Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is a membrane-bound enzyme that cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) into angiotensin (1-7). It also serves as an important binding site for SARS-CoV-2, thereby, facilitating viral entry into target host cells. ACE 2 is abundantly present in the intestine, kidney, heart, lungs, and fetal tissues. Fetal ACE 2 is involved in myocardium growth, lungs and brain development. ACE 2 is highly expressed in pregnant women to compensate preeclampsia by modulating angiotensin (1-7) which binds to the Mas receptor, having vasodilator action and maintain fluid homeostasis. There are reports available on Zika, H1N1 and SARS-CoV where these viruses have shown to produce fetal defects but very little is known about SARS-CoV-2 involvement in pregnancy, but it might have the potential to interact with fetal ACE 2 and enhance COVID-19 transmission to the fetus, leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. This review sheds light on a path of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk in pregnancy and its possible link with fetal ACE 2.

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Background: During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must create and sustain tolerance to the allogeneic fetus while maintaining the ability to protect against microbial assaults.

Objectives: Ascertain the immunological differences in immune cells of pregnant women that may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Study design: Systematic review conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and registered within PROSPERO CRD42020189735. A systematic search was undertaken across ISI, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trials.gov from January 2019 up until June 2020. Eligibility criteria included COVID-19 infection, pregnancy, and availability of immune characteristics for the pregnant women. Two authors independently screened for the suitability of inclusion.

Main outcome measures: Information was manually extracted from full-text articles and efforts were made to identify overlapping data. Variables extracted and analysed included the quantification of white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Results: The literature search yielded 162 studies, of which 11 were considered appropriate for selection. Only four were used in this systematic review. Our research showed that pregnant women with COVID-19 only differ from other pregnant women in their lower WBC count. The proportion of reduced lymphocyte cases is similar in both groups, as is the case of C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusions: In line with previous coronavirus infections, severe maternal morbidity and perinatal death with COVID-19 infection were more likely to be expected in pregnancy. Our research showed that pregnant women with COVID-19 in terms of immunity only differ from other pregnant women in their lower WBC count.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical course and impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on pregnant women.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Demographic features, clinical characteristics, and perinatal outcomes were prospectively evaluated.

Results: Of the 533 cases, 161 (30.2%) had co-morbidities and 165 (30.9%) were asymptomatic. Cough (n=178, 33.4%) and myalgia (n=168, 31.5%) were the leading symptoms. In total, 261 patients (48.9%) received COVID-19 therapy, 509 (95.5%) had mild disease, 7 (1.3%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and invasive mechanical ventilation was necessary in 2 (0.4%) patients. Maternal mortality was observed in 2 (0.4%) cases. Of the patients, 297 (55.7%) were hospitalized, 39 (7.3%) had suspicious radiologic imaging findings, 66 (12.4) had pregnancy complications (preterm delivery [n=22, 4.1%] and miscarriage [n=12, 2.2%] were the most common pregnancy complications), 131 births occurred, and the cesarean section rate was 66.4%. All neonates were negative for COVID-19. The rate of admission to the neonatal ICU was 9.9%. One specimen of breast milk was positive for the infection.

Conclusion: The course of COVID-19 was mild in the majority of cases. However, increased rates of pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery were observed.

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Background: Since the middle of March, the COVID-