screening for breast and cervical cancer. For each topic, we review how care may be modified during the pandemic, provide recommendations when possible for how to ensure continued access to comprehensive healthcare at this time, and discuss ways that future practice may change. Social distancing requirements may place patients at higher risk for intimate partner violence and mental health concerns; threaten continued access to contraception and abortion services; impact prepregnancy planning; interrupt routine screening for breast and cervical cancer; increase risk of sexually-transmitted infection acquisition and decrease access to treatment; and exacerbate already underlying racial and minority disparities in care and health outcomes. We advocate for increased use of telemedicine services with increased screening for intimate partner violence and depression using validated questionnaires. Appointments for long-acting contraceptive insertion can be prioritized. Easier access to patient-controlled injectable contraception and pharmacist-provided hormonal contraception can be facilitated. Reproductive healthcare access can be ensured through reducing needs for ultrasound and laboratory testing for certain eligible patients desiring abortion and conducting phone follow-up for medication abortions. Priority for in-person appointments should be given to patients with sexually-transmitted infection symptoms, particularly if at risk for complications, while also offering expedited partner therapy. While routine mammography screening and cervical cancer screening may be safely delayed, we discuss society guideline recommendations for higher-risk populations. There may be an increasing role for patient-collected human papilloma virus self-samples using new cervical cancer screening guidelines that can be expanded in light of the pandemic situation. While the pandemic has strained our healthcare system, it also affords ambulatory clinicians with opportunities to expand care to vulnerable populations in ways that were previously underutilized to attempt to improve health equity.

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No abstract.

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The SARS-COV-2 virus appears to have originated in Hubei Province in China towards the end of 2019 and has spread worldwide. Currently, there is little literature on COVID-19, and even less on its effect on pregnant mothers and infants. At this time, there are no clear recommendations specific to pregnant women with COVID-19. We report the multidisciplinary team management of a cesarean delivery for a woman infected with SARS-COV-2, including her pre-delivery care, intraoperative considerations, and post-delivery recommendations for the mother and baby. We also discuss the currently available recommendations and guidelines on the management of such cases.

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Abdominal pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy with an incidence of 1:10 000 to 1:30 000 women. Several different locations have been reported, including the pouch of Douglas, pelvic sidewall, bowel, broad ligament, omentum, and spleen. Most abdominal pregnancies are diagnosed after presenting with various complications; however, in a few cases it may remain asymptomatic and is rarely established before surgery. Institutional Review Board approval was not required for this case report; written informed consent was obtained.

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There remain unanswered questions concerning mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of SARS-CoV-2. Despite reports of neonatal COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has not been consistently isolated in perinatal samples thus, definitive proof of transplacental infection is still lacking. To address these questions, we assessed investigative tools used to confirm maternal-fetal infection and known protective mechanisms of the placental barrier that prevent transplacental pathogen migration. Forty studies of COVID-19 pregnancies reviewed suggest a lack of consensus on diagnostic strategy for congenital infection. While RT-PCR of neonatal swabs was universally performed, a wide range of clinical samples was screened including vaginal secretions (22.5%), amniotic fluid (35%), breast milk (22.5%) and umbilical cord blood. Neonatal COVID-19 was reported in eight studies, two of which were based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM in neonatal blood. Histological examination demonstrated sparse viral particles, vascular malperfusion and inflammation in the placenta from pregnant women with COVID-19. The paucity of placental co-expression of ACE-2 and TMPRSS2, two receptors involved in cytoplasmic entry of SARS-CoV-2, may explain its relative insensitivity to transplacental infection. Viral interactions may utilise membrane receptors other than ACE-2 thus, tissue susceptibility may be broader than currently known. Further spatial-temporal studies are needed to determine the true potential for transplacental migration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Background: Early reports of COVID-19 in pregnancy described management by caesarean, strict isolation of the neonate and formula feeding, is this practise justified?

Objective:To estimate the risk of the neonate becoming infected with SARS-COV-2 by mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and mother-infant interaction SEARCH STRATEGY: Two biomedical databases were searched between September 2019 - June 2020.

Selection Criteria: Case reports or case series of pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19, where neonatal outcomes were reported.

Data collection and analysis:Data was extracted on mode of delivery, infant infection status, infant feeding and mother-infant interaction. For reported infant infection a critical analysis was performed to evaluate the likelihood of vertical transmission.

Main results:We included 49 studies which included 666 neonates and 655 women where information was provided on the mode of delivery and the infant's infection status. 28/666 (4%) neonates had confirmed COVID-19 infection postnatally. Of the 291 women who delivered vaginally, 8/292 (2.7%) neonates were positive. Of the 364 women who had a Caesarean birth, 20/374 (5.3%) neonates were positive. Of the 28 neonates with confirmed COVID-19 infection, 7 were breast fed, 3 formula fed, 1 was given expressed breast milk and in 17 neonates the method of infant feeding was not reported.

conclusions:Neonatal COVID-19 infection is uncommon, uncommonly symptomatic, and the rate of infection is no greater when the baby is born vaginally, breastfed or allowed contact with the mother.

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Objective: To assess the perception of obstetricians and pediatricians about risks of COVID-19 on pregnant women and possible complications in newborns.

Methods: A structured 27-item online survey was sent via social media messaging to obstetricians and pediatricians from public, academic, and private sectors in Jordan between March 23-30, 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to represent numbers and percentages of participants' responses to survey items.

Results: TA total of 147 physicians participated (107 obstetricians, 40 pediatricians). Participants were well informed about the symptoms, diagnosis, modes of transmission, and methods of prevention. Participants had variable perceptions about COVID-19 risk during pregnancy, including potential vertical transmission, preferred route of delivery, and safety of breastfeeding. Most participants felt that pregnant women should be prioritized for testing and medical care provision.

Conclusion: While evidence-based strategies to reduce the risks of COVID-19 in pregnant women and newborns are evolving, healthcare providers showed excellent knowledge of the infection and were vigilant regarding its complications for mothers and newborns. To ensure safe pregnancy, physicians must keep informed of developing guidance on best and safest prenatal and perinatal health services. Implementing local hospital policies and adequate training in infection control measures is strongly encouraged.

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The care of patients with endometriosis has been complicated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Medical and allied healthcare appointments and surgeries are being temporarily postponed. Mandatory self-isolation has created new obstacles for individuals with endometriosis seeking pain relief and improvement in their quality of life. Anxieties may be heightened by concerns over whether endometriosis may be an underlying condition that could predispose to severe COVID-19 infection and what constitutes an appropriate indication for presentation for urgent treatment in the epidemic. Furthermore, the restrictions imposed due to COVID-19 can impose negative psychological effects, which patients with endometriosis may be more prone to already. In combination with medical therapies, or as an alternative, we encourage patients to consider self-management strategies to combat endometriosis symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. These self-management strategies are divided into problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with the former aiming to change the environment to alleviate pain, and the latter address the psychology of living with endometriosis. We put forward this guidance, which is based on evidence and expert opinion, for healthcare providers to utilize during their consultations with patients via telephone or video. Patients may also independently use this article as an educational resource. The strategies discussed are not exclusively restricted to consideration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most have been researched before this period of time and all will continue to be a part of the biopsychological approach to endometriosis long after COVID-19 restrictions are lifted.

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Background and aim: Given the prevalence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the lack of information on coronavirus and pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of COVID-19 and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women.

Materials and methods: In the present review article, the search process was conducted on English and Persian scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, Irandoc, Iranmedx, and SID as well as the websites of international organizations of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the main keywords of "Pregnancy," "Perinatal outcomes," "Coronavirus," "COVID-19," "MERS-CoV," "MERS," "SARS-CoV-2," and "SARS-CoV-1" and their Persian-equivalent keywords from inception until March 16 2020.

Results: The findings of studies on mothers with COVID-19 were limited, and insufficient information is available on the adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19. In cases of infection with other coronaviruses such as Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome during pregnancy, there have been reports on adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital malformations following high fever in the first trimester.

Conclusion: Pregnant women may be more susceptible to viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19, due to immunological and physiological changes. Therefore, pregnant women should take routine preventive measures, such as washing their hands frequently and avoiding contact with infected people, to prevent infection.

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There is a current paucity of information about the obstetric and perinatal outcomes of pregnant novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in North America. Data from China suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 have favorable maternal and neonatal outcomes, with rare cases of critical illness or respiratory compromise. However, we report two cases of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 in the late preterm period admitted to tertiary care hospitals in New York City for respiratory indications. After presenting with mild symptoms, both quickly developed worsening respiratory distress requiring intubation, and both delivered preterm via caesarean delivery. These cases highlight the potential for rapid respiratory decompensation in pregnant COVID-19 patients and the maternal-fetal considerations in managing these cases.

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Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 and it spread globally in the last few months. The complete lack of specific treatment forced clinicians to use old drugs, chosen for their efficacy against similar viruses or their in vitro activity. Trials on patients are ongoing but the majority of information comes from small case series and single center reports. We aimed to provide a literature review on the putative effectiveness and safety of available treatments for COVID-19 in pregnant women.

Methods: We reviewed all the available literature concerning the drugs that have been used in the treatment of COVID-19 during pregnancy and whose safe assumption during pregnancy had been demonstrated by clinical studies (i.e. including studies on other infectious diseases). Drugs contra-indicated during pregnancy or with unknown adverse effects were not included in our review.

Results and conclusions: Clinical trials are not often conducted among pregnant patients for safety reasons and this means that drugs that may be effective in general population cannot be used for pregnant women due to the lack of knowledge of side effects in this category of people .The choice to use a specific drug for COVID-19 in pregnancy should take into account benefits and possible adverse events in each single case. In the current situation of uncertainty and poor knowledge about the management of COVID-19 during pregnancy, this present overview may provide useful information for physicians with practical implications.

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Objective: To describe the course over time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in French women from the beginning of the pandemic until mid-April, the risk profile of women with respiratory complications, and short-term pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: We collected a case series of pregnant women with COVID-19 in a research network of 33 French maternity units between March 1 and April 14, 2020. All cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a positive result on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests of a nasal sample and/or diagnosed by a computed tomography chest scan were included and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). Demographic data, baseline comorbidities, and pregnancy outcomes were also collected.

Results: Active cases of COVID-19 increased exponentially during March 1-31, 2020; the numbers fell during April 1-14, after lockdown was imposed on March 17. The shape of the curve of active critical COVID-19 mirrored that of all active cases. By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. The severity of the disease was associated with age older than 35 years and obesity, as well as preexisting diabetes, previous preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. One woman with critical COVID-19 died (0.2 %; 95 %CI 0-0.9). Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively. One neonate (0.5 %; 95 %CI 0.01-2.9) in the critical group died from prematurity.

Conclusions:COVID-19 can be responsible for significant rates of severe acute, potentially deadly, respiratory distress syndromes. The most vulnerable pregnant women, those with comorbidities, may benefit particularly from prevention measures such as a lockdown.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has raised concerns among physicians and their patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) as the risk of infection was believed to be increased due to altered immune system activity that is typical of RDs and possibly worsened by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs.[1] An appeal for adherence to therapy was shared among rheumatologists, but special attention should be paid to pregnant women who suffer from RDs.

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No abstract.

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Four months into the crisis, many questions remain over covid-19 in pregnancy.

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The data pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic has been rapidly evolving since the first confirmed case in December 2019. This review article presents a comprehensive analysis of the current data in relation to COVID-19 and its effect on pregnant women, including symptoms, disease severity and the risk of vertical transmission. We also review the recommended management of pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and the various pharmacological agents that are being investigated and may have a role in the treatment of this disease. At present, it does not appear that pregnant women are at increased risk of severe infection than the general population, although there are vulnerable groups within both the pregnant and nonpregnant populations, and clinicians should be cognizant of these high-risk groups and manage them accordingly. Approximately 85% of women will experience mild disease, 10% more severe disease and 5% critical disease. The most common reported symptoms are fever, cough, shortness of breath and diarrhea. Neither vaginal delivery nor cesarean section confers additional risks, and there is minimal risk of vertical transmission to the neonate from either mode of delivery. We acknowledge that the true effect of the virus on both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality will only be evident over time. We also discuss the impact of social isolation can have on the mental health and well-being of both patients and colleagues, and as clinicians, we must be mindful of this and offer support as necessary.

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The identification in China in December 2019 of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) immediately rekindled the spotlight on a problem also addressed in the past during the epidemics of SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012: the implications of a possible infection during pregnancy, both for pregnant women and for fetuses and infants. Pregnancy is characterized by some changes involving both the immune system and the pulmonary physiology, exposing the pregnant woman to a greater susceptibility to viral infections and more serious complications. The objective of this review is therefore to analyze the relationship between pregnancy and known coronaviruses, with particular reference to SARS-CoV-2.

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Background: Since the Coronavirus diseases-19 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China, Korea has also been exposed to the virus. In Korea, COVID-19 screening guidelines have been established in each hospital, trying to prevent the spread of infection. A case of successful Cesarean section from confirmed mother has been reported, but there are no guidelines for suspected mothers. Cesarean section can be operated urgently without sufficient evaluations of the infection.

Case: Our hospital, located in Daegu, Korea, was designated as quarantine and delivery facility for suspected mother, and Cesarean section was done to seven suspected mothers and one confirmed mother.

Conclusions: This case report suggests the guideline for infection control of surgery and anesthesia in emergent cesarean section of COVID-19 suspected mother by preparing operating room and protection strategy.

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With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States, a majority of states have instituted "shelter-in-place" policies effectively quarantining individuals-including pregnant persons-in their homes. Given the concern for COVID-19 acquisition in health care settings, pregnant persons with high-risk pregnancies-such as persons living with HIV (PLHIV)-are increasingly investigating the option of a home birth. Although we strongly recommend hospital birth for PLHIV, we discuss our experience and recommendations for counseling and preparation of pregnant PLHIV who may be considering home birth or at risk for unintentional home birth due to the pandemic. We also discuss issues associated with implementing a risk mitigation strategy involving high-risk births occurring at home during a pandemic. KEY POINTS: • Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has increased interest in home birth.. • Women living with HIV are pursuing home birth.. • Safe planning is paramount for women living with HIV desiring home birth, despite recommending against the practice..

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Background: COVID-19 has created an extraordinary global health crisis. However, with limited understanding of the effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy, clinicians and patients are forced to make uninformed decisions.

Objectives: To systematically evaluate the literature and report the maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19.

Search strategy: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from November 1st, 2019 and March 28th, 2020.

Selection criteria: Primary studies, reported in English, investigating COVID-19-positive pregnant women and reporting their pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

Data collection and analysis: Data in relation to clinical presentation, investigation were maternal and neonatal outcomes were extracted and analysed using summary statistics. Hypothesis testing was performed to examine differences in time-to-delivery. Study quality was assessed using the ICROMS tool.

Main results: Of 73 identified articles, nine were eligible for inclusion (n = 92). 67.4% (62/92) of women were symptomatic at presentation. RT-PCR was inferior to CT-based diagnosis in 31.7% (26/79) of cases. Maternal mortality rate was 0% and only one patient required intensive care and ventilation. 63.8% (30/47) had preterm births, 61.1% (11/18) fetal distress and 80% (40/50) a Caesarean section. 76.92% (11/13) of neonates required NICU admission and 42.8% (40/50) had a low birth weight. There was one indeterminate case of potential vertical transmission. Mean time-to-delivery was 4.3±3.08 days (n = 12) with no difference in outcomes (p>0.05).

Conclusions: COVID-19-positive pregnant women present with fewer symptoms than the general population and may be RT-PCR negative despite having signs of viral pneumonia. The incidence of preterm births, low birth weight, C-section, NICU admission appear higher than the general population.

Article here.

Asymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a major issue in healthcare settings, and management in perinatal wards requires particular caution. Located in central Tokyo as a tertiary center, Keio University Hospital implemented universal PCR testing on patients before admission starting April 6 2020, in response to a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19. The present study reports a retrospective review of 52 obstetric patients universally tested for SARS-CoV-2 admitted to this hospital between April 6 and April 27, 2020.

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No abstract.

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The COVID-19 outbreak is increasing around the world in the number of cases, deaths, and affected countries. Currently, the knowledge regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on maternal, fetal, and placental aspects of pregnancy is minimal. Although the elderly and men were the most affected population, in previous situations, such as the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the Ebola epidemic, pregnant women were more likely to develop complications than nonpregnant women. There are unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Additional information is needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to separate infected mothers and their newborns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed.

Article here.

Objective: To summarize current understanding of the effects of novel and prior coronaviruses on human reproduction, specifically male and female gametes, and in pregnancy.

Design: Review of English publications in PubMed and Embase to April 6, 2020.

Method(s): Articles were screened for reports including coronavirus, reproduction, pathophysiology, and pregnancy.

Intervention(s):None.

Main outcome measure(s): Reproductive outcomes, effects on gametes, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal complications.

Result(s): Seventy-nine reports formed the basis of the review. Coronavirus binding to cells involves the S1 domain of the spike protein to receptors present in reproductive tissues, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), CD26, Ezrin, and cyclophilins. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) may cause severe orchitis leading to germ cell destruction in males. Reports indicate decreased sperm concentration and motility for 72-90 days following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Gonadotropin-dependent expression of ACE2 was found in human ovaries, but it is unclear whether SARS-Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) adversely affects female gametogenesis. Evidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a lower maternal case fatality rate than SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but anecdotal reports suggest that infected, asymptomatic women may develop respiratory symptoms postpartum. Coronavirus Disease 2019 infections in pregnancy are associated with preterm delivery. Postpartum neonatal transmission from mother to child has been reported.

Conclusion(s):Coronavirus Disease 2019 infection may affect adversely some pregnant women and their offspring. Additional studies are needed to assess effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male and female fertility.

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SARS-Cov2 infection has recently spread to Italy with important consequences on pregnancy management, mother and child health and mother-child contact. Breastfeeding improves the health of mother and child and reduces risk of neonatal infection with other pathogens that are likely to cause serious illness. To date no evidence confirmed COVID-19 vertical transmission from infected pregnant mother to their fetus. However it is well known that an infected mother can transmit the COVID-19 virus through respiratory droplets during breastfeeding or intimate contact. Thus, the mothers with known or suspected COVID-19 should adhere to standard and contact precautions during breastfeeding. Woman Study Group of AMD, after reviewing current knowledge about COVID-19 vertical transmission and the compatibility of breastfeeding in COVID-19 mother, the available recommendations from Health Care Organizations and main experts opinions, issued the following suggestions on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed both to mothers with and without diabetes. It should be considered that following suggestions may change in the future when more evidence is acquired regarding SARS-Cov2 infection.

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Objective: To investigate the incidence of clinical, ultrasonographic and biochemical findings related to pre-eclampsia (PE) in pregnancies with COVID-19, and to assess their accuracy to differentiate between PE and the PE-like features associated with COVID-19.

Design: A prospective, observational study.

Setting: Tertiary referral hospital.

Participants:Singleton pregnancies with COVID-19 at >20+0 weeks.

Methods: Forty-two consecutive pregnancies were recruited and classified into two groups: severe and non-severe COVID-19, according to the occurrence of severe pneumonia. Uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) and angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor [sFlt-1/PlGF]) were assessed in women with suspected PE.

Main outcome measures:Incidence of signs and symptoms related to PE, such as hypertension, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal UtAPI and increased sFlt-1/PlGF.

Results: Thirty-four cases were classified as non-severe and 8 as severe COVID-19. Five (11.9%) women presented signs and symptoms of PE, all five being among the severe COVID-19 cases (62.5%). However, abnormal sFlt-1/PlGF and UtAPI could only be demonstrated in one case. One case remained pregnant after recovery from severe pneumonia and had a spontaneous resolution of the PE-like syndrome.

Conclusions: Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 can develop a PE-like syndrome that might be distinguished from actual PE by sFlt-1/PlGF, LDH and UtAPI assessment. Healthcare providers should be aware of its existence and monitor pregnancies with suspected pre-eclampsia with caution.

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Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to detect and monitor patients infected with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The use of LUS on pregnant women is an emerging trend, considering its effectiveness during the outbreak. Eight pregnant women with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by nasal/throat real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing who underwent point-of-care LUS examinations after routine obstetric ultrasound are described. A routinely performed LUS examination revealed serious lung involvement in 7 cases: 2 were initially asymptomatic; 3 have chest computed tomography; 1 had initial negative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results; and 1 had initial negative computed tomographic findings. Treatment for COVID-19 was either commenced or changed in 87.5% of the patients (n = 7 of 8) on LUS findings. Among patients with abnormal LUS findings, treatment was commenced in 5 patients (71.5%) and changed in 2 patients (28.5%). One normal and 7 abnormal LUS cases indicate the impact of routine LUS on the clinical outcome and treatment of pregnant women.

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Prenatal COVID-19 infection is anticipated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control to affect fetal development similarly to other common respiratory coronaviruses through effects of the maternal inflammatory response on the fetus and placenta. Plasma choline levels were measured at 16 weeks gestation in 43 mothers who had contracted common respiratory viruses during the first 6-16 weeks of pregnancy and 53 mothers who had not. When their infants reached 3 months of age, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), which assesses their infants' level of activity (Surgency), their fearfulness and sadness (Negativity), and their ability to maintain attention and bond to their parents and caretakers (Regulation). Infants of mothers who had contracted a moderately severe respiratory virus infection and had higher gestational choline serum levels (≥7.5 mM consistent with U.S. Food and Drug Administration dietary recommendations) had significantly increased development of their ability to maintain attention and to bond with their parents (Regulation), compared to infants whose mothers had contracted an infection but had lower choline levels (<7.5 mM). For infants of mothers with choline levels ≥7.5 μM, there was no effect of viral infection on infant IBQ-R Regulation, compared to infants of mothers who were not infected. Higher choline levels obtained through diet or supplements may protect fetal development and support infant early behavioral development even if the mother contracts a viral infection in early gestation when the brain is first being formed.

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We found a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (2.7% [5/188]) among pregnant and postpartum patients after initiating universal testing. Prevalence among symptomatic patients (22.2% [4/18]) was similar to initial targeted screening approaches (19.1% [8/42]). Among 170 asymptomatic patients, two were positive or inconclusive, respectively; repeat testing at 24 hours was negative.

Article here.

Objective: We aimed to analyze Turkish language videos on YouTube about Coronavirus and pregnancy.

Methods: YouTube was searched for the following keywords: "Coronavirus, gebelik," "Coronavirus, Hamilelik," "COVID-19, gebelik" and "COVID-19, hamilelik". All ranking data for each video was recorded, video sources and target audiences were analyzed. Videos were designated as "informative, "misleading" "personal experience" and "news update." The usefulness of the videos were analyzed by DISCERN score and the quality of the content was calculated by MICI score.

Results: Seventy-six videos had a total of 1.494.860 views, with 40.849 likes and 575 dislikes. The source of information in informative videos was physicians (73%), and news agencies (20%), and the majority of these targeted patients. The DISCERN score of videos was 2.9 ± 1, 1.6 ± 0.9, and 1.9 ± 0.9 respectively for respectively for the informative group, personal experience group, and news update group. The mean MICI score for informative videos was low and calculated as 5.3 ± 2.8.

Conclusion: YouTube videos are easily accessible sources of COVID-19 information for pregnant women. The present study demonstrated that videos about pregnancy and COVID-19 have high view rates, but are generally low in quality and trustworthiness.

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No abstract.

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Background: The new coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus, considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) an international public health emergency that may have negative consequences during breastfeeding. The objective of this work is to investigate the action plan on breastfeeding in postpartum women with SARS-CoV-2 and her newborn.

Methods: A literature search has been conducted through the Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, BVS, and Cuiden databases. The methodological quality of the articles has been assessed using the "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" (GRADE). This study has not been registered in PROSPERO.

Results: A total of 14 documents have been found, of which 9 are observational empirical studies. Most of the studies were conducted in China, Italy, the USA, and Australia. A total of 114 mothers infected with coronavirus with their respective newborns have been assessed. The analyzed investigations state that it is best for the newborn to be breastfed; given that mother's milk samples were analyzed, detecting the presence of antibodies of the coronavirus in them, being a protective factor against infection.

Conclusion: Breastfeeding in postpartum women with SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended for the newborn, if the health of the mother and newborn allow it. When direct breastfeeding is favoured, the appropriate respiratory hygiene measures always have to be considered. Whether the mother's health does not permit direct breastfeeding, her breast milk should be previously extracted and kept unpasteurized. To secure the newborn feeding, milk banks are also an appropriate option.

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Objectives: To add to the growing evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, so as to better inform clinical decision making and optimize patient outcomes.

Methods:A systematic search of relevant databases was perfomed on 25 March 2020 and a repeat search, on 10 April 2020. Reports of pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at any time during their pregnancy were reviewed and summarized .

Results:We summarized the outcomes of a total of 155 pregnant women and 118 neonates. The evidence suggests a similar rate of severe COVID-19 cases in pregnant women and the general population. The frequency of cesarean deliveries is high, against guidelines recommendations.

Conclusion:Limited data on COVID-19 during preganacy, associated with a wide variation in the methodology make accurate data interpretation difficult.

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A rapid systematic review was carried out to evaluate the current evidence related to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk from pregnant women with COVID-19. Eight studies analyzing the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the breast milk of 24 pregnant women with COVID-19 during the third trimester of pregnancy were found. All patients had fever and/or symptoms of acute respiratory illness and chest computed tomography images indicative of COVID-19 pneumonia. Most pregnant women had cesarean delivery (91.7%) and two neonates had low birthweight (< 2 500 g). Biological samples collected immediately after birth from upper respiratory tract (throat or nasopharyngeal) of neonates and placental tissues showed negative results for the presence SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR test. No breast milk samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and, to date, there is no evidence on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk of pregnant women with COVID-19. However, data are still limited and breastfeeding of women with COVID-19 remains a controversial issue. There are no restrictions on the use of milk from a human breast milk bank.

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Since December 2019, the novel SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has resulted in millions of cases and more than 200,000 deaths worldwide. The clinical course among non-pregnant women has been described but data about potential risks for women and their fetus remain scarce. The SARS and MERS epidemics were responsible for miscarriages, adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes and maternal deaths. For COVID-19 infection, only 9 cases of maternal death have been reported as of April 22, 2020 and pregnant women seem to develop the same clinical presentation as the general population. However, severe maternal cases, as well as prematurity, fetal distress and stillbirth among newborns have been reported. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic greatly impacts prenatal management and surveillance and raise the need for clear unanimous guidelines. In this narrative review, we describe the current knowledge about coronaviruses (SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2) risks and consequences on pregnancies and we summarize available current candidate therapeutic options for pregnant women. Finally, we compare current guidance proposed by RCOG, ACOG and the WHO to give an overview of prenatal management which should be utilized until future data appear. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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The new acute respiratory disease severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious. It has caused many deaths, despite a relatively low general case fatality rate (CFR). The most common early manifestations of infection are fever, cough, fatigue and myalgia. The diagnosis is based on the exposure history, clinical manifestation, laboratory test results, chest computed tomography (CT) findings and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy is not already clear. There is no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible than the general population. In the third trimester, COVID-19 can cause premature rupture of membranes, premature labour and fetal distress. There are no data on complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection before the third trimester. COVID-19 infection is an indication for delivery if necessary to improve maternal oxygenation. Decision on delivery mode should be individualised. Vertical transmission of coronavirus from the pregnant woman to the fetus has not been proven. As the virus is absent in breast milk, the experts encourage breastfeeding for neonatal acquisition of protective antibodies.

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The emergence of the novel coronavirus infection that arose in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has resulted in an epidemic that has quickly expanded to become one of the most significant public health threats in recent times. Unfortunately, the disease has spread globally. On March 11th (2020) World Health Organization (WHO) declared Covid-19 a pandemic and has called governments to take urgent and aggressive action to change the course of the outbreak. Within the context of Assisted Reproduction, both reproductive medicine professionals and patients are also fighting against this unprecedented viral pandemic. In view of events, most of us had to make serious decisions, some of them with a lack of scientific evidence due to the circumstances and with the only objective of ensuring the safe care of our patients, reduce non-essential contacts and prevent possible maternal and fetal complications in future pregnancies. Pregnant women should not be considered at high risk for developing severe infection. Up to date, there are no reported deaths in pregnant women with Covid-19, while in the cases that have presented pneumonia because of Covid-19, the symptoms have been moderate and with a good prognosis in recovery.

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Introduction: Prenatal maternal distress has a negative impact on the course of pregnancy, fetal development, offspring development, and later psychopathologies. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may aggravate the prenatal distress and psychiatric symptomatology of pregnant women.

Material and methods:Two cohorts of pregnant volunteer women were evaluated, one that was recruited before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 496) through advertisements in prenatal clinics in Quebec, Canada, from April 2018 to March 2020; the other (n = 1258) was recruited online during the pandemic from 2 April to 13 April 2020. Prenatal distress and psychiatric symptomatology were measured with the Kessler Distress Scale (K10), Post-traumatic Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS).

Results:The 1754 pregnant women (Mage = 29.27, SD = 4.23) were between 4 and 41 gestational weeks (M = 24.80, SD = 9.42), were generally educated (91.3% had post-high-school training), and financially well-resourced (85.3% were above the low-income cut-off). A multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gestational age, household income, education, and lifetime psychiatric disorders showed a large effect size (ES) in the difference between the two cohorts on psychiatric symptoms (Wilks' λ = 0.68, F6,1400 = 108.50, P < .001, partial η2 = 0.32). According to post-hoc analyses of covariance, the COVID-19 women reported higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms (ES = 0.57), dissociative symptoms (ES = 0.22 and ES = 0.25), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (ES = 0.19), and negative affectivity (ES = 0.96), and less positive affectivity (ES = 0.95) than the pre-COVID-19 cohort. Women from the COVID-19 cohort were more likely than pre-COVID-19 women to present clinically significant levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.94, χ2 [1] = 10.05, P = .002). Multiple regression analyses indicated that pregnant women in the COVID-19 cohort having a previous psychiatric diagnosis or low income would be more prone to elevated distress and psychiatric symptoms.

Conclusion:APregnant women assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic reported more distress and psychiatric symptoms than pregnant women assessed before the pandemic, mainly in the form of depression and anxiety symptoms. Given the harmful consequences of prenatal distress on mothers and offspring, the presently observed upsurge of symptoms in pregnant women calls for special means of clinical surveillance.

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This article presents expert recommendations for assisting newborn children of mothers with suspected or diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The consensus was developed by five experts with an average of 20 years of experience in neonatal intensive care working at a reference university hospital in Brazil for the care of pregnant women and newborns with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Despite the lack of scientific evidence regarding the potential for viral transmission to their fetus in pregnant mothers diagnosed with or suspected of COVID-19, it is important to elaborate the lines of care by specialists from hospitals caring for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to guide multidisciplinary teams and families diagnosed with the disease or involved in the care of pregnant women and newborns in this context. Multidisciplinary teams must be attentive to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 so that decision-making is oriented and assertive for the management of the mother and newborn in both the hospital setting and at hospital discharge.

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In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. This virus strain causes the respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite significant research efforts in this field, there is limited data on COVID-19 in pregnancy. This article presents a case of a pregnant woman from Wuhan infected with SARS-CoV-2, including her symptoms, pregnancy outcome, and treatment strategy.

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Objective:This study was aimed to compare maternal and pregnancy outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Study design:This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with COVID-19. Pregnant women were divided into two groups based on status at admission, symptomatic or asymptomatic. All testing was done by nasopharyngeal swab using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Initially, nasopharyngeal testing was performed only on women with a positive screen (symptoms or exposure) but subsequently, testing was universally performed on all women admitted to labor and delivery. Chi-square and Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests were used to compare outcomes between groups.

Results:Eighty-one patients were tested because of a positive screen (symptoms [n = 60] or exposure only [n = 21]) and 75 patients were universally tested (all asymptomatic). In total, there were 46 symptomatic women and 22 asymptomatic women (tested based on exposure only [n = 12] or as part of universal screening [n = 10]) with confirmed COVID-19. Of symptomatic women (n = 46), 27.3% had preterm delivery and 26.1% needed respiratory support while none of the asymptomatic women (n = 22) had preterm delivery or need of respiratory support (p = 0.007 and 0.01, respectively).

Conclusion:Pregnant women who presented with COVID19-related symptoms and subsequently tested positive for COVID-19 have a higher rate of preterm delivery and need for respiratory support than asymptomatic pregnant women. It is important to be particularly rigorous in caring for COVID-19 infected pregnant women who present with symptoms.

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Objective: Pregnant women have been historically excluded from clinical trials for nonobstetric conditions, even during prior epidemics. The objective of this review is to describe the current state of research for pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods:We conducted a search of international trial registries for trials relating to the novel coronavirus. The eligibility criteria for each trial were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion of pregnant women. Relevant data were extracted and descriptive statistics were calculated for individual and combined data. The total number of trials from each registry were compared, as well as the proportions of pregnancy-related trials within each.

Results:Among 621,370 trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry, 927 (0.15%) were COVID-19 related. Of those, the majority (52%) explicitly excluded pregnancy or failed to address pregnancy at all (46%) and only 16 (1.7%) were pregnancy specific. When categorized by region, 688 (74.2%) of COVID-19 trials were in Asia, followed by 128 (13.8%) in Europe, and 66 (7.2%) in North America. Of the COVID-19 trials which included pregnant women, only three were randomized-controlled drug trials.

Conclusion:Approximately 1.7% of current COVID-19 research is pregnancy related and the majority of trials either explicitly exclude or fail to address pregnancy. Only three interventional trials worldwide involved pregnant women. The knowledge gap concerning the safety and efficacy of interventions for COVID-19 created by the exclusion of pregnant women may ultimately harm them. While "ethical" concerns about fetal exposure are often cited, it is in fact unethical to habitually exclude pregnant women from research.

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Objective: The new SARS-CoV-2 originated from Wuhan, China is spreading rapidly worldwide. A number of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women have been reported. However, more information is still needed on the pregnancy outcome and the neonates regarding COVID-19 pneumonia.Material and

Methods:A systematic search was done and nine articles on COVID-19 pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women were extracted. Some maternal-fetal characteristics were extracted to be included in the meta-analysis.Results: The present meta-analysis was conducted on 87 SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women. Almost 65% of the patients reported a history of exposure to an infected person, 78% suffered from mild or moderate COVID-19, 99.9% had successful termination, 86% had cough, and 68% had fever (p = .022 and p < .001). The overall proportions of vertical transmission, still birth, and neonatal death were zero, 0.002, and, 0.002, respectively (p = 1, p = .86, and p = .89, respectively). The means of the first- and fifth-minute Apgar scores were 8.86 and 9, respectively (p < .001 for both). The confounding role of history of underlying diseases with an estimated overall proportion of 33% (p = .03) resulted in further investigations due to sample size limitation. A natural history of COVID-19 pneumonia in the adult population was presented, as well.Conclusion: Currently, no evidence of vertical transmission has been suggested at least in late pregnancy. No hazards have been detected for fetuses or neonates. Although pregnant women are at an immunosuppressive state due to the physiological changes during pregnancy, most patients suffered from mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia with no pregnancy loss, proposing a similar pattern of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia to that of other adult populations.

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes by performing a systematic review of available published literature on pregnancies affected by COVID-19.

Methods:We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and Wan Fang Data until 20 April 2020 (studies were identified through PubMed alert after that date). For the research strategy, combinations of the following keywords and MeSH terms were used: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019, pregnancy, gestation, maternal, mothers, vertical transmission, maternal-fetal transmission, intrauterine transmission, neonates, infant, delivery. Eligibility criteria included laboratory-confirmed and/or clinically diagnosed COVID-19, patient being pregnant on admission and availability of clinical characteristics, including at least one maternal, perinatal or neonatal outcome. Exclusion criteria were non-peer-reviewed or unpublished reports, unspecified date and location of the study, suspicion of duplicate reporting, and unreported maternal or perinatal outcomes. No language restrictions were applied.

Results:We identified a high number of relevant case reports and case series, but only 24 studies, including a total of 324 pregnant women with COVID-19, met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. These comprised nine case series (eight consecutive) and 15 case reports. A total of 20 pregnant patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in the case reports. In the combined data from the eight consecutive case series, including 211 (71.5%) cases of laboratory-confirmed and 84 (28.5%) of clinically diagnosed COVID-19, the maternal age ranged from 20 to 44 years and the gestational age on admission ranged from 5 to 41 weeks. The most common symptoms at presentation were fever, cough, dyspnea/shortness of breath, fatigue and myalgia. The rate of severe pneumonia reported amongst the case series ranged from 0 to 14%, with the majority of the cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Almost all cases from the case series had positive computer tomography chest findings. All six and 22 cases that had nucleic-acid testing in vaginal mucus and breast milk samples, respectively, were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Only four cases of spontaneous miscarriage or abortion were reported. In the consecutive case series, 219/295 women had delivered at the time of reporting, and the majority of these had Cesarean section. The gestational age at delivery ranged from 28 to 41 weeks. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min ranged from 7 to 10 and 7 to 10, respectively. Only eight neonates had birth weight <2500 g and nearly one-third of cases were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. There was one case each of neonatal asphyxia and neonatal death. In 155 neonates that had nucleic-acid testing in throat swab, all, except three cases, were negative for SARS-CoV-2. There were seven maternal deaths, four intrauterine fetal deaths (one with twin pregnancy) and two neonatal deaths (twin pregnancy) reported in a non-consecutive case series of nine cases with severe COVID-19. From the case reports, two maternal deaths, one neonatal death and two cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported.

Conclusion: Despite the increasing number of published studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy, there are insufficient good-quality data to draw unbiased conclusions with regard to the severity of the disease or specific complications of COVID-19 in pregnant women, as well as vertical transmission, perinatal and neonatal complications. In order to answer specific questions in relation to the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and their fetuses through meaningful good-quality research, we urge researchers and investigators to present complete outcome data and reference previously published cases in their publications, and to record such reporting when the data of a case are entered into a registry or several registries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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The rapid progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak presented extraordinary challenges to the US health care system, particularly straining resources in hard hit areas such as the New York metropolitan region. As a result, major changes in the delivery of obstetrical care were urgently needed, while maintaining patient safety on our maternity units. As the largest health system in the region, with 10 hospitals providing obstetrical services, and delivering over 30,000 babies annually, we needed to respond to this crisis in an organized, deliberate fashion. Our hospital footprint for Obstetrics was dramatically reduced to make room for the rapidly increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients, and established guidelines were quickly modified to reduce potential staff and patient exposures. New communication strategies were developed to facilitate maternity care across our hospitals, with significantly limited resources in personnel, equipment, and space. The lessons learned from these unexpected challenges offered an opportunity to reassess the delivery of obstetrical care without compromising quality and safety. These lessons may well prove valuable after the peak of the crisis has passed.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical evolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized pregnant women and potential factors associated with severe maternal outcomes.

Methods: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study of pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to 12 Italian maternity hospitals between February 23 and March 28, 2020. Clinical records, laboratory and radiologic examinations, and pregnancy outcomes were collected. A subgroup of patients with severe disease was identified based on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, delivery for respiratory compromise, or both.

Results: Seventy-seven patients were included, 14 of whom had severe disease (18%). Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were admitted during the third trimester, and 84% were symptomatic on admission. Eleven patients underwent urgent delivery for respiratory compromise (16%), and six were admitted to the ICU (8%). One woman received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; no deaths occurred. Preterm delivery occurred in 12% of patients, and nine newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Patients in the severe subgroup had significantly higher pregestational body mass indexes (BMIs) and heart and respiratory rates and a greater frequency of fever or dyspnea on admission compared with women with a nonsevere disease evolution.

Conclusion: In our cohort, one in five women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection delivered urgently for respiratory compromise or were admitted to the ICU. None, however, died. Increased pregestational BMI and abnormal heart and respiratory rates on admission were associated with severe disease.

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The world is currently affected by the invasion of a human to human highly transmissible novel corona virus classified as SARS-CoV-2. It causes a severe acute lower respiratory tract syndrome named corona virus disease (CoVid-19). The virus is detected primarily by RT-PCR. The reproduction number (Ro) has been reported between 2.28 and 5.27]. It is beyond our objective to provide an in-depth discussion of the virus characteristics and its distinct viral clades and pathogenic behavior. On 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, (PHEIC) and on 11 March 2020 WHO declared it a pandemic. There is limited information on the effect of CoVid-19 in pregnancy and the new born. We describe the details of the hospital course of the first 16 cases involving pregnant women, admitted to an urban-suburban community general hospital in Wayne County Michigan, from 26 March to 10 April 2020. At the time of this writing the Covid-19 pandemic has affected 35,291 persons in the state of Michigan (0.37%) making it the third most affected state in the USA (MDHHS). Pregnant women are believed to be at higher risk of Covid-19 infection in association with the known physiologic changes of the immune, cardiorespiratory and metabolic systems during pregnancy.

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Background: On January 20, 2020, a new coronavirus epidemic with "human-to-human" transmission was officially announced by the Chinese government, which caused significant public panic in China. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and in special need for preventative mental health strategies. Thus far, no reports exist to investigate the mental health response of pregnant women to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the corresponding risk factors among pregnant women across China.

Study design: A multi-center cross-sectional study was initiated in early December 2019 to identify mental health concerns in pregnancy using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). This study provided a unique opportunity to compare the mental status of pregnant women before and after the announcement of the COVID-19 epidemic. A total of 4124 pregnant women during their third trimester from 25 hospitals in 10 provinces across China were examined in this cross-sectional study from January 1 to February 9, 2020. Of these women, 1285 were assessed after January 20, 2020 when the coronavirus epidemic was publically announced and 2839 were assessed before this pivotal time point. The internationally recommended EPDS was used to assess maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Prevalence rates and risk factors were compared between the pre and post study groups.

Results: Pregnant women assessed after the declaration of COVID-19 epidemic had significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms (26.0% vs 29.6%, P=0.02) than women assess pre-epidemic announcement. These women were also more likely to endorse thoughts of self-harm (P=0.005). The depressive rates were positively associated with the number of newly-confirmed COVID-19 cases (P=0.003), suspected infections (P=0.004), and death cases per day (P=0.001). Pregnant women who were underweight pre-pregnancy, primiparous, < 35 years old, employed full-time, middle income, and had appropriate living space were at increased risk to develop depressive and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak.

Conclusion: Major life-threatening public health events such as the COVID-19 outbreak may increase the risk for mental illness among pregnant women including thoughts of self-harm. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation such as effective risk communication and the provision of psychological first aid may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.

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Background: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk factors might predispose to severe disease.

Objective:To describe maternal disease and obstetrical outcomes associated with Covid-19 disease in pregnancy to rapidly inform clinical care.

Case Study:Retrospective study of pregnant patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from six hospital systems in Washington State between January 21, 2020 and April 17, 2020. Demographics, medical and obstetric history, and Covid-19 encounter data were abstracted from medical records.

Results:A total of 46 pregnant patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from hospital systems capturing 40% of births in Washington State. Nearly all pregnant individuals with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were symptomatic (93.5%, n=43) and the majority were in their second or third trimester (43.5%, n=20 and 50.0%, n=23, respectively). Symptoms resolved in a median of 24 days (interquartile range 13-37). Seven women were hospitalized (16%) including one admitted to the intensive care unit. Six cases (15%) were categorized as severe Covid-19 disease with nearly all patients being either overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, asthma or other co-morbidities. Eight deliveries occurred during the study period, including a preterm birth at 33 weeks to improve pulmonary status in a woman with Class III obesity. One stillbirth occurred of unknown etiology.

Conclusions:: Nearly 15% of pregnant patients developed severe Covid-19, which occurred primarily in overweight or obese women with underlying conditions. Obesity and Covid-19 may synergistically increase risk for a medically-indicated preterm birth to improve maternal pulmonary status in late pregnancy. Collectively, these findings support categorizing pregnant patients as a higher risk group, particularly for those with chronic co-morbidities.

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Background: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on pregnant women is incompletely understood, but early data from case series suggest a variable course of illness from asymptomatic or mild disease to maternal death. It is unclear whether pregnant women manifest enhanced disease similar to influenza viral infection or whether specific risk factors might predispose to severe disease.

Objective:To describe maternal disease and obstetrical outcomes associated with Covid-19 disease in pregnancy to rapidly inform clinical care.

Case Study:Retrospective study of pregnant patients with a laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from six hospital systems in Washington State between January 21, 2020 and April 17, 2020. Demographics, medical and obstetric history, and Covid-19 encounter data were abstracted from medical records.

Results:A total of 46 pregnant patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from hospital systems capturing 40% of births in Washington State. Nearly all pregnant individuals with a SARS-CoV-2 infection were symptomatic (93.5%, n=43) and the majority were in their second or third trimester (43.5%, n=20 and 50.0%, n=23, respectively). Symptoms resolved in a median of 24 days (interquartile range 13-37). Seven women were hospitalized (16%) including one admitted to the intensive care unit. Six cases (15%) were categorized as severe Covid-19 disease with nearly all patients being either overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, asthma or other co-morbidities. Eight deliveries occurred during the study period, including a preterm birth at 33 weeks to improve pulmonary status in a woman with Class III obesity. One stillbirth occurred of unknown etiology.

Conclusions:: Nearly 15% of pregnant patients developed severe Covid-19, which occurred primarily in overweight or obese women with underlying conditions. Obesity and Covid-19 may synergistically increase risk for a medically-indicated preterm birth to improve maternal pulmonary status in late pregnancy. Collectively, these findings support categorizing pregnant patients as a higher risk group, particularly for those with chronic co-morbidities.

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Introduction: The emergence and fast spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) threatens the world as a new public health crisis. This study aimed to clarify the impact of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on pregnant patients and maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Science Direct. All studies including original data; case reports, case series, descriptive and observational studies, and randomized controlled trials were searched from December 2019 until 19 March 2020.

Results: The search identified 1472 results and 939 abstracts were screened. 928 articles were excluded because studies did not include pregnant women. Full texts of eleven relevant studies were reviewed and finally nine studies were included in this study. The characteristics of 89 pregnant women and their neonates were studied. Results revealed that low-grade fever and cough were the principal symptoms in all patients. The main reported laboratory findings were lymphopenia, elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Amino alanine transferase (ALT), and Aspartate amino transferase (AST). In all symptomatic cases, chest Computerized Tomography (CT) scans were abnormal. Fetal distress, premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor were the main prenatal complications. Two women needed intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, one of whom developed multi-organ dysfunction and was on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). No case of maternal death was reported up to the time the studies were published. 79 mothers delivered their babies by cesarean section and five women had a vaginal delivery. No fetal infection through intrauterine vertical transmission was reported.

Conclusions:: Available data showed that pregnant patients in late pregnancy had clinical manifestations similar to non-pregnant adults. It appears that the risk of fetal distress, preterm delivery and prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) rises with the onset of COVID-19 in the third trimester of pregnancy. There is also no evidence of intrauterine and transplacental transmission of COVID-19 to the fetus in the third trimester of pregnancies.

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Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our clinical experience in the management of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first 30 days of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.

Material and methods: We reviewed clinical data from the first 60 pregnant women with COVID-19 whose care was managed at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, Madrid, Spain from 14 March to 14 April 2020. Demographic data, clinical findings, laboratory test results, imaging findings, treatment received, and outcomes were collected. An analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis test) was performed to compare the medians of laboratory parameters. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was used to explore associations between variables.

Results: A total of 60 pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough (75.5% each) followed by dyspnea (37.8%). Forty-one women (68.6%) required hospital admission (18 because of disease worsening and 23 for delivery) of whom 21 women (35%) underwent pharmacological treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, antivirals, antibiotics, and tocilizumab. No renal or cardiac failures or maternal deaths were reported. Lymphopenia (50%), thrombocytopenia (25%), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (59%) were observed in the early stages of the disease. Median CRP, D-dimer, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were elevated. High CRP and D-dimer levels were the parameters most frequently associated with severe pneumonia. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was found to be the most sensitive marker for disease improvement (relative risk 6.65; 95% CI 4.1-5.9). During the study period, 18 of the women (78%) delivered vaginally. All newborns tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and none of them were infected during breastfeeding. No SARS-CoV-2 was detected in placental tissue.

Conclusions: Most of the pregnant women with COVID-19 had a favorable clinical course. However, one-third of them developed pneumonia, of whom 5% presented a critical clinical status. CRP and D-dimer levels positively correlated with severe pneumonia and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio decreased as the patients improved clinically. Seventy-eight percent of the women had a vaginal delivery. No vertical or horizontal transmissions were diagnosed in the neonates during labor or breastfeeding.

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Since the declaration of the global pandemic of COVID-19 by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020, we have continued to see a steady rise in the number of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, there is still very limited data on the course and outcomes of this serious infection in a vulnerable population of pregnant patients and their fetuses. International perinatal societies and institutions including SMFM, ACOG, RCOG, ISUOG, CDC, CNGOF, ISS/SIEOG, and CatSalut have released guidelines for the care of these patients. We aim to summarize these current guidelines in a comprehensive review for patients, healthcare workers, and healthcare institutions. We included 15 papers from 10 societies through a literature search of direct review of society's websites and their journal publications up till 20 April 2020. Recommendations specific to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum were abstracted from the publications and summarized into Tables. The summary of guidelines for the management of COVID-19 in pregnancy across different perinatal societies is fairly consistent, with some variation in the strength of recommendations. It is important to recognize that these guidelines are frequently updated, as we continue to learn more about the course and impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

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Coronaviruses are a group of viruses which, even if they are affecting mainly mammals and birds, could be transmitted to humans, generating common cold. The new virus strain is named SARS-CoV-2 and has 85% sequence similarity to SARS-CoV. Until now, it has caused more than 100 000 confirmed cases of infection and almost 5000 deaths, having a mortality rate of 4%. All information (symptoms, signs, management, complications) are taken from the other pandemic infections (SARS, MERS). Information about viral infection concerning pregnant women are limited and are common to other SARS infections. There are very few cases of pregnant patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and studies are ongoing.

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Background: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmittable virus associated with a significantly increased risk of complications among the infected population. Few data are available for the outcome of pregnancy complicated by serious respiratory disease due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Aim: We herein report a series of four neonates whose mothers had recovered from new coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Methods:pregnant women with documented COVID-19 infection during their pregnancy, who gave birth in Parma Hospital, University of Parma, Italy, in March and April 2020, during the peak of incidence of COVID-19 in Italy. Clinical records and laboratory tests were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: All neonates were delivered at term in good conditions without congenital COVID-19 infection.

Conclusion: Findings from our series of cases indicated that adverse effects on foetuses from pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 infection in late pregnancy are unlikely.

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The risk of vertical transmission during vaginal delivery in COVID-19 pregnant patients is currently a topic of debate. Obstetric norms on vaginal birth assistance to reduce the potential risk of perinatal infection should be promoted by ensuring that the risk of contamination from maternal anus and faecal material is reduced during vaginal delivery.

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We present the case of a 39-year-old woman, G1P0, who had conceived twins via in-vitro fertilization, who presented at 27 weeks of gestation with nasal congestion and dry cough for 7 days. On presentation, her physical examination was benign, except for sinus tachycardia, and she was oxygenating adequately on room air. Laboratory studies were unremarkable, except a PCR test positive for SARS-COV2, and a CT scan of her chest showed bilateral multi-focal ground-glass opacities. A fetal non-stress test was reassuring. She was treated with intravenous fluids, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine. During her hospital stay, she developed progressively worsening respiratory failure, initially requiring non-invasive ventilation, and subsequently progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. She then suffered from sudden hypoxemia and hemodynamic collapse, on maximal ventilatory support, prompting an emergency cesarean section at bedside. This led to rapid stabilization of hemodynamic parameters, and of her overall respiratory status. Both the twins were born prematurely, and one of them tested positive for SARS-COV2.

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Remdesivir is a novel therapeutic with known activity against SARS CoV-2 and related coronaviruses. Remdesivir, as well as convalescent plasma therapy, are currently under investigation as potential therapies for patients with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). In this case report we summarize the use of convalescent plasma therapy and then remdesivir as a late addition in the treatment of a critically ill obstetric patient with COVID-19. The patient subsequently improved, was extubated 5 days after initiation of remdesivir, was transitioned to room air 24 h later, and discharged at the completion of remdesivir therapy.

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COVID-19 is a pandemic that is currently ravaging the world. Infection rate is steadily increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women and their infants may suffer severe illnesses due to their lower immunity. This guideline prepares and equips clinicians working in the maternal and newborn sections in the sub-region to manage COVID-19 during pregnancy and childbirth.

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Objective: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak that began in China has turned into a pandemic that threatens global health, thereby prompting the concentration of studies and clinical routines on treating and preventing the disease. However, research on the psychological effects of the pandemic on the general population, particularly pregnant women, is lacking. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression and anxiety in pregnant women.Study design: An anonymous survey for assessing depression and anxiety in pregnant women was designed, after which a link to the online questionnaire was sent to the participants, who were being treated in a private medical center. One of the researchers followed up with the respondents, among whom 260 returned their questionnaires.Results: Among the respondents, 35.4% (n = 92, case group) obtained scores higher than 13 on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). The comparison of the groups by years of education indicated statistically significant effects of COVID-19 on psychology, social isolation, and mean scores in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). These effects were more severe in the case group than in the control group (psychology: 8.369 ± 2.003, social isolation: 8.000 ± 2.507, mean BDI and BAI scores: 20.565 ± 6.605 and 22.087 ± 8.689, respectively). A regression analysis revealed that the BDI scores and the disease's psychological effects, as well as the BAI scores and the illness's social isolation effects, exerted a statistically significant influence on the EPDS scores of the participants.Conclusion: This study illustrated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the depression and anxiety levels of pregnant women. Our results point to an urgent need to provide psychosocial support to this population during the crisis. Otherwise, adverse events may occur during pregnancy and thus affect both mother and fetus.

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We report the first maternal death of a 29‐year woman of Pakistani origin at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital (BHH), UK on the 8 April 2020. She had a body mass index (BMI) of 35, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin and insulin, renal tubular acidosis, asthma and vitamin D deficiency. In her first pregnancy, she had a stillborn baby. At her first antenatal (booking) visit, her glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 9.7%. She also had a high albumin creatinine ratio but with normal kidney function.

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Context: The pandemic of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, has created an unprecedented global health burden. Objective: To investigate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes. Design: All suspected cases of pregnant women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted into one center of Wuhan from Jan 20, 2020 to March 19, 2020 were included. Detailed clinical data of those pregnancies with COVID-19 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Twenty-seven laboratory or clinically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection pregnant women (4 early pregnancies included) and 24 neonates born to the 23 late pregnant mothers were analyzed. On admission, 46.2% (13/27) of the patients had symptoms, including fever (11/27), cough (9/27) and vomiting (1/27). Decreased total lymphocytes count was observed in 81.6% (22/27) patients. Twenty-six patients showed typical viral pneumonia by chest computed tomography (CT) scan, while one patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection showed no abnormality on chest CT. One mother developed severe pneumonia three days after her delivery. No maternal and perinatal death occurred. Moreover, one early preterm newborn, born to a mother with complication of premature rupture of fetal membranes, highly suspected with SARS-CoV-2 infection, was SARS-CoV-2 negative after repeated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. Statistical difference was observed between the groups of early pregnant and late pregnant women with COVID-19 in the occurrence of lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: No major complication were reported among the studied cohort, though one serious case and one perinatal infection were observed. Much effort should be done to reduce the pathogenic effect of COVID-19 infection in pregnancies.

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No abstract.

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At the end of 2019, a new form of pneumonia disease known as the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread throughout most provinces of China, and the total global number of COVID-19 cases has surpassed 500 000 by Mar. 27, 2020 (WHO, 2020). On Jan. 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global health emergency (WHO, 2020). COVID-19 causes most damage to the respiratory system, leading to pneumonia or breathing difficulties. The confirmed case fatality risk (cCFR) was estimated to be 5% to 8% (Jung et al., 2020). Besides physical pain, COVID-19 also induces psychological distress, with depression, anxiety, and stress affecting the general population, quarantined population, medical staff, and patients at different levels (Kang et al., 2020; Xiang et al., 2020). Previous research on patients in isolation wards highlighted the risk of depressed mood, fear, loneliness, frustration, excessive worries, and insomnia (Abad et al., 2010).

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The recently emerged novel coronavirus pneumonia, named the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shares several clinical characteristics with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and spread rapidly throughout China in December of 2019 (Huang et al., 2020). The pathogen 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is now named SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is highly infectious. As of Apr. 9, 2020, over 80 000 confirmed cases had been reported, with an estimated mortality rate of 4.0% (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Person-to-person transmission and familial clustering have been reported (Chan et al., 2020; Nishiura et al., 2020; Phan et al., 2020). However, there is no evidence of fetal intrauterine infection in pregnant women who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their third trimester (Chen et al., 2020). It is unclear whether breastfeeding transmits the virus from previously infected and recovered mothers to their babies. Here we report the clinical course of a pregnant woman with COVID-19. In order to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to newborns through breastfeeding, we measured viral RNA in the patient's breastmilk samples at different time points after delivery.

Article here.

Aim: To compile recommendations and evidence on the practical management of pregnant women with COVIC-19 in order to clarify standards of obstetric care in the face of this new disease.

Methods: Scoping review based on literaature searches in national and international health science databases (Pubmed/Medline, Biblioteca virtual en salud (BVS), Scielo, COCHRANE and CUIDEN) and websites, and additionally by a "snowball" system. MeSH terms were used: "COVID-19", "Pregnancy", "Delivery, Obstetric" "Pregnant Women" and "Maternal". As limits in the search Spanish and English languages were selected. No limits were established in relation to the year of publication or type of article.

Results: A total of 49 documents and articles were detected, of which 27 were analyzed, 18 were used, and 9 were discarded because they did not contain practical recommendations. The recommendations were grouped into 9 subjects: Prevention of infection in pregnant women, Prevention of infection in health care personnel attending pregnant women, Form of presentation and severity in pregnant women, Maternal-fetal transmission (vertical and perinatal), Maternal-fetal control of the pregnant woman infected with COVID-19, Control of the severely pregnant woman with COVID-19, Treatment of the pregnant woman with COVID-19, Management and route of termination of labor, Neonatal outcomes in women with COVID-19 and Breastfeeding.

Conclusions: Lack of strong evidence to support many of the recommendations for pregnant women with COVID-19, as they are based on previous experience with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. Further studies are needed to confirm the appropriateness of many of the recommendations and guidelines for action in the specific case of pregnant women and COVIC-19.

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While SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide, data remains scarce about the natural history of infection in pregnant women and the risk of mother-to-fetal transmission. Current data indicates that viral RNA levels in maternal blood are low and there is no evidence of placental infection with SARS-CoV-2. Published reports to date suggest that perinatal transmission of SARSCoV- 2 can occur but is rare. Among 179 newborns tested for SARS-CoV2 at birth from mothers with COVID-19, transmission was suspected in 8 cases, 5 with positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and 3 with SARS-CoV-2 IgM. However, these cases arise from maternal infection close to childbirth and there are no information about exposition during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Welldesigned prospective cohort studies with rigorous judgement criteria are needed to determine the incidence and risk factors for perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

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In recent months, various public health measures have been implemented throughout the world in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This outbreak, and the subsequent containment policies, may have a range of potential short- and long-term impacts on the monitoring and surveillance of other conditions, such as birth defects. In this commentary, we provide a perspective on these potential impacts on birth defects surveillance and analysis. We discuss possible effects on clinical birth defect diagnoses, routine birth defects surveillance system activities, and epidemiologic considerations, as well as opportunities for mitigating the impact of COVID-19. Like many other sectors of public health and medicine, birth defects surveillance programs may be faced with organizational and methodological obstacles in the wake of a changing landscape. A better understanding of these potential challenges faced by birth defects surveillance programs could facilitate better planning and collaboration across programs to overcome barriers to core activities and to prepare for novel opportunities for research and prevention.

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New cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported daily worldwide. What began as a localized outbreak of an epizootic disease has now become a pandemic of unprecedented proportions, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). In South America, as of April 30, 2020, Brazil has the highest number of confirmed cases (n=80 246), followed by Peru (n=36 976) and Ecuador (n=24 934). It is important to note that the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in South America was announced on February 26, 2020, described as an imported case. Local transmission has followed a geometric progression.

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In the context of serious coronavirus epidemic, it is critical that pregnant women not be ignored potentially life-saving interventions. So, this study was designed to improve the quality of care by health providers through what they need to know about coronavirus during pregnancy and childbirth. We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases was performed for published in English, before 25 March 2020. Finally, 29 papers which had covered the topic more appropriately were included in the study. The results of the systematic review of the existing literature are presented in the following nine sections: Symptoms of the COVID-19 in pregnancy, Pregnancy management, Delivery Management, Mode of delivery, Recommendations for health care provider in delivery, Neonatal outcomes, Neonatal care, Vertical Transmission, Breastfeeding. In conclusion, improving quality of care in maternal health, as well as educating, training, and supporting healthcare providers in infection management to be prioritized. Sharing data can help to countries that to prevent maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the COVID-19.

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How quickly and in what ways are US maternity care practices changing due to the COVID-19 pandemic? Our data indicate that partners and doulas are being excluded from birthing rooms leaving mothers unsupported, while providers face lack of protective equipment and unclear guidelines. We investigate rapidly shifting protocols for in- and out-of-hospital births and the decision making behind them. We ask, will COVID-19 cause women, families, and providers to look at birthing in a different light? And will this pandemic offer a testing ground for future policy changes to generate effective maternity care amidst pandemics and other types of disasters?

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We reported a 33-year-old female case with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanied by Acute tubular necrosis (ATN). She had a gestational age of 34 weeks. The patient referred to treatment clinic for COVID-19 in Imam Reza hospital of Tabriz (Iran) after having flu-like symptoms. In radiologic assessment, ground glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation was found in upper right lobe. Lopinavir/ritonavir (200mg/50mg) two tablet tow times, Ribavirin 200mg every six hours, and Oseltamivir 75mg tow times were given for the treatment of COVID-19. The medications used for treatment of pneumonia were Meropenem, Ciprofloxacin, Vancomycin. All doses of medications were administrated by adjusted dose assuming the patient is anephric. Also, a few supplements were also given after ATN development including daily Rocaltrol and Nephrovit (as a multivitamin appropriate for patients with renal failure), Folic acid and Calcium carbonate. The patient is still under ventilator with a Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 60% and Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of eight. SpO2 is 94% but the patient's ATN problem has been resolved. We started weaning from mechanical ventilator. The patient is conscious with full awareness to time, person and place. The maternal well-being is achieved and her neonate was discharged.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has redefined 'essential care', and reproductive healthcare has become a frequently targeted and debated topic. As Obstetricians and Gynecologists (OBGYN), we stand with our patients and others as advocates for women's reproductive health. With the medical and surgical training to provide all aspects of reproductive healthcare, OBGYNs are indispensable and uniquely positioned to advocate for the full spectrum of care that our patients need right now. All patients have a right to these services. Contraception and abortion care remain essential, and we need to work at the local, state and federal level on policies that preserve these critical services. We must also support policies that will promote expansion of care, including lengthening Medicaid pregnancy/postpartum coverage. While we continue to see patients, this is the time to engage outside clinical encounters by participating in lobbying and other advocacy efforts to preserve essential services, protecting the health, life, and welfare of our patients during COVID-19.

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An integrated approach to population health, disease surveillance, and preventive care will dominate the health agenda in the post COVID-19 world. Because of their huge burden and the vulnerability imposed during a health crisis, prevention and care of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will need to be prioritized even further. Maternal and child health are inextricably linked with NCDs and their risk factors. The intergenerational impact of poor maternal nutrition and health conditions during pregnancy, particularly NCD-related pregnancy complications, can be considered as a multiplier of the ongoing pandemic of NCDs. The economic cost of poor maternal health and NCD-related pregnancy complications is likely very high, but is not adequately researched or documented in the context of long-term population health. Interventions to address NCDs in pregnancy have beneficial effects on short-term pregnancy outcomes; but even more importantly, identifying "at-risk" mothers and offspring opens up the opportunity for targeted early preventive action. Preventive actions to address obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have a common lifestyle approach-identifying any one of these problems in pregnancy provides an opportunity to address them all. Cost-benefit analyses that only focus on the short-term and on one condition do not capture the full value of downstream, long-term benefits for population health. This requires urgent attention from FIGO.

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Background The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) is quite a challenging experience for the world. At the moment of birth, the fetus is prepared to face the challenge of labor and the exposure to the outside world, meaning that labor and birth represent the first extrauterine major exposure to a complex microbiota. The vagina, which is a canal for reproduction, is by evolution separated (but not far) from the anus and urethra. Passing through the birthing canal is a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of vaginal and gut microorganisms for the vertical transmission of microbiota not only from our mothers and grandmothers but also from earlier ancestors. Methods Many national and international instructions have been developed since the beginning of the Covid-19 outbreak in January 2020 in Wuhan in China. All of them pointed out hygiene measures, social distancing and avoidance of social contacts as the most important epidemiological preventive measures. Pregnancy and neonatal periods are considered as high risk for Covid-19 infection. Results The instructions defined the care for pregnant women in the delivery room, during a hospital stay and after discharge. The controversial procedures in the care of Covid-19-suspected or -positive asymptomatic women in laborwere: mode of delivery, companion during birth and labor, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and visits during a hospital stay. Conclusion There is a hope that instruction on coping with the coronavirus (Covid-19) infection in pregnancy with all proposed interventions affecting mothers, babies and families, besides saving lives, are beneficial and efficient by exerting no harm.

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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing concern also for the management and outcome of COVID-19-positive pregnant women and their offspring, as reported cases are rare. Current evidence suggests the association of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy with both severe maternal morbidity requiring intensive care and perinatal complications (preterm birth with consequent neonatal morbidity and even perinatal death). Most of the reported cases focused specifically on the maternal outcomes and possible vertical transmission, but less attention has been paid to fetus as a patient in such pregnancies. The use of antenatal steroids and fetal neuroprotection with magnesium sulfate is clearly underreported. Several recently issued guidelines suggest lowering the upper gestational age for antenatal steroid administration and also advocate extreme caution or even restraining from the use of magnesium sulfate. Also, the rate of cesarean deliveries among COVID-19 women is unacceptably high. Here we provide arguments for NOT changing the existing guidelines and caution against cesarean delivery that was the prevalent delivery mode in the reported cases and case series.

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The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. In contrast to initial reports, recent studies suggest that children are just as likely as adults to become infected with the virus but have fewer symptoms and less severe disease. In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic and clinical features of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported in pediatric case series to date. We also summarize the perinatal outcomes of neonates born to women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. We found 11 case series including a total of 333 infants and children. Overall, 83% of the children had a positive contact history, mostly with family members. The incubation period varied between 2 and 25 days with a mean of 7 days. The virus could be isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions for up to 22 days and from stool for more than 30 days. Co-infections were reported in up to 79% of children (mainly mycoplasma and influenza). Up to 35% of children were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were cough (48%; range 19%-100%), fever (42%; 11%-100%) and pharyngitis (30%; 11%-100%). Further symptoms were nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, tachypnoea, wheezing, diarrhea, vomiting, headache and fatigue. Laboratory test parameters were only minimally altered. Radiologic findings were unspecific and included unilateral or bilateral infiltrates with, in some cases, ground-glass opacities or consolidation with a surrounding halo sign. Children rarely needed admission to intensive care units (3%), and to date, only a small number of deaths have been reported in children globally. Nine case series and 2 case reports described outcomes of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 65 women and 67 neonates. Two mothers (3%) were admitted to intensive care unit. Fetal distress was reported in 30% of pregnancies. Thirty-seven percent of women delivered preterm. Neonatal complications included respiratory distress or pneumonia (18%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (3%), asphyxia (2%) and 2 perinatal deaths. Four neonates (3 with pneumonia) have been reported to be SARS-CoV-2 positive despite strict infection control and prevention procedures during delivery and separation of mother and neonates, meaning vertical transmission could not be excluded.

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This study describes the pathology and clinical information on 20 placentas whose mother tested positive for the novel Coronovirus (2019-nCoV) cases. Ten of the 20 cases showed some evidence of fetal vascular malperfusion or fetal vascular thrombosis. The significance of these findings is unclear and needs further study.

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As New York City became an international epicenter of the novel coronavirus disease 2020 (COVID-19) pandemic, telehealth was rapidly integrated into prenatal care at Columbia University Irving Medical Center, an academic hospital system in Manhattan. Goals of implementation were to consolidate in-person prenatal screening, surveillance, and examinations into fewer in-person visits while maintaining patient access to ongoing antenatal care and subspecialty consultations via telehealth virtual visits. The rationale for this change was to minimize patient travel and thus risk for COVID-19 exposure. Because a large portion of obstetric patients had underlying medical or fetal conditions placing them at increased risk for adverse outcomes, prenatal care telehealth regimens were tailored for increased surveillance and/or counseling. Based on the incorporation of telehealth into prenatal care for high-risk patients, specific recommendations are made for the following conditions, clinical scenarios, and services: (1) hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension; (2) pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus; (3) maternal cardiovascular disease; (4) maternal neurologic conditions; (5) history of preterm birth and poor obstetrical history including prior stillbirth; (6) fetal conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and multiple gestations including monochorionic placentation; (7) genetic counseling; (8) mental health services; (9) obstetric anesthesia consultations; and (10) postpartum care. While telehealth virtual visits do not fully replace in-person encounters during prenatal care, they do offer a means of reducing potential patient and provider exposure to COVID-19 while providing consolidated in-person testing and services. KEY POINTS: • Telehealth for prenatal care is feasible. • Telehealth may reduce coronavirus exposure during prenatal care. • Telehealth should be tailored for high risk prenatal patients.

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Hypertensive disorders are the most common medical complications of pregnancy and a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death. The detection of elevated blood pressure during pregnancy is one of the cardinal aspects of optimal antenatal care. With the outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the risk for person-to-person spread of the virus, there is a desire to minimize unnecessary visits to health care facilities. Women should be classified as low risk or high risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and adjustments can be accordingly made in the frequency of maternal and fetal surveillance. During this pandemic, all pregnant women should be encouraged to obtain a sphygmomanometer. Patients monitored for hypertension as an outpatient should receive written instructions on the important signs and symptoms of disease progression and provided contact information to report the development of any concern for change in status. As the clinical management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia is the same, assessment of urinary protein is unnecessary in the management once a diagnosis of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is made. Pregnant women with suspected hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and signs and symptoms associated with the severe end of the disease spectrum (e.g., headaches, visual symptoms, epigastric pain, and pulmonary edema) should have an evaluation including complete blood count, serum creatinine level, and liver transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). Further, if there is any evidence of disease progression or if acute severe hypertension develops, prompt hospitalization is suggested. Current guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) for management of preeclampsia with severe features suggest delivery after 34 0/7 weeks of gestation. With the outbreak of COVID-19, however, adjustments to this algorithm should be considered including delivery by 30 0/7 weeks of gestation in the setting of preeclampsia with severe features. KEY POINTS: • Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants fewer office visits. • Women should be classified for hypertension risk in pregnancy. • Earlier delivery suggested with COVID-19 and hypertensive disorder.

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BACKGROUND:
Pregnant women with diabetes are identified as being more vulnerable to the severe effects of COVID-19 and advised to stringently follow social distancing measures. Here we review the management of diabetes in pregnancy before and during the lockdown.

METHODS:
The majority of antenatal diabetes and obstetric visits are provided remotely, with pregnant women attending hospital clinics only for essential ultrasound scans and labour and delivery. On-line resources for supporting women planning pregnancy as well as for self-management of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intermittent or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are provided. Retinal screening procedures, intrapartum care and the varying impact of lockdown on maternal glycaemic control are considered. Alternative screening procedures have for diagnosing hyperglycaemia during pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes (GDM) are discussed. Case histories describe the remote initiation of insulin pump therapy and automated insulin delivery in T1D pregnancy.

RESULTS:
Initial feedback suggests that video consultations are well received and that the patient experiences for women requiring face-to-face visits are greatly improved. As the pandemic eases, formal evaluation of remote models of diabetes education and technology implementation, including women's views, will be important.

CONCLUSION:
Research and audit activities will resume and we will find new ways for supporting pregnant women with diabetes to choose their preferred glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.

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First detected in Wuhan, China, the novel 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA beta-coronavirus responsible for an unprecedented, worldwide pandemic caused by COVID-19. Optimal management of immunosuppression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with COVID-19 infection currently is based on expert opinion, given the novelty of the infection and the corresponding lack of high-level evidence in patients with immune-mediated conditions. There are limited data regarding IBD patients with COVID-19 and no data regarding early pregnancy in the era of COVID-19. This article describes a patient with acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) during her first trimester of pregnancy who also has COVID-19. The case presentation is followed by a review of the literature to date on COVID-19 in regard to inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy, respectively.

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BACKGROUND:
Internet analytics are increasingly being integrated into public health regulation. One specific application is to monitor compliance of website and social media activity with respect to jurisdictional regulations. These data may then identify breaches of compliance and inform disciplinary actions. Our study aimed to evaluate the novel use of internet analytics by a Canadian chiropractic regulator to determine their registrants compliance with three regulations related to specific health conditions, pregnancy conditions and most recently, claims of improved immunity during the COVID-19 crisis.

METHODS:
A customized internet search tool (Market Review Tool, MRT) was used by the College of Chiropractors of British Columbia (CCBC), Canada to audit registrants websites and social media activity. The audits extracted words whose use within specific contexts is not permitted under CCBC guidelines. The MRT was first used in October of 2018 to identify words related to specific health conditions. The MRT was again used in December 2019 for words related to pregnancy and most recently in March 2020 for words related to COVID-19. In these three MRT applications, potential cases of word misuse were evaluated by the regulator who then notified the practitioner to comply with existing regulations by a specific date. The MRT was then used on that date to determine compliance. Those found to be non-compliant were referred to the regulator's inquiry committee. We mapped this process and reported the outcomes with permission of the regulator.

RESULTS:
In September 2018, 250 inappropriate mentions of specific health conditions were detected from approximately 1250 registrants with 2 failing to comply. The second scan for pregnancy related terms of approximately1350 practitioners revealed 83 inappropriate mentions. Following notification, all 83 cases were compliant within the specified timeframe. Regarding COVID-19 related words, 97 inappropriate mentions of the word "immune" were detected from 1350 registrants with 7 cases of non-compliance.

CONCLUSION:
Internet analytics are an effective way for regulators to monitor internet activity to protect the public from misleading statements. The processes described were effective at bringing about rapid practitioner compliance. Given the increasing volume of internet activity by healthcare professionals, internet analytics are an important addition for health care regulators to protect the public they serve.

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Novel coronavirus infection is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization on January 7, 2020. In early December 2019, a number of pneumonia cases of unknown origin emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. (1)(2) The disease then spread rapidly throughout China and has now become a global pandemic. As of March 23, 2020, more than 340,000 cases have been reported in more than 150 countries. Because the disease is primarily an airborne respiratory infection and is documented to have a strong human-to-human transmission, the pediatric and neonatal populations are vulnerable to this disease. However, the incidence and clinical presentations of pediatric COVID-19 infections are varied and differ from those found in adult patients. The atypical clinical presentations and 2 potential modes of transmission in neonates (ie, maternal-fetal or maternal-neonatal) have led to diagnostic and management challenges. In this perspective, we would like to share some published information from Chinese pediatric and neonatal societies about their approach to handling the 2019-2020 COVID-19 outbreak in China.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has stressed patients and healthcare givers alike and challenged our practice of antenatal care, including fetal diagnosis and therapy. This document aims to review relevant recent information to allow us to optimize prenatal care delivery. We discuss potential modifications to obstetric management and fetal procedures in SARS-CoV2-negative and SARS-CoV2-positive patients with fetal anomalies or disorders. Most fetal therapies are time sensitive and cannot be delayed. If personnel and resources are available, we should continue to offer procedures of proven benefit, acknowledging any fetal and maternal risks, including those to health care workers. There is, to date, minimal, unconfirmed evidence of spontaneous vertical transmission, though it may theoretically be increased with some procedures. Knowing a mother's preoperative SARS-CoV-2 status would enable us to avoid or defer certain procedures while she is contagious and to protect health care workers appropriately. Some fetal conditions may alternatively be managed neonatally. Counseling regarding fetal interventions which have a possibility of additional intra- or postoperative morbidity must be performed in the context of local resource availability. Procedures of unproven benefit should not be offered. We encourage participation in registries and trials that may help us to understand the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women, their fetuses, and neonates.

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic that is causing thousands of deaths worldwide. The virus can be transmitted from person to person, directly or indirectly, via the respiratory, oro-fecal and probably sexual routes. The eventual vertical transmission route is still poorly explored. However, mother-to-child SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the placenta probably does not occur, or likely occurs very rarely. All the studies conducted on COVID-19 pregnant women involved patients undergoing cesarean section, but the indications for such delivery modality were not clearly stated.

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Guideline: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in pregnancyPublished by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), with input from the Royal College of Midwives, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPH), the Royal College of Anaesthetists, and the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association.This summary is based on version 8 of the guideline, published on 17 April 2020 (https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/2020-04-17-coronavirus-covid-19-infection-in-pregnancy.pdf).)

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While most pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appear to experience a milder clinical course [1,2], the present report describes a critical case of COVID-19 in a pregnant woman. We discuss the identification, diagnosis, disease progression, and treatment outcome in a 31-year-old pregnant woman admitted to Xiaolan People's Hospital of Zhongshan at 35+2 weeks of pregnancy with no known comorbidity or history of chronic illness. Onset of symptoms in the patient began with a sore throat and dry cough for 4 days, followed by fever and dyspnea for half a day.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
To assess whether vaginal secretions and breast milk of COVID-19 patients contain SARS-CoV-2 virus.

DESIGN:
Single center cohort study.

SETTING:
Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei province, China.

POPULATION OR SAMPLE:
We studied 13 COVID-19 infected pregnant women diagnosed between January 31 and March 9, 2020.

METHODS:
We collected clinical data, vaginal secretions and stool specimens, breast milk from COVID-19 infected women during different stages of pregnancy and neonatal throat, anal swabs.

MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S):
We assessed viral presence in different biosamples.

RESULTS:
Of the 13 women with COVID-19, 5 were in their first trimester, 3 in their second trimester, and 5 in their third trimester. Of the 5 women during their third trimester who gave birth, all delivered live newborns. Among these 5 deliveries, the primary adverse perinatal outcomes included premature delivery (n = 2) and neonatal pneumonia (n = 2). One of 9 stool samples was positive; and all 13 vaginal secretion samples, and 5 throat swabs and 4 anal swabs collected from newborns were negative for the novel coronavirus. However, 1 of 3 samples of breast milk was positive by viral nucleic acid testing.

CONCLUSIONS:
In this case series of 13 pregnant women with COVID-19, we observed negative viral test results in vaginal secretion specimens, suggesting that a vaginal delivery may be a safe delivery option. However, additional research is urgently needed to examine breast milk and the potential risk for viral contamination.

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We present recommendations on performance and safety measures of ultrasound examinations in obstetrics and gynecology during the SARS COV-2 pandemic. The statement was prepared based on the current knowledge on the coronavirus by the Ultrasound Section of the Polish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. It has to be noted that the presented guidance is based on limited evidence and is primarily based on experiences published by authors from areas most affected by the virus thus far, such as China, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Italy. We realize that the pandemic situation is very dynamic. New data is published every day. Despite the imposed limitations related to the necessity of social distancing, it is crucial to remember that providing optimal care in safe conditions should remain the primary goal of healthcare providers. We plan to update the current guidelines as the situation develops.

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Two papers in this issue, on births to Covid-19 infected mothers, are important additions to this rapidly evolving literature. They are both broadly reassuring. The paper from Lombardy, the epicentre of the pandemic in Italy, is the first detailed report of pregnancies from this large region (Ferrazzi et al. BJOG 2020 xxxx). Among 42 affected women, 19 developed pneumonia, of whom seven required oxygen and four critical care. Eighteen babies were delivered by Caesarean, although in eight the indication was unrelated to Covid-19.

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Evidence for and against vertical transmission for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). A A et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May 3.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lifestyle change on couples of reproductive age and on their desire for parenthood.Materials and methods: A quantitative correlational research study, based on a web survey, was conducted among Italian men and women in heterosexual stable relationships, aged between 18 and 46?years. The self-administered Italian version questionnaire was created using Google Forms and posted on chats and social networks.The mood of participants before and during the quarantine was assessed using a scale from 1 to 10 (1?=?no wellbeing; 10?=?total wellbeing). Couples' quality of life and their reproductive desire were evaluated.Results: 1482 respondents were included: 944 women (63.7%) and 538 men (36.3%). A significant trend toward reduced mean wellbeing scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was found (p <.01).From 18.1% participants who were planning to have a child before the pandemic, 37.3% abandoned the intention, related to worries of future economic difficulties (58%) and consequences on pregnancy (58%). Of 81.9% who did not intend to conceive, 11.5% revealed a desire for parenthood during quarantine than before (p<.01), related to will for change (50%) and need for positivity (40%). 4.3% of these actually tried to get pregnant. Stratifying by age, a trend toward older ages was found in the desire for parenthood before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (p <.05).Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic is impacting on the desire for parenthood. It is unknown whether these findings will result in a substantial modification of birth rate in the near future.

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BACKGROUND:
Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis, but there is limited guidance for the critical care management of pregnant patients experiencing respiratory collapse. We describe our management of a peri-viable pregnant patient requiring intubation; discussion includes pharmacologic interventions, mechanical ventilation adjustments, and consideration of fetal interventions, including delivery timing.

CASE:
A 36-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 woman positive for COVID-19 at 23?weeks of gestation with severe disease required admission to the intensive care unit and intubation. She completed 5?days of hydroxychloroquine and 7?days of prednisone. She was successfully intubated after 8?days and discharged home in a stable condition without preterm delivery on hospital day 11.

CONCLUSION:
Fortunately, the patient responded to aggressive respiratory support with intubation and mechanical ventilation early upon presentation. It is unclear whether our institution's empiric use of hydroxychloroquine and prednisone facilitated her recovery. We hope that our report helps other institutions navigate the complex care surrounding pregnant patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring intensive care.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Data suggest that pregnant women are not at elevated risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or developing severe disease compared with nonpregnant patients. However, management of pregnant patients who are critically ill with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is complicated by physiologic changes and other pregnancy considerations and requires balancing maternal and fetal well-being.

CASE:
We report the case of a patient at 28 weeks of gestation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from COVID-19 infection, whose deteriorating respiratory condition prompted delivery. Our patient's oxygenation and respiratory mechanics improved within hours of delivery, though she required prolonged mechanical ventilation until postpartum day 10. Neonatal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM were negative.

CONCLUSION:
We describe our multidisciplinary management of a preterm pregnant patient with ARDS from COVID-19 infection and her neonate.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Data suggest that pregnant women are not at elevated risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or developing severe disease compared with nonpregnant patients. However, management of pregnant patients who are critically ill with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is complicated by physiologic changes and other pregnancy considerations and requires balancing maternal and fetal well-being.

CASE:
We report the case of a patient at 28 weeks of gestation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from COVID-19 infection, whose deteriorating respiratory condition prompted delivery. Our patient's oxygenation and respiratory mechanics improved within hours of delivery, though she required prolonged mechanical ventilation until postpartum day 10. Neonatal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM were negative.

CONCLUSION:
We describe our multidisciplinary management of a preterm pregnant patient with ARDS from COVID-19 infection and her neonate.

Article here.

With the current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, new challenges arise as social distancing and isolation have become the standard for safety. Evidence supports the protective benefits of social connections and support during pregnancy and labor; there are increased maternal, fetal, and pregnancy risks when pregnant and laboring women lack support. As health care professionals take appropriate precautions to protect patients and themselves from infection, there must be a balance to ensure that we do not neglect the importance of social and emotional support during important milestones such as pregnancy and childbirth. Resources are available to help pregnant women, and technology represents an opportunity for innovation in providing care.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Limited U.S. reports of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection describe a few critical cases and no maternal mortality.

CASE:
A 36-year-old patient at 37 weeks of gestation presented with shortness of breath, fever, cough, and sore throat for 1 week. Within 3 hours of admission, she experienced respiratory distress, required intubation, and underwent cesarean delivery and transfer to the intensive care unit. She subsequently decompensated, with multiorgan failure, sepsis, and cardiopulmonary arrest within 36 hours, despite aggressive supportive care and investigational therapies.

CONCLUSION:
A pregnant patient with COVID-19 infection can experience a rapid onset of critical complications that may prove fatal, despite an indolent presentation. The pathogenesis leading to rapid deterioration is unknown.

Article here.

Nordic countries have a long tradition of collecting health related population data meticulously and reporting them transparently. Such data provide firm grounds for making good decisions and as a result the public health institutions in Scandinavia enjoy the trust of society. The Covid-19 pandemic has, however, resulted in a completely new situation as we are now exploring in uncharted waters. Based on reports from China, Italy, USA and perhaps with the good intention of reducing anxiety among this vulnerable population group, it has been widely publicized that pregnant women are not at increased risk of susceptibility, infectivity and severity of COVID-19 compared to the general population or non-pregnant women, although a systematic review of 108 cases of laboratory confirmed pregnancies with COVID-19 has reported the possibility of increased risk of severe disease among pregnant women.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

During any epidemic of infectious diseases, pregnant women constitute an extremely sensitive group due to altered physiology and immune functions, and thus altered susceptibility to infection. With regard to the management of pregnant COVID-19 patients, in addition to the treatment of the infection itself, which is not that different from generally accepted principles, it is interesting to consider which obstetric procedures should be used to minimize the adverse effects on mother and child. Questions arise concerning the continuation of pregnancy, how to terminate the pregnancy, the possibility of virus transmission through the placenta, isolation of the newborn after birth, and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease in pregnant women. Because the epidemic began in China, most of the available literature comes from studies conducted there. The studies used to prepare this review article are the first non-randomized studies containing small groups of examined women. They do not provide clear indications, but show that in an epidemic situation, special care should be taken in pregnancy management, making decisions about termination of pregnancy, and handling of the newborn baby to minimize the risk of subsequent health consequences. Further analysis is needed on the incidence of COVID-19 among pregnant women and its consequences. This will allow us to develop recommendations on how to deal with patients in the future in case of repeated epidemic emergencies.

Article here.

The Public Health Agency of Sweden has analysed how many pregnant and postpartum women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been treated in intensive care units (ICU) in Sweden between the March 19 and April 20, 2020, compared with non-pregnant women of similar age. Cases were identified in a special reporting module within the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (SIR). Fifty-three women aged 20-45 years with SARS-CoV-2 were reported in SIR, and thirteen (n=13) of these women were either pregnant or postpartum (<1 week). The results indicate that the risk of being admitted to ICU may be higher in pregnant and postpartum women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in Sweden, compared to non-pregnant women of similar age.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
Administration of corticosteroids is common in obstetric practice. In this concise review we queried on the effects of corticosteroids in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2.

METHODS:
We performed a literature search on PubMed, regarding the use of corticosteroids in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, as well as their impact on glycemia in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Furthermore, we searched for effects of SARS-CoV-2 and of other coronaviridae on insulin secretion and glycemia.

RESULTS:
SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be a risk factor for complications in pregnancy. Corticosteroids may not be recommended for treating SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia but they may be needed for at-risk pregnancies. Corticosteroids in pregnancy have a diabetogenic potential. SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviridae may have effects on glycemia.

CONCLUSIONS:
Caution should be exercised while using corticosteroids in pregnant women with COVID-19 requiring preterm delivery.

Article here.

INTRODUCTION:
Since the first reports of the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease (COVID-19), concerns remain about whether the virus is transmissible in pregnant women from the mother to the fetus during either the antepartum period or the process of labor and delivery. One recent review reported that in a small number of cases, two PCR swabs of the placenta were sent in additional to neonatal and cord blood testing, and both placental PCR swabs were negative.1 Other studies have demonstrated the finding of SARS-CoV2 IgM in neonates born to mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy,2,3 findings that may indicate vertical transmission of the virus in utero. We report our experience with placental/membrane SARS-CoV2 RNA PCR swab results after delivery to a series of symptomatic mothers with confirmed COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.

METHODS:
IRB approval was obtained. All pregnant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who gave birth between March 1, 2020 and April 20, 2020 at NYU Langone Health were identified by a search of the electronic medical record. Charts were reviewed for documentation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-PCR testing sent from either the placenta or membranes within 30 minutes following delivery. PCR testing for SARS-COV-2 was performed using the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche) or the Cepheid Xpert Xpress assay. Placental swabs were obtained from the amniotic surface after clearing the surface of maternal blood (placental PCR). Membrane swabs were obtained from between the amnion and chorion after manual separation of the membranes (membrane PCR). Maternal COVID-19 illness was categorized as mild, severe, or critical.4 The time interval from maternal diagnosis of COVID-19 to delivery was calculated in days. Infants were tested with nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 PCR between days of life 1 and 5 while hospitalized. Hospitalized infants were also assessed for clinical signs and symptoms, including fever, cough, and nasal congestion.

RESULTS:
Of 32 COVID-19 positive pregnant patients who gave birth in this timeframe, placental or membrane swabs were sent from 11 patients (Table). Three of 11 swabs were positive. None of the infants tested positive for SARS-CoV2 on days of life 1 through 5, and none demonstrated symptoms of COVID-19 infection.

DISCUSSION:
Of 11 placental or membrane swabs sent following delivery, 3 swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2, all in women with moderate to severe COVID-19 illness at time of delivery. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in placental or membrane samples. While there were no clinical signs of vertical transmission, our findings raise the possibility of intrapartum viral exposure. Given the mixing of maternal and fetal fluid and tissue at time of delivery, the origin of the detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in our series is unclear. It may represent contamination from maternal blood, amniotic fluid, or COVID-19 infection of the membranes and amniotic sac. For those infants who were delivered vaginally, contamination with vaginal secretions is also a possible source, although prior studies on vaginal secretions have failed to demonstrate the presence of COVID-19.5,6Although all of our neonates tested negative in the first 5 days of life, many were born via cesarean deliveries with decreased length of exposure to these tissues, which may be associated with a decreased likelihood of vertical transmission. Additionally, nasopharyngeal testing immediately after delivery may not be the ideal approach to evaluate vertical transmission if exposure occurs at the time of delivery, as the virus may require a longer incubation period before these swabs convert to positive. In summary, the presence of viral RNA by RT-PCR in placenta/membranes at the time of delivery suggests the need for further research into the possibility of vertical transmission.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on healthcare systems around the world with 3.0 million infected and 208,000 resultant mortalities as of this writing. Information regarding infection in pregnancy is still limited.

OBJECTIVES:
To describe the clinical course of severe and critical infection in hospitalized pregnant women with positive laboratory testing for SARS-CoV2.

STUDY DESIGN:
This is a cohort study of pregnant women with severe or critical COVID-19 infection hospitalized at 12 US institutions between March 5, 2020 and April 20, 2020. Severe infection was defined according to published criteria by patient reported dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 per minute, blood oxygen saturation = 93% on room air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and /or lung infiltrates>50% within 24 to 48 hours on chest imaging. Critical disease was defined by respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction or failure. Women were excluded if they had presumed COVID-19 infection but laboratory testing was negative. The primary outcome was median duration from hospital admission to discharge. Secondary outcomes included need for supplemental oxygen, intubation, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, death, and timing of delivery. The clinical courses are described by the median disease day on which these outcomes occurred after the onset of symptoms. Treatment and neonatal outcomes are also reported.

RESULTS:
Of 64 pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19, 44 (69%) had severe and 20 (31%) critical disease. The following pre-existing comorbidities were observed: 25% had a pulmonary condition, 17% had cardiac disease and the mean BMI was 34 kg/m2. Gestational age at symptom onset was at a mean 29 ±6 weeks and at hospital admission a mean of 30 ±6 weeks, on a median day of disease 7 since first symptoms. Eighty-one percent of women were treated with hydroxychloroquine; 9% of women with severe disease and 65% of women with critical disease received remdesivir. All women with critical disease received either prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation during their admission. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (6 days for severe, 10.5 days for critical, p=0.01). For those who required it, intubation usually occurred around day 9, and peak respiratory support for women with severe disease occurred on day 8. In women with critical disease, prone positioning was performed in 20% of cases, the rate of ARDS was 70%, and re-intubation was necessary in 20%. There was one case of maternal cardiac arrest, but no cases of cardiomyopathy and no maternal deaths. Thirty-two (50%) women in this cohort delivered during their COVID-19 hospitalization (34% of severe and 85% of critical women). Eighty-eight percent (15/17) of pregnant women with critical COVID-19 who delivered during their disease course were delivered preterm, 94% of them via cesarean; in all, 75% (15/20) of critically ill women delivered preterm. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths, or cases of vertical transmission.

CONCLUSION:In hospitalized pregnant women with severe or critical COVID-19 infection, admission typically occurred about 7 days after symptom onset, and the duration of hospitalization was 6 days (6 severe versus 12 critical). Critically ill women had a high rate of ARDS, and there was one case of cardiac arrest, but there were no cases of cardiomyopathy, or maternal mortality. Hospitalization for severe or critical COVID-19 infection resulted in delivery during the course of infection in 50% of this cohort, usually in the third trimester. There were no perinatal deaths in this cohort.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on female sexual behavior in women in Turkey.

METHODS:
An observational study using data from a previous study conducted prior to the pandemic. We compared frequency of sexual intercourse, desire for pregnancy, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score, contraception type, and menstrual abnormalities among women during the pandemic with 6-12 months prior to the pandemic. Participants were contacted by telephone for questioning.

RESULTS:
Average frequency of sexual intercourse was significantly increased during the pandemic compared with 6-12 months prior (2.4 vs 1.9, P=0.001). Before the pandemic 19 (32.7%) participants desired to become pregnant, whereas during the pandemic it had decreased to 3 (5.1%) (P=0.001). Conversely, use of contraception during the pandemic significantly decreased among participants compared with prior (24 vs 10, P=0.004). Menstrual disorders were more common during the pandemic than before (27.6% vs 12.1%, P=0.008). Participants had significantly better FSFI scores before the pandemic compared with scores during the pandemic (20.52 vs 17.56, P=0.001).

CONCLUSION:
Sexual desire and frequency of intercourse significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas quality of sexual life significantly decreased. The pandemic is associated with decreased desire for pregnancy, decreased female contraception, and increased menstrual disorders.

Article here.

At our institution, 2 of the initial 7 pregnant patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 severe infection (28.6%; 95% CI, 8.2%-64.1%) developed cardiac dysfunction with moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fractions of 40%-45% and hypokinesis. Viral myocarditis and cardiomyopathy have also been reported in nonpregnant coronavirus disease 2019 patients. A case series of nonpregnant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 found that 33% of those in intensive care developed cardiomyopathy. More data are needed to ascertain the incidence of cardiomyopathy from coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, in all pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019, and those with severe disease (eg, pneumonia). We suggest an echocardiogram in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, in particular those necessitating oxygen, or those who are critically ill, and we recommend the use of handheld, point-of-care devices where possible to minimize contamination of staff and traditional large echocardiogram machines.

Article here.

Since the emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019, its infection - COVID-19 - has been associated with severe morbidity and mortality and has left world governments, healthcare systems and providers caring for vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women, wrestling with the optimal management strategy. Unique physiologic and ethical considerations negate a one-size-fits-all approach to the care of critically ill pregnant women with COVID-19, and few resources exist to guide the multi-disciplinary team through decisions regarding optimal maternal-fetal surveillance, intensive care procedures, and delivery timing. We present a case of rapid clinical decompensation and development of severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in a woman at 31 weeks' gestation to highlight these unique considerations and present an algorithmic approach to the disease's diagnosis and management.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) appeared in December 2019 and then spread throughout the world rapidly. The virus invades the target cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 and modulates the expression of ACE2 in host cells. ACE2, a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, exerts its physiological functions by modulating the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7). We reviewed the literature that reported the distribution and function of ACE2 in the female reproductive system, hoping to clarify the potential harm of 2019-nCoV to female fertility. The available evidence suggests that ACE2 is widely expressed in the ovary, uterus, vagina and placenta. Therefore, we believe that apart from droplets and contact transmission, the possibility of mother-to-child and sexual transmission also exists. Ang II, ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) regulate follicle development and ovulation, modulate luteal angiogenesis and degeneration, and also influence the regular changes in endometrial tissue and embryo development. Taking these functions into account, 2019-nCoV may disturb the female reproductive functions through regulating ACE2.

Article here.

Objective: To summarize currently available evidence on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Material and methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, and CBM disc were searched for studies reporting maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 published from 1 January 2020 to 26 March 2020. The protocol was registered with the Open Science Framework (DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/34ZAV). Results: In total, 18 studies comprising 114 pregnant women were included in the review. Fever (87.5%) and cough (53.8%) were the most commonly reported symptoms, followed by fatigue (22.5%), diarrhea (8.8%), dyspnea (11.3%), sore throat (7.5%), and myalgia (16.3%). The majority of patients (91%) had cesarean delivery due to various indications. In terms of fetal and neonatal outcomes, stillbirth (1.2%), neonatal death (1.2%), preterm birth (21.3%), low birth weight (<2500?g, 5.3%), fetal distress (10.7%), and neonatal asphyxia (1.2%) were reported. There are reports of neonatal infection, but no direct evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission has been found. Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 are similar to those of non-pregnant adults. Fetal and neonatal outcomes appear good in most cases, but available data only include pregnant women infected in their third trimesters. Further studies are needed to ascertain long-term outcomes and potential intrauterine vertical transmission.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
To date, no information on late-onset infection in newborns to mother with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contracted in pregnancy are available. This study aimed to evaluate postdischarge SARS-CoV-2 status of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy that, at birth, were negative to SARS-CoV-2.

STUDY DESIGN:
This is an observational study of neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

RESULTS:
Seven pregnant women with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection have been evaluated in our institution. One woman had a spontaneous abortion at 8 weeks of gestational age, four women recovered and are still in follow-up, and two women delivered. Two newborns were enrolled in the study. At birth and 3 days of life, newborns were negative to SARS-CoV-2. At 2-week follow-up, one newborn tested positive although asymptomatic.

CONCLUSION:
Our findings highlight the importance of follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy, since they remain at risk of contracting the infection in the early period of life and long-term consequences are still unknown.

KEY POINTS:

  • Newborns to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy can acquire the infection later after birth.
  • Newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy need a long-term follow-up, even if they tested negative at birth.
  • Specific guidelines for the long-term follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy are needed.
  • Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Despite 2.5 million infections and 169,000 deaths worldwide (current as of April 20, 2020), no maternal deaths and only a few pregnant women afflicted with severe respiratory morbidity had been reported to be related to COVID-19 disease. Given the disproportionate burden of severe and mortal respiratory disease previously documented among pregnant women following other related coronavirus outbreaks (SARS-CoV in 2003 and MERS-CoV) and influenza pandemics over the last century, the absence of reported maternal morbidity and mortality with COVID-19 disease is unexpected.

OBJECTIVES:
To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes and death in a case series of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease.

STUDY DESIGN:
We describe here a multi-institution adjudicated case series from Iran which includes 9 pregnant women diagnosed with severe COVID-19 disease during their latter 2nd or 3rd trimester. All 9 pregnant women were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR nucleic acid testing (NAT). Outcomes of these women were compared to their familial/household members with exposure to the affected patient on or after their symptom onset. All data were reported at death or after a minimum of 14 days from date of admission with COVID-19 disease.

RESULTS:
Among 9 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 disease, at the time of reporting 7 of 9 died, 1 of 9 remains critically ill and ventilator-dependent, and 1 of 9 recovered after prolonged hospitalization. We obtained self-verified familial/household cohort data in all 9 cases, and in each and every instance the maternal outcomes were more severe when compared to other high and low-risk familial/household members (n=33 members for comparison).

CONCLUSION:
We report herein maternal deaths due to COVID-19 disease. Until rigorously collected surveillance data emerges, it is prudent to be aware of the potential for maternal death among pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 disease in their latter trimester(s).

Article here.

Lung ultrasound examination has been demonstrated to be an accurate imaging method to detect pulmonary and pleural conditions. During pregnancy, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the maternal lung in patients suspected to have COVID-19. We report our experience on lung ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of Sars-Cov-2 pneumonia in a pregnant woman. Typical ultrasound features of this pulmonary pathology, including diffuse hyperechoic vertical artifacts with thickened pleural line and "white lung" with patchy distribution, were observed. We suggest point of care lung ultrasound examination as a diagnostic imaging tool in pregnant women with suspected COVID-19.

Article here.

Recently, an outbreak of viral pneumonitis in Wuhan, Hubei, China successively spread as a global pandemia, led to the identification of a novel betacoronavirus species, the 2019 novel coronavirus, successively designated 2019-nCoV then SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 causes a clinical syndrome designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) with a spectrum of manifestations ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Few cases have been observed in children and adolescents who seem to have a more favorable clinical course than other age groups, and even fewer in newborn babies. This review provides an overview of the knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, transmission, the associated clinical presentation and outcomes in newborns and infants up to 6?months of life.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
To study vaginal delivery outcomes and neonatal prognosis and summarize the management of vaginal delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS:
A retrospective analysis of medical records and comparison of vaginal delivery outcomes between 10 pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and 53 pregnant women without COVID-19 admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20 and March 2, 2020. Results of laboratory tests, imaging tests, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests were also analyzed in neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.

RESULTS:
There were no significant differences in gestational age, postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal resection rates between the two groups. There were no significant differences in birth weight of neonates and neonatal asphyxia rates between the two groups. Neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

CONCLUSIONS:
Under the premise of full evaluation of vaginal delivery conditions and strict protection measures, pregnant women with ordinary type COVID-19 can try vaginal delivery without exacerbation of COVID-19 and without increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.

Article here.

We read with great interest the study by Siyu Chen and colleagues. The authors evaluated the clinical features and outcomes of five pregnant patients with COVID-19 at term, whose delivery was uneventful and led to favorable perinatal outcomes for both mother and neonate. We would like to draw attention to a growing body of evidence that now points towards an under-addressed association between preterm maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, preterm delivery and adverse neonatal outcomes, which is not reflected in Chen et al.'s small cohort. We also stress that vertical transmission, which was not tested for by Chen et al., should not be excluded as a potential mechanism for viral spread. Centers should therefore be meticulous in their approach to a SARS-CoV-2+ pregnancy to optimize clinical outcomes for both mother and child.

Article here.

We report the first cesarean delivery in a woman with COVID-19 in a level III hospital in Portugal. It refers to a healthy woman with a term pregnancy that tested positive for COVID-19 on the day of labor induction. Given a Bishop score < 4 and the prior history of a cesarean section, the team decided to perform a surgical delivery. Appropriate personal protective equipment and safety circuits were employed, as described in more detail in the case report. Both the mother and the newborn are well. With this report we aimed to share our concerns, clinical management, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and to present our current circuits and adjustments regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in our maternity hospital.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
This study aims to compare clinical course and outcomes between pregnant and reproductive-aged non-pregnant women with COVID-19 and assess the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

METHODS:
Medical records of pregnant and reproductive-aged non-pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19 from January 15 to March 15, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of disease, virus clearance time, and length of hospital stay were measured as the primary interest and the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 was also assessed.

RESULTS:
Eighty-two patients (28 pregnant women, 54 reproductive-aged non-pregnant women) with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Univariate regression indicated no association between pregnancy and the severity of disease (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.08-5.15; p=0.76), virus clearance time (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.65-2.01; p=0.62), and length of hospital stay (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.66-1.84; p=0.71). There were 22 pregnant women delivered 23 live births either by cesarean section (17, 60.7%) or vaginal delivery (5, 17.9%) and no neonate was infected with SARS-CoV-2.

CONCLUSIONS:
Pregnant women have comparable clinical course and outcomes compared with reproductive-aged non-pregnant women when infected with SARS-CoV-2. No evidence supported vertical transmission of COVID-19 in the late stage of pregnancy including vaginal delivery.

Article here.

Real-time reverse transcriptions-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs for SARS-Cov-2 are most commonly used for diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, but there is limited information regarding the diagnostic test characteristics including negative and positive predictive values, including in pregnancy.

Article here.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease that started in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread all across the world. With limited ability to contain the virus and relatively high transmissibility and case fatality rates, governmental institutions and pharmaceutical companies are racing to find therapeutics and vaccines that target this novel coronavirus. However, once again, pregnant and breastfeeding women are excluded from participating in clinical trials during this pandemic. This "protection by exclusion" of pregnant women from drug development and clinical therapeutic trials, even during epidemics and pandemics, is not unprecedented. Moreover, it is both misguided and not justifiable and may have excluded them from potentially beneficial interventions. This is another missed opportunity to obtain pregnancy-specific safety and efficacy data, because therapeutics developed for men and nonpregnant women may not be generalizable to pregnant women. Therefore, we recommend and urge the scientific community and professional societies that, without clear justification for exclusion, pregnant women should be given the opportunity to be included in clinical trials for COVID-19 based on the concepts of justice, equity, autonomy, and informed consent.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the virus that causes it (SARS-Cov-2) has spread to over 110 countries, including Nigeria [1-3]. Although the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women is not yet clear, there are concerns over its potential effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes due to unique immunological suppression during pregnancy [4,5].

Article here.

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection that was first identified in China. Since its emergence in December 2019, the virus has rapidly spread, transcending geographic barriers. The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have declared COVID-19 as a public health crisis. Data regarding COVID-19 in pregnancy is limited, consisting of case reports and small cohort studies. However, obstetric patients are not immune from the current COVID-19 pandemic, and obstetric care will inevitably be impacted by the current epidemic. As such, clinical protocols and practice on labor and delivery units must adapt to optimize the safety of patients and health care workers and to better conserve health care resources. In this commentary, we provide suggestions to meet these goals without impacting maternal or neonatal outcomes.

KEY POINTS:

  • Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic.
  • COVID-19 impacts care of obstetric patients.
  • Health care should be adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

Lung ultrasound has recently been suggested by the Chinese Critical Care Ultrasound Study Group and Italian Academy of Thoracic Ultrasound as an accurate tool to detect lung involvement during COVID-19. Although chest Computer Tomography (CT) represents the gold standard to assess lung involvement, with a specificity even superior to the nasal/pharyngeal swab for diagnosis, lung ultrasound examination can be a valid alternative to CT scan, with some advantages, particularly desirable for pregnant women. Indeed, ultrasound can be performed directly at bed side by a single operator, reducing the risk of spreading the outbreak among health professionals, as well as it is a radiation free exam making to be easier monitoring those patients who require serial exams. In the present study, we reported four cases of pregnant women affectd by COVID-19 infection who have been monitoring with lung ultrasound examination. All patients showed ultrasound features indicative of COVID-19 pneumonia at admission: irregular pleural lines and vertical artifacts (B-lines) were observed in all four cases, whereas patchy areas of white lung in two cases. LUS was more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting COVID-19. Three patients had resolution of lung pathology at ultrasound after 96 h of admission. Two pregnancies are ongoing, whereas two patients had cesarean delivery with no fetal complications. PCR testing of both cord blood and newborn swabs were negative in both cases.

Article here.

SARS-CoV-2, the agent of COVID-19, is similar to two other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, in causing life-threatening maternal respiratory infections and systemic complications. Because of global concern for potential intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from pregnant women to their infants, this report analyzes the effects on pregnancy of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory RNA viruses, and examines the frequency of maternal-fetal transmission with SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (HPIV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV). There have been no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission reported with COVID-19 or any other coronavirus infections. Influenza virus, despite causing approximately one billion annual infections globally, has only a few cases of confirmed or suspected intrauterine fetal infections reported. RSV is in an unusual cause of illness among pregnant women, and with the exception of one premature infant with congenital pneumonia, no other cases of maternal-fetal infection are described. Parainfluenza virus and human metapneumovirus can produce symptomatic maternal infections but do not cause intrauterine fetal infection. In summary, it appears that the absence thus far of maternal-fetal transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic is similar to other coronaviruses, and is also consistent with the extreme rarity of suggested or confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of other respiratory RNA viruses. This observation has important consequences for pregnant women as it appears that if intrauterine transmission of SARSCoV-2 does eventually occur, it will be a rare event. Potential mechanisms of fetal protection from maternal viral infections are also discussed.

Article here.

Providing guidelines to health care workers during a period of rapidly evolving viral pandemic infections is not an easy task, but it is extremely necessary in order to coordinate appropriate action so that all patients will get the best possible care given the circumstances they are in. With these International Society of Infectious Disease in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG) guidelines we aim to provide detailed information on how to diagnose and manage pregnant women living in a pandemic of COVID-19. Pregnant women need to be considered as a high-risk population for COVID-19 infection, and if suspected or proven to be infected with the virus, they require special care in order to improve their survival rate and the well-being of their babies. Both protection of healthcare workers in such specific care situations and maximal protection of mother and child are envisioned.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
To report mode of delivery and immediate neonatal outcome in COVID-19 infected women.

DESIGN:
This is a retrospective study.

SETTING:
Twelve hospitals in northern Italy.

PARTICIPANTS:
Pregnant women with COVID-19 confirmed infection who delivered.

EXPOSURE:
COVID 19 infection in pregnancy.

METHODS:
SARS-CoV-2 infected women who were admitted and delivered during the period 1-20 march 2020 were eligible. Data were collected from the clinical records using a standardized questionnaire on maternal general characteristics, any medical or obstetric co-morbidity, course of pregnancy, clinical signs and symptoms, treatment of COVID 19 infection, mode of delivery, neonatal data and breastfeeding MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Data on mode of delivery and neonatal outcome RESULTS: 42 women with COVID-19 delivered at the participating centres: 24(57,1%, 95% CI= 41,0-72,3) delivered vaginally. An elective cesarean section was performed in 18/42 (42,9%, 95%CI 27,7-59,0) cases: in 8 cases the indication was unrelated to COVID-19 infection. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19/42(45,2%, 95%CI 29,8-61,3) cases: of these 7/19(36,8%,95CI 16,3-61,6) required oxygen support and 4/19(21,1%,95%CI=6,1-45,6) were admitted to a critical care unit. Two women with COVID-19 breastfed without a mask because infection was diagnosed in the post-partum period: their new-borns tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 infection. In one case a new-born had a positive test after a vaginal operative delivery.

CONCLUSION:
Although post-partum infection cannot be excluded with 100% certainty, these findings suggest that vaginal delivery is associated with a low risk of intrapartum SARS-Cov-2 transmission to the new-born.

Article here.

To analyze the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy and the drugs that can be used to treat pregnancy with COVID-19, so as to provide evidence for drug selection in clinic. By reviewing the existing literature, this paper analyzes the susceptibility of pregnant women to virus, especially to SARS-CoV-2, from the aspects of anatomical, reproductive endocrine and immune changes during pregnancy and screens effective and fetal-safe treatments from the existing drugs. The anatomical structure of the respiratory system is changed during pregnancy, and the virus transmitted by droplets and aerosols is more easily inhaled by pregnant women and is difficult to remove. Furthermore, the prognosis is worse after infection when compared with non-pregnancy women. And changes in reproductive hormones and immune systems during pregnancy collectively make them more susceptible to certain infections. More importantly, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, has been proven highly increased during pregnancy, which may contribute to the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. When it comes to treatment, specific drugs for COVID-19 have not been found at present, and taking old drugs for new use in treating COVID-19 has become an emergency method for the pandemic. Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc. Pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19, and special attention should be paid to the selection of drugs that are both effective for maternal diseases and friendly to the fetus. However, there are still many deficiencies in the study of drug safety during pregnancy, and broad-spectrum, effective and fetal-safe drugs for pregnant women need to be developed so as to cope with more infectious diseases in the future.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Clinical presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy remain limited and fragmented.

OBJECTIVES:
To summarize the existing literature on COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and childbirth, particularly concerning clinical presentation and outcomes.

SEARCH STRATEGY:
A systematic search of LitCovid, EBSCO MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases. The references of relevant studies were also searched.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
Identified titles and abstracts were screened to select original reports and cross-checked for overlap of cases.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
A descriptive summary organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, imaging, and laboratory) and outcomes (maternal and perinatal).

MAIN RESULTS:
We identified 33 studies reporting 385 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection: 368 (95.6%) mild; 14 (3.6%) severe; and 3 (0.8%) critical. Seventeen women were admitted to intensive care, including six who were mechanically ventilated and one maternal mortality. A total of 252 women gave birth, comprising 175 (69.4%) cesarean and 77 (30.6%) vaginal births. Outcomes for 256 newborns included four RT-PCR positive neonates, two stillbirths, and one neonatal death.

CONCLUSION:
COVID-19 infection during pregnancy probably has a clinical presentation and severity resembling that in non-pregnant adults. It is probably not associated with poor maternal or perinatal outcomes.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:
This study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of late pregnancy with asymptomatic 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection, evaluate the outcome of maternal and fetal prognosis, and identify the evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission.

METHODS:
A 22 years old pregnant woman with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection who was admitted to our hospital on Feb 11, 2020 was enrolled in this study. Clinical data including laboratory test results and chest computed tomography (CT) scanning were collected and reviewed.

STUDY DESIGH:
Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20 and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples.

RESULTS:
Diagnosis of late pregnancy with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was made. Lumbar anesthesia for cesarean section was performed and a female baby was delivered uneventfully, with the Apgar score of 9-10 points. Three times of COVID-19 nucleic acid test for the baby was negative after delivery. The puerpera returned to normal after the operation and two times of throat swab COVID-19 nucleic acid test were all negative after antiviral therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:
We reported an asymptomatic COVID-19 pregnant woman with detailed clinical information and our result indicated that for late pregnant women with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection, there might be no intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission.

Article here.

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection occurring during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. This case report describes successful treatment of preterm labor during acute COVID-19 infection. Standard treatment for preterm labor may allow patients with acute COVID-19 infection to recover without the need for preterm delivery. KEY POINTS:Acute COVID-19 infection is associated with a high rate of preterm delivery..Standard treatment for preterm labor such as intravenous magnesium sulfate, antepartum steroid therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis for group B streptococcus infection were effective in this patient..In the absence of maternal or fetal compromise, acute COVID-19 infection is not an indication for early elective delivery.

Article here.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a public health emergency for the entire United States. Providing access to prenatal health care while limiting exposure of both obstetric health care professionals and patients to COVID-19 is challenging. Although reductions in the frequency of prenatal visits and implementation of telehealth interventions provide some options, there still remains a need for patient-health care professional visits. A drive-through prenatal care model was developed in which pregnant women would remain in their automobiles while being assessed by the health care professional, thus reducing potential patient, health care professional, and staff exposure to COVID-19. Drive-through prenatal visits would include key elements that some institutions cannot perform by telehealth encounters, such as blood pressure measurements for evaluation for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal heart rate assessment, and selected ultrasound-based measurements or observations, as well as face-to-face patient-health care professional interaction, thereby reducing patient anxiety resulting from the reduction in the number of planned clinic visits with an obstetric health care professional as well as fear of virus exposure in the clinic setting. We describe the rapid development of a drive-through prenatal care model that is projected to reduce the number of in-person clinic visits by 33% per patient compared with the traditional prenatal care paradigm, using equipment and supplies that most obstetric clinics in the United States can access.

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BACKGROUND:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Data on the effect of COVID-19 in pregnancy are limited to small case series.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

STUDY DESIGH:
Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for 116 pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia from 25 hospitals in China between January 20 and March 24, 2020. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal pharyngeal swab samples.

RESULTS:
The median gestational age on admission was 38+0 (IQR 36+0-39+1) weeks. The most common symptoms were fever (50.9%, 59/116) and cough (28.4%, 33/116); 23.3% (27/116) patients presented without symptoms. Abnormal radiologic findings were found in 96.3% (104/108) of cases. There were eight cases (6.9%, 8/116) of severe pneumonia but no maternal deaths. One of eight patients (1/8) that presented in the first- and early-second-trimester had a missed spontaneous abortion. Twenty-one of 99 patients (21.2%, 21/99) that had delivered had preterm birth, including six with preterm premature ruptured of membranes. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 37 weeks was 6.1% (6/99). There was one case of severe neonatal asphyxia that resulted in neonatal death. Eighty-six of the 100 neonates that had testing for SARS-CoV-2 had negative results, of these ten neonates had paired amniotic fluid and cord blood samples that were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2.

CONCLUSIONS:
SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth. There is no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection when the infection manifests during the third-trimester of pregnancy.

Article here.

Amid the rapidly evolving global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has already had profound effects on public health and medical infrastructure globally, many questions remain about its impact on child health. The unique needs of neonates and children, and their role in the spread of the virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) should be included in preparedness and response plans. Fetuses and newborn infants may be uniquely vulnerable to the damaging consequences of congenitally- or perinatally-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection, but data are limited about outcomes of COVID-19 disease during pregnancy. Therefore, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]), as well as comparisons to common congenital infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), are warranted. Research regarding the potential routes of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the prenatal and perinatal setting is of a high public health priority. Vaccines targeting women of reproductive age, and in particular pregnant patients, should be evaluated in clinical trials and should include the endpoints of neonatal infection and disease.

Article here.

The health crisis caused by the novel SARS-cov-2 (formally called 2019-nCoV) related pandemic requires urgent action, including a necessary therapeutic response. Pregnant women are just as exposed as the general population and should not be excluded, because of their status, from discussions on effective and well tolerated candidate treatments.

Article here.

In December 2019, cases of pneumonia of unknown cause first started to appear in Wuhan in China; subsequently, a new coronavirus was soon identified as the cause of the illness, now known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, infections have been confirmed worldwide in numerous countries, with the number of cases steadily rising. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and, in particular, to deduce from it potential risks and complications for pregnant patients. For this purpose, the available literature on cases of infection in pregnancy during the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003, the MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) epidemic ongoing since 2012, as well as recent publications on cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are reviewed and reported. Based on the literature available at the moment, it can be assumed that the clinical course of COVID-19 disease may be complicated by pregnancy which could be associated with a higher mortality rate. It may also be assumed at the moment that transmission from mother to child in utero is unlikely. Breastfeeding is possible once infection has been excluded or the disease declared cured.

Article here.

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people across continents, it follows that pregnancy and childbirth will also be affected. Data are emerging on the consequences of the infection on mother and baby [1]. Many guidelines on pregnancy management during the pandemic have been released [2-6], but the actual journey to establishing an obstetric unit can be challenging. The present article describes the stepwise informed approach that was taken to rapidly establish a unit for suspected COVID-19 patients within existing resources, and the experience of delivering the first pregnant patient with confirmed COVID-19 in India.

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A case of SARS-CoV-2 in a pregnant woman is described. How the case has crossed the barriers is highlighted, hoping this will be useful in planning appropriate intervention in cases of infected pregnant women.

Article here.

The novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2 is a major public health challenge. Many maternity units around the country are currently considering management protocols for these patients. We report a case from a tertiary Australian hospital describing an uncomplicated vaginal birth in a SARS-CoV-2 positive mother. To our knowledge this is also the first case described of a mother with COVID-19 not separated from her infant. Management provided supports the current Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and World Health Organization guidelines suggesting that it is possible to consider rooming in post delivery for COVID-19 positive parents. Encouragement of breast feeding appears possible and safe when viral precautions are observed.

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OBJECTIVE:
To conduct a systematic review of the outcomes reported for pregnant patients with COVID 19.

DATA SOURCES:
we searched electronically Pubmed, Cinahl, Scopus using combination of keywords "Coronavirus and/ or pregnancy"; "COVID and/or pregnancy"; "COVID disease and/or pregnancy"; "COVID pneumonia and/or pregnancy. There were no restriction of languages in order to collect as much cases as possible.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:
all pregnant women, with a COVID19 diagnosed with acid nucleic test, with reported data about pregnancy and, in case of delivery, reported outcomes.

STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS:
all the studies included have been evaluated according the tool for evaluating the methodological quality of case reports and case series described by Murad et al. RESULTS: 6 studies including 51 women were eligible for the systematic review. Three pregnancies were ongoing at the time of the report; of the remaining 48, 46 were delivered with a cesarean section and 2 vaginally; there was 1 stillbirth and 1 neonatal death.

CONCLUSIONS:
although vertical transmission of SARS-Cov2 has been excluded thus far and the outcome for mothers and fetuses has been generally good, the high rate of preterm cesarean delivery is a reason for concern. These interventions were typically elective, and it is reasonable to question whether they were warranted or not. COVID-19 associated with respiratory insufficiency in late pregnancies certainly creates a complex clinical scenario.

Article here.

The new type of pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been declared as a global public health concern by WHO. As of April 3, 2020, more than 1,000,000 human infections have been diagnosed around the world, which exhibited apparent person-to-person transmission characteristics of this virus. The capacity of vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial recently. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. In present study, we collected the online available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data to evaluate the cell specific expression of ACE2 in maternal-fetal interface as well as in multiple fetal organs. Our results revealed that ACE2 was highly expressed in maternal-fetal interface cells including stromal cells and perivascular cells of decidua, and cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in placenta. Meanwhile, ACE2 was also expressed in specific cell types of human fetal heart, liver and lung, but not in kidney. And in a study containing series fetal and post-natal mouse lung, we observed ACE2 was dynamically changed over the time, and ACE2 was extremely high in neonatal mice at post-natal day 1~3. In summary, this study revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor was widely spread in specific cell types of maternal-fetal interface and fetal organs. And thus, both the vertical transmission and the placenta dysfunction/abortion caused by SARS-CoV-2 need to be further carefully investigated in clinical practice.

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BACKGROUND:
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and other international areas.

OBJECTIVE:
Here, we report the clinical characteristics of the newborns delivered by SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women.

METHODS:
We prospectively collected and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory data and outcomes of 7 newborns delivered by SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University during January 20 to January 29, 2020.

RESULTS:
4 of the 7 newborns were late preterm with gestational age between 36 weeks and 37 weeks, and the other 3 were full-term infants. The average birth weight was 2096 ± 660 g. All newborns were born without asphyxia. 2 premature infants performed mild grunting after birth, but relieved rapidly with non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) ventilation. 3 cases had chest X-ray, 1 was normal and 2 who were supported by nCPAP presented mild neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Samples of pharyngeal swab in 6 cases, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood in 4 cases were tested by qRT-PCR, and there was no positive result of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in all cases.

CONCLUSION:
The current data show that the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnant women does not cause adverse outcomes in their newborns, however, it is necessary to separate newborns from mothers immediately to avoid the potential threats.

Article here.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers and increase the current knowledge on the perinatal consequences of COVID-19. Nineteen neonates were admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 31 to February 29, 2020. Their mothers were clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed with COVID-19. We prospectively collected and analyzed data of mothers and infants. There are 19 neonates included in the research. Among them, 10 mothers were confirmed COVID-19 by positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in throat swab, and 9 mothers were clinically diagnosed with COVID-19. Delivery occurred in an isolation room and neonates were immediately separated from the mothers and isolated for at least 14 days. No fetal distress was found. Gestational age of the neonates was 38.6 ± 1.5 weeks, and average birth weight was 3293 ± 425 g. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in throat swab, urine, and feces of all neonates were negative. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in breast milk and amniotic fluid was negative too. None of the neonates developed clinical, radiologic, hematologic, or biochemical evidence of COVID-19. No vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and no perinatal complications in the third trimester were found in our study. The delivery should occur in isolation and neonates should be separated from the infected mothers and care givers.

Article here.

Investigators are employing unprecedented innovation in the design of clinical trials to rapidly and rigorously assess potentially promising therapies for COVID-19; this is in stark contrast to the continued near universal regressive practice of exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women from these trials. The few trials which allow their inclusion focus on post-exposure prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of milder disease, limiting the options available to pregnant women with severe COVID-19 to compassionate use of remdesivir, or off-label drug use of hydroxychloroquine or other therapies. These restrictions were put in place despite experience with these drugs in pregnant women. In this Viewpoint, we call attention to the need and urgency to engage pregnant women in COVID-19 treatment trials now in order to develop data-driven recommendations regarding the risks and benefits of therapies in this unique but not uncommon population.

Article here.

The current outbreak of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started in China in December 2019 and has since spread to several other countries. On March 25, 2020, a total of 375,498 cases had been confirmed globally with 2,201 cases in Brazil, showing the urgency of reacting to this international public health emergency. While in most cases, mild symptoms are observed, in some cases the infection leads to serious pulmonary disease. As a result, the possible consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak for pregnant women and its potential effects on the management of assisted reproductive treatments, demand attention. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress related to COVID-19 epidemiology and the reported data of pregnant women, and discuss the current evidence of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and its potential consequences for assisted reproductive treatments. Reported data suggest that symptoms in pregnant women are similar to those in other people, and that there is no evidence for higher maternal or fetal risks. However, considering the initial data and lack of comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, human reproduction societies have recommended postponing the embryo transfers and do not initiate new treatment cycles. New evidence must be considered carefully in order to adjust these recommendations accordingly at any time and to guide assisted reproductive treatments.

Article here.

We present a putative link between maternal COVID19 infection in the peripartum period and rapid maternal deterioration with early organ dysfunction and coagulopathy. The current pandemic with SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in high numbers of critically ill patients and deaths in the non-pregnant population, mainly due to respiratory failure. During viral outbreaks, pregnancy poses a uniquely increased risk to women due to changes to immune function, alongside physiological adaptive alterations, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract. The laboratory derangements may be reminiscent of HELLP syndrome, and thus knowledge of the COVID19 relationship is paramount for appropriate diagnosis and management. In addition to routine measurements of D-dimers, prothrombin time, and platelet count in all patients presenting with COVID19 as per ISTH guidance, monitoring of APTT and fibrinogen levels should be considered in pregnancy, as highlighted in this report. These investigations in SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women are vital, as their derangement may signal a more severe COVID19 infection, and may warrant pre-emptive admission and consideration of delivery to achieve maternal stabilization.

Article here.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic that is impacting daily life across the globe. Though disease is often mild, in high-risk populations, severe disease often leads to intubation, intensive care admission (ICU) admission, and in many cases death. The implications for pregnancy remain largely unknown. Early data suggest that COVID-19 may not pose increased risk in the pregnant population. Vertical transmission has not been confirmed. Because no treatment, no vaccine and no herd immunity exist, social distancing is the best mechanism available to protect patients and health care workers from infection. This review will discuss what is known about the virus as it relates to pregnancy and then consider management considerations based on these data. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 severity in pregnancy is unclear. · Social distancing is the best protective mechanism. · No clear evidence of vertical transmission exists. · Mother/baby separation avoids transmission.

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There are few cases of pregnant women with novel corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) in the literature, most of them with a mild illness course. There is limited evidence about in utero infection and early positive neonatal testing. A 41-year-old G3P2 with a history of previous cesarean deliveries and diabetes mellitus presented with a 4-day history of malaise, low-grade fever, and progressive shortness of breath. A nasopharyngeal swab was positive for COVID-19, COVID-19 serology was negative. The patient developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation on day 5 of disease onset. The patient underwent a cesarean delivery, and neonatal isolation was implemented immediately after birth, without delayed cord clamping or skin-to-skin contact. The neonatal nasopharyngeal swab, 16?hours after delivery, was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunoglobulin (Ig)-M and IgG for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Maternal IgM and IgG were positive on postpartum day 4 (day 9 after symptom onset). We report a severe presentation of COVID-19 during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported positive PCR in the neonate, raising the concern for vertical transmission. We suggest pregnant women should be considered as a high-risk group and minimize exposures for these reasons. KEY POINTS: · We report a severe presentation of COVID-19 in pregnancy requiring invasive ventilatory support. · This is a case of positive RT-PCR in first day of life, suggesting possible vertical transmission. · There were no detectable maternal antibodies for COVID-19 until after delivery.

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OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this systematic review was to report pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of Coronavirus (CoV) spectrum infections, and particularly COVID-19 disease due to SARS-COV-2 infection during pregnancy.

DATA SOURCES:
Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched electronically utilizing combinations of word variants for "coronavirus" or "severe acute respiratory syndrome" or "SARS" or "Middle East respiratory syndrome" or "MERS" or "COVID-19" and "pregnancy". The search and selection criteria were restricted to English language.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:
We used meta-analyses of proportions to combine data and reported pooled proportions. The pregnancy outcomes observed included miscarriage, preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, fetal growth restriction, and mode of delivery. The perinatal outcomes observed were fetal distress, Apgar score < 7 at five minutes, neonatal asphyxia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, perinatal death, and evidence of vertical transmission.

RESULTS:
19 studies including 79 women were eligible for this systematic review: 41 pregnancies (51.9%) affected by COVID-19, 12 (15.2%) by MERS, and 26 (32.9%) by SARS. An overt diagnosis of pneumonia was made in 91.8% and the most common symptoms were fever (82.6%), cough (57.1%) and dyspnea (27.0%). For all CoV infections, the rate of miscarriage was 39.1% (95% CI 20.2-59.8); the rate of preterm birth < 37 weeks was 24.3% (95% CI 12.5-38.6); premature prelabor rupture of membranes occurred in 20.7% (95% CI 9.5-34.9), preeclampsia in 16.2% (95% CI 4.2-34.1), and fetal growth restriction in 11.7% (95% CI 3.2-24.4); 84% were delivered by cesarean; the rate of perinatal death was 11.1% (95% CI 84.8-19.6) and 57.2% (95% CI 3.6-99.8) of newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. When focusing on COVID-19, the most common adverse pregnancy outcome was preterm birth < 37 weeks, occurring in 41.1% (95% CI 25.6-57.6) of cases, while the rate of perinatal death was 7.0% (95% CI 1.4-16.3). None of the 41 newborns assessed showed clinical signs of vertical transmission.

CONCLUSION:
In mothers infected with coronavirus infections, including COVID-19, >90% of whom also had pneumonia, PTB is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. Miscarriage, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death (7-11%) were also more common than in the general population. There have been no published cases of clinical evidence of vertical transmission. Evidence is accumulating rapidly, so these data may need to be updated soon. The findings from this study can guide and enhance prenatal counseling of women with COVID-19 infection occurring during pregnancy.

Article here.

The novel coronavirus 2019, or COVID-19, infection has rapidly spread through the New York metropolitan area since the first reported case in the state on March 1, 2020. New York currently represents an epicenter for COVID-19 infection in the United States, with 84,735 cases reported as of April 2, 2020. We previously presented an early experience with seven COVID-positive patients in pregnancy, including two women who were diagnosed with COVID-19 following an asymptomatic initial presentation. We now describe a series of 43 test-confirmed cases of COVID-19 presenting to a pair of affiliated New York City hospitals over two weeks from March 13 to 27, 2020. Fourteen (32.6%) patients presented without any COVID-associated viral symptoms, and were identified either after developing symptoms during admission or following the implementation of universal testing for all obstetrical admissions on March 22. Of these, 10/14 (71.4%) developed symptoms or signs of COVID-19 infection over the course of their delivery admission or early after postpartum discharge. Of the other 29 (67.4%) patients who presented with symptomatic COVID-19 infection, three women ultimately required antenatal admission for viral symptoms, and an additional patient represented six days postpartum after a successful labor induction with worsening respiratory status that required oxygen supplementation. There were no confirmed cases of COVID-19 detected in neonates upon initial testing on the first day of life. Applying COVID-19 disease severity characteristics as described by Wu et al, 37 (86%) women possessed mild disease, four (9.3%) exhibited severe disease, and two (4.7%) developed critical disease; these percentages are similar to those described for non-pregnant adults with COVID-19 infections (about 80% mild, 15% severe, and 5% critical disease).

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. Under such circumstance pregnant women are also affected significantly.

OBJECTIVE:
This study aims to observe the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women who have been confirmed with COVID-19.

METHODS:
The research objects were 55 cases of suspected COVID-19 pregnant women who gave a birth from Jan 20th 2020 to Mar 5th 2020 in our hospital-a big birth center delivering about 30,000 babies in the last 3 years. These cases were subjected to pulmonary CT scan and routine blood test, manifested symptoms of fever, cough, chest tightness or gastrointestinal symptoms. They were admitted to an isolated suite, with clinical features and newborn babies being carefully observed. Among the 55 cases, 13 patients were assigned into the confirmed COVID-19 group for being tested positive sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) via maternal throat swab test, and the other 42 patients were assigned into the control group for being ruled out COVID-19 pneumonia based on new coronavirus pneumonia prevention and control program(the 7th edition).

RESULTS:
There were 2 fever patients during the prenatal period and 8 fever patients during the postpartum period in the confirmed COVID-19 group. In contrast, there were 11 prenatal fever patients and 20 postpartum fever patients in the control group (p>0.05). Among 55 cases, only 2 case had cough in the confirmed group. The imaging of pulmonary CT scan showed ground- glass opacity (46.2%, 6/13), patch-like shadows(38.5%, 5/13), fiber shadow(23.1%, 3/13), pleural effusion (38.5%, 5/13)and pleural thickening(7.7%, 1/13), and there was no statistical difference between the confirmed COVID-19 group and the control group (p>0.05). During the prenatal and postpartum period, there was no difference in the count of WBC, Neutrophils and Lymphocyte, the radio of Neutrophils and Lymphocyte and the level of CRP between the confirmed COVID-19 group and the control group(p<0.05). 20 babies (from confirmed mother and from normal mother) were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 examination by throat swab samples in 24 hours after birth and no case was tested positive.

CONCLUSION:
The clinical symptoms and laboratory indicators are not obvious for asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 pregnant women. Pulmonary CT scan plus blood routine examination are more suitable for finding pregnancy women with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection, and can be used screening COVID-19 pregnant women in the outbreak area of COVID-19 infection.

Article here.

Previous studies described the clinical features of Covid-19 in adults and infants under 1 year of age. Little is known about features, outcomes and intrauterine transmission potential in newborn babies aged 28 days or less. Through systematical searching, we identified 4 infections in newborn babies in China as of March 13. The age range was 30 h to 17 days old. Three were male. Two newborn babies had fever, 1 had shortness of breath, 1 had cough and 1 had no syndromes. Supportive treatment was provided for all 4 newborn babies. None required intensive unit care or mechanical ventilation. None had any severe complications. Three newborn babies recovered by the end of this study and had been discharged with 16, 23, and 30 days of hospital stay. All 4 mothers were infected by SARS-CoV-2, 3 showing symptoms before and 1 after delivery. Cesarean section was used for all 4 mothers, 3 at level III hospitals and 1 at a level II hospital. Three newborn babies were separated from mothers right after being born and were not breastfed. In summary, newborn babies are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The symptoms in newborn babies were milder and outcomes were less severe as compared to adults. Intrauterine vertical transmission is possible but direct evidence is still lacking.

Article here.

We sought to provide a clinical practice protocol for our labor and delivery (L&D) unit, to care for confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients requiring cesarean delivery. A multidisciplinary team approach guidance was designed to simplify and streamline the flow and care of patient with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 requiring cesarean delivery. A protocol was designed to improve staff readiness, minimize risks, and streamline care processes. This is a suggested protocol which may not be applicable to all health care settings but can be adapted to local resources and limitations of individual L&D units. Guidance and information are changing rapidly; therefore, we recommend continuing to update the protocol as needed: Cesarean delivery for confirmed or suspected novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Team-based approach for streamline care. Labor and delivery protocols for COVID-19 positive patients.

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The possibility of mother-to-fetus transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently a highly debated concept in perinatal medicine. It has implications for the mother, fetus, and neonate, as well as for healthcare providers present at the time of birth and caring for the child during the neonatal period, including obstetricians, midwives, family doctors, anesthetists, pediatricians, neonatologists, nurses, and respiratory therapists. At present the evidence for intrauterine transmission from mother to fetus or intrapartum transmission from mother to the neonate is sparse. There are limitations associated with sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests used and classification of patients based on test results has also been questioned.

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COVID-19 in pregnancy can cause severe maternal morbidity in up to 9% of affected gravidae. Chest imaging is helpful in pregnant women who have a high pretest probability of COVID-19, but are RT-PCR negative. Vertical transmission is unlikely, but active measures are needed to prevent neonatal infection. We present an algorithm of care for the acutely ill parturient. We present a protocol for intrapartum care of the pregnant woman in labor.

Article here.

This report highlights details on a pregnant case of COVID-19 who unfortunately did not survive. This 27-year-old woman at her 30 and 3/7 weeks' gestation was referred to our center with fever, myalgia, and cough. The laboratory investigations showed leukopenia and lymphopenia as well as increased creatinine and CRP levels. The first chest X-ray (faint bilateral patchy opacities) and CT scan (some faint subpleural ground-glass opacities associated with pleural thickening) were not typical for initial COVID-19 pulmonary infection, however, the treatment for COVID-19 was started. Due to respiratory distress, she was intubated and put under mechanical ventilation. After a while, the fetus was born with Apgar score of 0 and did not react to the neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol. Finally, due to deterioration in the clinical and imaging findings, the patient was expired as a result of multi-organ failure. Following the death, autopsy was performed and the histopathologic evaluations of the lungs showed evidence of viral pneumonia (viral cytopathic effect and a mild increase in alveolar wall thickness) and ARDS (hyaline membrane). Also, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of maternal death with confirmed COVID-19 infection.

Article here.

From February 24, 2020, a COVID-19 obstetric task force was structured to deliver management recommendations for obstetric care. From March 1, 2020, six COVID-19 hubs and their spokes were designated. An interim analysis of cases occurring in or transferred to these hubs was performed on March 20, 2020 and recommendations were released on March 24, 2020. The vision of this strict organization was to centralize patients in high-risk maternity centers in order to concentrate human resources and personal protective equipment (PPE), dedicate protected areas of these major hospitals, and centralize clinical multidisciplinary experience with this disease. All maternity hospitals were informed to provide a protected labor and delivery room for nontransferable patients in advanced labor. A pre-triage based on temperature and 14 other items was developed in order to screen suspected patients in all hospitals to be tested with nasopharyngeal swabs. Obstetric outpatient facilities were instructed to maintain scheduled pregnancy screening as per Italian guidelines, and to provide pre-triage screening and surgical masks for personnel and patients for pre-triage-negative patients. Forty-two cases were recorded in the first 20 days of hub and spoke organization. The clinical presentation was interstitial pneumonia in 20 women. Of these, seven required respiratory support and eventually did well. Two premature labors occurred.

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OBJECTIVE:
To study chest CT images and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant patients to examine any correlation.

METHODS:
Between December 31, 2019 and March 7, 2020, 23 hospitalized pregnant patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Clinical presentations were collected retrospectively from records, including laboratory testing, chest CT imaging, and symptoms. Descriptive analysis and correlation of patients' clinical and CT characteristics were performed. Laboratory results from time of first admission and CT absorption (defined as reduction in lesion area, decrease in density, and absorption of some solid components) were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

RESULTS:
Fifteen (65.2%) patients were asymptomatic with patchy ground-glass opacity in a single lung lobe. Eight (34.8%) patients were symptomatic with multiple patchy ground-glass shadows, consolidation, and fibrous stripes. Differences in lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate between first admission and CT absorption were significant (P<0.001). Median absorption time was shorter in the asymptomatic group compared with the symptomatic group (5 vs 10 days; P<0.001). Median hospitalization time between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients was 14 vs 25.5 days; P>0.001. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization for all patients was 6 days (IQR 5-8) and 17 days (IQR 13-25), respectively.

CONCLUSION:
Radiological findings and clinical characteristics in pregnant women with COVID-19 were similar to those of non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization in asymptomatic patients were significantly shorter than in symptomatic patients. Lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate may be used as laboratory indicators of CT absorption.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Few case reports and clinical series exist on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered.

OBJECTIVE:
To review the available information on mode of delivery, vertical/peripartum transmission, and neonatal outcome in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2.

SEARCH STRATEGY:
Combination of the following key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and pregnancy in Embase and PubMed databases.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
Papers reporting cases of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
The following was extracted: author; country; number of women; study design; gestational age at delivery; selected clinical maternal data; mode of delivery; selected neonatal outcomes.

MAIN RESULTS:
In the 13 studies included, vaginal delivery was reported in 6 cases (9.4%; 95% CI, 3.5-19.3). Indication for cesarean delivery was worsening of maternal conditions in 31 cases (48.4%; 95% CI, 35.8-61.3). Two newborns testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR assay were reported. In three neonates, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM levels were elevated but the RT-PCR test was negative.

CONCLUSIONS:
The rate of vertical or peripartum transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low, if any, for cesarean delivery; no data are available for vaginal delivery. Low frequency of spontaneous preterm birth and general favorable immediate neonatal outcome are reassuring.

Article here.

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection has become a challenging public health threat worldwide. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case of a convalescing pregnant woman diagnosed as COVID-19 infection 37 days before delivery in the third trimester. A live birth without SARS-CoV-2 infection was delivered successfully via the vagina. Findings from our case indicate that there is no intrauterine transmission in this woman who develops COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.

Article here.

The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting health systems worldwide. Maternity care providers must continue their core business in caring and supporting women, newborns and their families whilst also adapting to a rapidly changing health system environment. This article provides an overview of important considerations for supporting the emotional, mental and physical health needs of maternity care providers in the context of the unprecedented crisis that COVID-19 presents. Cooperation, planning ahead and adequate availability of PPE is critical. Thinking about the needs of maternity providers to prevent stress and burnout is essential. Emotional and psychological support needs to be available throughout the response. Prioritising food, rest and exercise are important. Healthcare workers are every country's most valuable resource and maternity providers need to be supported to provide the best quality care they can to women and newborns in exceptionally trying circumstances.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Little is known about the perinatal aspects of COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE:
To summarize available evidence and provide perinatologists/neonatologists with tools for managing their patients.

METHODS:
Analysis of available literature on COVID-19 using Medline and Google scholar.

RESULTS:
From scant data: vertical transmission from maternal infection during the third trimester probably does not occur or likely it occurs very rarely. Consequences of COVID-19 infection among women during early pregnancy remain unknown. We cannot conclude if pregnancy is a risk factor for more severe disease in women with COVID-19. Little is known about disease severity in neonates, and from very few samples, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 has not been documented in human milk. Links to websites of organizations with updated COVID-19 information are provided. Infographics summarize an approach to the pregnant woman or neonate with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

CONCLUSION:
As the pandemic continues, more data will be available that could lead to changes in current knowledge and recommendations.

Article here.

Even though the global COVID-19 pandemic may affect how medical care is delivered in general, most countries try to maintain steady access for women to routine pregnancy care, including fetal anomaly screening. This means that, also during this pandemic, fetal anomalies will be detected, and that discussions regarding invasive genetic testing and possibly fetal therapy will need to take place. For patients, concerns about Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV2) will add to the anxiety caused by the diagnosis of a serious fetal anomaly, and for fetal medicine teams the situation gets more complex. Yet also for fetal medicine teams the situation gets more complex as they must weigh up the risks and benefits to the fetus as well as the mother, while managing a changing evidence base and logistic challenges in their healthcare system.

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INTRODUCTION:
The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has exposed vulnerable populations to an unprecedented global health crisis. The knowledge gained from previous human coronavirus outbreaks suggests that pregnant women and their fetuses are particularly susceptible to poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to summarize the clinical manifestations and maternal and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 during pregnancy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:
We searched databases for all case reports and series from February 12 to April 4, 2020. Multiple terms and combinations were used including COVID-19, pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, complications, clinical manifestations, neonatal morbidity, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal mortality and SARS-CoV-2. Eligibility criteria included peer-reviewed publications written in English or Chinese and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or dual fluorescence PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unpublished reports, unspecified date and location of the study or suspicion of duplicate reporting, cases with suspected COVID-19 that were not confirmed by a laboratory test, and unreported maternal or perinatal outcomes were excluded. Data on clinical manifestations, maternal and perinatal outcomes including vertical transmission were extracted and analyzed.

RESULTS:
Eighteen articles reporting data from 108 pregnancies between December 8, 2019 and April 1, 2020 were included in the current study. Most reports described women presenting in the third trimester with fever (68%) and coughing (34%). Lymphocytopenia (59%) with elevated C-reactive protein (70%) was observed and 91% were delivered by cesarean section. Three maternal intensive care unit admissions were noted but no maternal deaths. One neonatal death and one intrauterine death were also reported.

CONCLUSION:
Although the majority of mothers were discharged without any major complications, severe maternal morbidity as a result of COVID-19 and perinatal deaths were reported. Vertical transmission of the COVID-19 could not be ruled out. Careful monitoring of pregnancies with COVID-19 and measures to prevent neonatal infection are warranted.

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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing a necessary, rapid adjustment within the field of obstetrics. Corticosteroid use is a mainstay of therapy for those women delivering prematurely. Unfortunately, corticosteroid use has been associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive patients. Given this information, it is necessary that obstetricians adjust practice to carefully weigh the fetal benefits with maternal risks. Therefore, our institution has examined the risks and benefits and altered our corticosteroid recommendations: · Corticosteroid use is an important part of prematurity treatment because it provides benefit to the fetus. Corticosteroid use may be related with increased morbidity and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). · Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, an alteration in current corticosteroid practices is necessary to uniquely weigh the maternal risks and fetal benefits.

Article here.

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection has become a challenging public health threat worldwide. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case of a convalescing pregnant woman diagnosed as COVID-19 infection 37 days before delivery in the third trimester. A live birth without SARS-CoV-2 infection was delivered successfully via the vagina. Findings from our case indicate that there is no intrauterine transmission in this woman who develops COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright.

Article here.

Despite a global pandemic, reports on pregnant women with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are few so far, testing strategies vary substantially and management guidelines are not uniform.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
The ongoing epidemics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused serious concerns about its potential adverse effects on pregnancy. There are limited data on maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia.

METHODS:
We conducted a case-control study to compare clinical characteristics, maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with and without COVID-19 pneumonia.

RESULTS:
During January 24 to February 29, 2020, there were sixteen pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and eighteen suspected cases who were admitted to labor in the third trimester. Two had vaginal delivery and the rest took cesarean section. Few patients presented respiratory symptoms (fever and cough) on admission, but most had typical chest CT images of COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared to the controls, COVID-19 pneumonia patients had lower counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on admission. Increased levels of WBC, neutrophils, eosinophils, and CRP were found in postpartum blood tests of pneumonia patients. There were three (18.8%) and three (16.7%) of the mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 pneumonia had preterm delivery due to maternal complications, which were significantly higher than the control group. None experienced respiratory failure during hospital stay. COVID-19 infection was not found in the newborns and none developed severe neonatal complications.

CONCLUSION:
Severe maternal and neonatal complications were not observed in pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia who had vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Mild respiratory symptoms of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia highlight the need of effective screening on admission.

Article here.

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has spread to Italy with heavy consequences on public health and economics. Besides the possible consequences of COVID-19 infection on a pregnant woman and the fetus, a major concern is related to the potential effect on neonatal outcome, the appropriate management of the mother-newborn dyad and finally the compatibility of maternal COVID-19 infection with breastfeeding. The Italian Society on Neonatology (SIN) after reviewing the limited scientific knowledge on the compatibility of breastfeeding in the COVID-19 mother and the available statements from Health Care Organizations, has issued the following indications that have been endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS). If a mother previously identified as COVID-19 positive or under investigation for COVID-19 is asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic at delivery, rooming-in is feasible and direct breastfeeding is advisable, under strict measures of infection control. On the contrary, when a mother with COVID-19 is too sick to care for the newborn, the neonate will be managed separately and fed fresh expressed breast milk, with no need to pasteurize it, as human milk is not believed to be a vehicle of COVID-19. We recognize that this guidance might be subject to change in the future when further knowledge will be acquired about the COVID-19 pandemic, the perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of cases of neonatal COVID-19.

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The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.

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In response to the World Health Organization (WHO) statements and international concerns regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, FIGO has issued the following guidance for the management of pregnant women at the four main settings of pregnancy:
(1) ambulatory antenatal care in the outpatient clinics;
(2) management in the setting of the obstetrical triage;
(3) intrapartum management; and
(4) postpartum management and neonatal care. We also provide guidance on the medical treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection.

Article here.

As the world confronts coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an illness caused by yet another emerging pathogen (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), obstetric care providers are asking what this means for pregnant women. The global spread has been swift, and many key questions remain. The case-fatality rate for persons cared for in the United States and whether asymptomatic persons transmit the virus are examples of questions that need to be answered to inform public health control measures. There are also unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Although guidelines for pregnant women from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been rapidly developed based on the best available evidence, additional information is critically needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to temporarily separate infected mothers and their newborns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed. Some current recommendations are well supported, based largely on what we know from seasonal influenza: patients should avoid contact with ill persons, avoid touching their face, cover coughs and sneezes, wash hands frequently, disinfect contaminated surfaces, and stay home when sick. Prenatal clinics should ensure all pregnant women and their visitors are screened for fever and respiratory symptoms, and symptomatic women should be isolated from well women and required to wear a mask. As the situation with COVID-19 rapidly unfolds, it is critical that obstetricians keep up to date.

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JUSTIFICATION:
During the current rapidly evolving pandemic of COVID-19 infection, pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and their newborn infants form a special vulnerable group that needs immediate attention. Unlike other elective medical and surgical problems for which care can be deferred during the pandemic, pregnancies and childbirths will continue. Perinatal period poses unique challenges and care of the mother-baby dyads requires special resources for prevention of transmission, diagnosis of infection and providing clinical care during labor, resuscitation and postnatal period.

PROCESS:
The GRADE approach recommended by the World Health Organization was used to develop the guideline. A Guideline Development Group (GDG) comprising of obstetricians, neonatologists and pediatricians was constituted. The GDG drafted a list of questions which are likely to be faced by clinicians involved in obstetric and neonatal care. An e-survey was carried out amongst a wider group of clinicians to invite more questions and prioritize. Literature search was carried out in PubMed and websites of relevant international and national professional organizations. Existing guidelines, systematic reviews, clinical trials, narrative reviews and other descriptive reports were reviewed. For the practice questions, the evidence was extracted into evidence profiles. The context, resources required, values and preferences were considered for developing the recommendations.

OBJECTIVES:
To provide recommendations for prevention of transmission, diagnosis of infection and providing clinical care during labor, resuscitation and postnatal period.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
A set of twenty recommendations are provided under the following broad headings: 1) pregnant women with travel history, clinical suspicion or confirmed COVID-19 infection; 2) neonatal care; 3) prevention and infection control; 4) diagnosis; 5) general questions.

Article here.

Since December, 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which originated in Wuhan, China, has become a global public health threat. On Feb 28, 2020, WHO upgraded their assessment of the risk of spread and the risk of impact of COVID-19 to very high at global level. By March 10, 2020, 116 166 cases have been reported globally, causing 4088 deaths. The epidemic has spread to 118 countries around the world.

Article here.

A novel viral respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for an epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in cases in China and worldwide. Four full-term, singleton infants were born to pregnant women who tested positive for COVID-19 in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China, where the disease was first identified. Of the three infants, for who consent to be diagnostically tested was provided, none tested positive for the virus. None of the infants developed serious clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, diarrhea, or abnormal radiologic or hematologic evidence, and all four infants were alive at the time of hospital discharge. Two infants had rashes of unknown etiology at birth, and one had facial ulcerations. One infant had tachypnea and was supported by non-invasive mechanical ventilation for 3 days. One had rashes at birth but was discharged without parental consent for a diagnostic test. This case report describes the clinical course of four live born infants, born to pregnant women with the COVID-19 infection.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Since early December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) infection has been prevalent in China and eventually spread to other countries. There are a few published cases of COVID-19 occurring during pregnancy and due the possibility of mother-fetal vertical transmission, there is a concern that the fetuses may be at risk of congenital COVID-19. Methods: We reviewed the risk of vertical transmission of COVID-19 to the fetus of infected mothers by using data of published articles or official websites up to March 4, 2020. Results: A total of 31 infected pregnant mothers with COVID-19 were reported. No COVID-19 infection was detected in their neonates or placentas. Two mothers died from COVID-19-related respiratory complications after delivery. Conclusions: Currently, based on limited data, there is no evidence for intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Mothers may be at increased risk for more severe respiratory complications

Article here.

INTRODUCTION:
The outbreak of the new Coronavirus in China in December 2019 and subsequently in various countries around the world has raised concerns about the possibility of vertical transmission of the virus from mother to fetus. The present study aimed to review published literature in this regard.

METHODS:
In this narrative review, were searched for all articles published in various databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Science Direct, and Web of Science using MeSH-compliant keywords including COVID-19, Pregnancy, Verticaltransmission, Coronavirus 2019, SARS-CoV-2 and 2019-nCoV from December 2019 to March 18, 2020 and reviewed them. All type of articles published about COVID-19 and vertical transmission in pregnancy were included.

RESULTS:
A review of 13 final articles published in this area revealed that COVID-19 can cause fetal distress, miscarriage, respiratory distress and preterm delivery in pregnant women but does not infect newborns. There has been no report of vertical transmission in pregnancy, and it has been found that clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in pregnant women are not different from those of non-pregnant women.

CONCLUSION:
Overall, due to lack of appropriate data about the effect of COVID-19 on pregnancy, it is necessary to monitor suspected pregnant women before and after delivery. For confirmed cases both the mother and the newborn child shouldbe followed up comprehensively.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:
Since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan in December 2019, the virus has spread globally. The World Health Organization declared the virus outbreak a pandemic on March 11, 2020. On January 19, 2020, a 35-year-old woman who returned from China was confirmed as the first SARS-CoV-2 infected case in Korea. Since then, it has spread all over Korea.

CASE:
We report the first case of a SARS-CoV-2 positive woman delivering a baby through cesarean section at 37+6 weeks of pregnancy in the Republic of Korea.

CONCLUSION:
This case suggested that negative pressure operating room, skillful medical team, and enhanced personal protective equipment including N95 masks, surgical cap, double gown, double gloves, shoe covers, and powered air-purifying respirator are required at the hospital for safe delivery in such a case.

Article here.

Since December 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) infection has rapidly become prevalent in central China1 . On the basis of knowledge obtained from a previous coronavirus outbreak2 , pregnant women are believed to be susceptible to this virus. Once a maternal infection of COVID-19 is suspected or confirmed, childbirth becomes complicated and challenging. Efficient obstetric treatment is required, and is key to optimizing the prognosis for both mother and child. Care should be taken in determination of the timing of delivery, assessment of the indications for caesarean section, preparation of the delivery room to prevent infection, choice of the type of anesthesia, and newborn management.

Article here.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious, with multiple possible routes of transmission. Controversy exists regarding whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted in utero from an infected mother to her infant before birth. A series of 9 pregnant women found no mother-child transmission.4 We report a newborn with elevated IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Article here.

Tests for IgG and IgM antibodies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became available in February 2020. On March 4, 2020, the seventh edition of the New Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control Protocol for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was released by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and added serological diagnostic criteria. A previous study of 9 pregnant women and their infants found no maternal-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We applied these new criteria to 6 pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and their infants because serologic criteria would allow more detailed investigation of infection in newborns.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. With the sharp increase in the number of infections, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is also on the rise. However, only 19 neonates born to affected mothers have been investigated, and to our knowledge, no information on early-onset infection in newborns has been published in previous studies.

Article here.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the pregnant women infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide help for clinical prevention and treatment.

METHODS:

All 5 cases of pregnant women confirmed COVID-19 were collected among patients who admitted in Maternal and Child Hospital of Hubei Province between January 20 and February 10, 2020.

RESULTS:

All patients, aging from 25 to 31 years old, had the gestational week from 38th weeks to 41st weeks. All pregnant women did not have an antepartum fever but developed a low-grade fever (37.5-38.5?) within 24 hours after delivery. All patients had normal liver and renal function, two patients had elevated plasma levels of the myocardial enzyme. Unusual chest imaging manifestations, featured with ground-grass opacity, were frequently observed in bilateral (3 cases) or unilateral lobe (2 cases) by computed tomography (CT) scan. All labors smoothly processed, the Apgar scores were 10 one and five minutes after delivery, no complications were observed in the newborn.

INTERPRETATION:

Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of patients with COVID-19 should receive more attention. It is probable that pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 have no fever before delivery. Their primary initial manifestations were merely low-grade postpartum fever or mild respiratory symptoms. Therefore, the protective measures are necessary on admission; the instant CT scan and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay should be helpful in early diagnosis and avoid cross-infection on the occasion that patients have fever and other respiratory signs.

Article here.

BACKGROUND:

In December, 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. The number of affected pregnant women is increasing, but scarce information is available about the clinical features of COVID-19 in pregnancy. This study aimed to clarify the clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19.

METHODS:

In this retrospective, single-centre study, we included all pregnant women with COVID-19 who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Clinical features, treatments, and maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed.

FINDINGS:

Seven patients, admitted to Tongji Hospital from Jan 1, to Feb 8, 2020, were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range 29-34 years) and the mean gestational age was 39 weeks plus 1 day (range 37 weeks to 41 weeks plus 2 days). Clinical manifestations were fever (six [86%] patients), cough (one [14%] patient), shortness of breath (one [14%] patient), and diarrhoea (one [14%] patient). All the patients had caesarean section within 3 days of clinical presentation with an average gestational age of 39 weeks plus 2 days. The final date of follow-up was Feb 12, 2020. The outcomes of the pregnant women and neonates were good. Three neonates were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and one neonate was infected with SARS-CoV-2 36 h after birth.

INTERPRETATION:

The maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes of patients who were infected in late pregnancy appeared very good, and these outcomes were achieved with intensive, active management that might be the best practice in the absence of more robust data. The clinical characteristics of these patients with COVID-19 during pregnancy were similar to those of non-pregnant adults with COVID-19 that have been reported in the literature.

Article here.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel type of highly contagious pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the strong efforts taken to control the epidemic, hundreds of thousands of people were infected worldwide by Mar. 11th , and was characterized as a pandemic by World Health Organization. Pregnant women are more susceptible to the virus due to immune and anatomic alteration, though hospital visits may increase the chance of infection, the lack of medical care during pregnancy may do more harm. Hence, a well-managed system that allows pregnant women to access maternal health care with minimum exposure risk is desired during the outbreak. Here, we present the managing processes of three pregnant women that had a fever during hospitalization at gynecology or obstetrics department, then further summarize and demonstrate our maternal health care management strategies including antenatal care planning, patient triage based on risk level, admission control, and measures counteracting emergencies and newly discovered high risk cases at in-patient department. In the meantime, we will explain the alterations we have done throughout different stages of the epidemic, and also review relative articles in both Chinese and English to compare our strategies with those of other areas. Although tens of COVID-19 cases were confirmed in our hospital, no nosocomial infection has occurred and none of the pregnant woman registered in our hospital was reported to be infected.

Article here.

Based on the New Diagnosis and Treatment Scheme for Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia (Trial Edition 5), combined with our current clinical treatment experience, we recently proposed a revision of the first edition of "Guidance for maternal and fetal management during pneumonia epidemics of novel coronavirus infection in the Wuhan Tongji Hospital". This article focused on the issues of greatest concern of pregnant women including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnostic criteria, inspection precautions, drug treatment options, indications and methods of termination of pregnancy, postpartum fever, breastfeeding considerations, mode of mother-to-child transmission, neonatal isolation and advice on neonatal nursing, to provide valuable experience for better management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns.

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The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is spreading globally at an accelerated rate, with a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2 - 2.5, indicating that 2 - 3 persons will be infected from an index patient. A serious public health emergency, it is particularly deadly in vulnerable populations and communities in which healthcare providers are insufficiently prepared to manage the infection. As of March 16, 2020, there are more than 180,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with over 7,000 related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated from asymptomatic individuals, and affected patients continue to be infectious two weeks after cessation of symptoms. The substantial morbidity and socioeconomic impact have necessitated drastic measures across all continents, including nationwide lockdowns and border closures. Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks. To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. Physiological and mechanical changes in pregnancy increase susceptibility to infections in general, particularly when the cardiorespiratory system is affected, and encourage rapid progression to respiratory failure in the gravida. Furthermore, the pregnancy bias towards T-helper 2 (Th2) system dominance which protects the fetus, leaves the mother vulnerable to viral infections, which are more effectively contained by the Th1 system. These unique challenges mandate an integrated approach to pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2. Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission and maternal-fetal complications. We discuss the latest options in antiviral therapy and vaccine development, including the novel use of chloroquine in the management of COVID-19. Fetal surveillance, in view of the predisposition to growth restriction and special considerations during labor and delivery are addressed. Additionally, we focus on keeping frontline obstetric care providers safe while continuing to provide essential services. Our clinical service model is built around the principles of workplace segregation, responsible social distancing, containment of cross-infection to healthcare providers, judicious use of personal protective equipment and telemedicine. Our aim is to share a framework which can be adopted by tertiary maternity units managing pregnant women in the flux of a pandemic while maintaining the safety of the patient and healthcare provider at its core.

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The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients.

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The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. It is essential for emergency clinicians to learn as much as possible about this dangerous outbreak, and to be able to separate fact from speculation. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research and offers valuable links to the most reliable and trustworthy resources to stay up-to-date. It contains links to the most reliable information sites that are likely to be updated on a daily basis and it will be your go-to resource to stay current on this fast-changing outbreak.

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OBJECTIVE:

To provide clinical management guidelines for novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in pregnancy.

METHODS:

On February 5, 2020, a multidisciplinary teleconference comprising Chinese physicians and researchers was held and medical management strategies of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy were discussed.

RESULTS:

Ten key recommendations were provided for the management of COVID-19 infections in pregnancy.

CONCLUSION:

Currently, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal delivery timing, the safety of vaginal delivery, or whether cesarean delivery prevents vertical transmission at the time of delivery; therefore, route of delivery and delivery timing should be individualized based on obstetrical indications and maternal-fetal status.

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OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations and CT features of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in 15 pregnant women and to provide some initial evidence that can be used for guiding treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We reviewed the clinical data and CT examinations of 15 consecutive pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia in our hospital from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020. A semiquantitative CT scoring system was used to estimate pulmonary involvement and the time course of changes on chest CT. Symptoms and laboratory results were analyzed, treatment experiences were summarized, and clinical outcomes were tracked.

RESULTS

Eleven patients had successful delivery (10 cesarean deliveries and one vaginal delivery) during the study period, and four patients were still pregnant (three in the second trimester and one in the third trimester) at the end of the study period. No cases of neonatal asphyxia, neonatal death, stillbirth, or abortion were reported. The most common early finding on chest CT was ground-glass opacity (GGO). With disease progression, crazy paving pattern and consolidations were seen on CT. The abnormalities showed absorptive changes at the end of the study period for all patients. The most common onset symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were fever (13/15 patients) and cough (9/15 patients). The most common abnormal laboratory finding was lymphocytopenia (12/15 patients). CT images obtained before and after delivery showed no signs of pneumonia aggravation after delivery. The four patients who were still pregnant at the end of the study period were not treated with antiviral drugs but had achieved good recovery.

CONCLUSION

Pregnancy and childbirth did not aggravate the course of symptoms or CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia. All the cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in the pregnant women in our study were the mild type. All the women in this study-some of whom did not receive antiviral drugs-achieved good recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia.

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The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV - on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true.

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BACKGROUND

Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection.

METHODS

Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation.

FINDINGS

All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0×10 cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus.

INTERPRETATION

The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.

FUNDING

Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.

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A woman with 2019 novel coronavirus disease in her 35th week of pregnancy delivered an infant by cesarean section in a negative-pressure operating room. The infant was negative for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2. This case suggests that mother-to-child transmission is unlikely for this virus.

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease with a rapid increase in cases and deaths since its first identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) might provide insights into COVID-19's effects during pregnancy.

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In early December 2019 a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, a city of 11 million persons in the People's Republic of China. Further investigation revealed these cases to result from infection with a newly identified coronavirus, termed the 2019-nCoV. The infection moved rapidly through China, spread to Thailand and Japan, extended into adjacent countries through infected persons travelling by air, eventually reaching multiple countries and continents. Similar to such other coronaviruses as those causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the new coronavirus was reported to spread via natural aerosols from human-to-human. In the early stages of this epidemic the case fatality rate is estimated to be approximately 2%, with the majority of deaths occurring in special populations. Unfortunately, there is limited experience with coronavirus infections during pregnancy, and it now appears certain that pregnant women have become infected during the present 2019-nCoV epidemic. In order to assess the potential of the Wuhan 2019-nCoV to cause maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes, this communication reviews the published data addressing the epidemiological and clinical effects of SARS, MERS, and other coronavirus infections on pregnant women and their infants. Recommendations are also made for the consideration of pregnant women in the design, clinical trials, and implementation of future 2019-nCoV vaccines.

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COVID-19 is placing considerable strain on healthcare systems. Disaster and military medicine specialists were involved in the outbreak in Italy, after many units were overwhelmed.Health providers were caught off guard and personnel was unprepared to face this unprecedented threat. Local decisions accelerated the rate of the spread. Many countries declared a state of emergency and lockdown to contain the exponential transmission of the disease.The purpose of this review is to suggest quick key points of strategies to implement in obstetric units without delay to respond to the oncoming wave, based on experience and feedback from the field.It is essential in an emergency situation to understand what is at stake and prepare maternity wards in the best possible way.

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We presented a case of a 30-week pregnant woman with COVID-19 delivering a healthy baby with no evidence of COVID-19.

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A novel viral respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for an epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in cases in China and worldwide. Four full-term, singleton infants were born to pregnant women who tested positive for COVID-19 in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China, where the disease was first identified. Of the three infants, for who consent to be diagnostically tested was provided, none tested positive for the virus. None of the infants developed serious clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, diarrhea, or abnormal radiologic or hematologic evidence, and all four infants were alive at the time of hospital discharge. Two infants had rashes of unknown etiology at birth, and one had facial ulcerations. One infant had tachypnea and was supported by non-invasive mechanical ventilation for 3 days. One had rashes at birth but was discharged without parental consent for a diagnostic test. This case report describes the clinical course of four live born infants, born to pregnant women with the COVID-19 infection.

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As the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly spread across China and to more than 70 countries, an increasing number of pregnant women were affected. The vertical transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of great concern to the obstetrics, neonatologists, and public health agencies. Though some studies indicated the risk of vertical transmission is low, few cases have been reported with comprehensive serial tests from multiple specimens. In this case, a female preterm infant was born to a mother with confirmed COVID-19. She presented with mild respiratory distress and received general management and a short period of nasal continuous positive airway pressure support. During her stay at the hospital, a series of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic test from her throat and anal swab, serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and urine were negative. The nucleic acid test from the mother's amniotic fluid, vaginal secretions, cord blood, placenta, serum, anal swab, and breast milk were also negative. The most comprehensively tested case reported to date confirmed that the vertical transmission of COVID is unlikely, but still, more evidence is needed.

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has become a major challenge to public health in China and other countries, considering its pathogenicity across all age groups. Pregnancy is a unique physiological condition, and is characterized by altered immunity and elevated hormone levels to actively tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetus, which undergoes a sudden and substantial fluctuation during the immediate postpartum period. Changes in clinical features, laboratory characteristics, and imaging features of pregnant women during the pre-partum and post-partum periods require further elucidation. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, laboratory characteristics, and imaging features of eight pregnant cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pre-partum and post-partum periods. Our results showed that four of the eight pregnant women were asymptomatic before delivery but became symptomatic post-partum. Correspondingly, white blood cell (WBC) counts increased and lymphocyte (LYMPH) counts decreased. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the serum also increased to a higher level than those in general pregnancy. Therefore, it is imperative to closely monitor laboratory parameters including the WBC count, LYMPH count, and CRP, along with other imaging features in chest CT scans, to promptly prevent, diagnose, and treat a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.

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With the current outbreak and spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide many questions arise. There have been issued precautions regarding the use of anti-inflammatory medications, including aspirin. To our knowledge, there is insufficient data to suggest an increased risk between prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin and progression of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women at risk of placental complications.

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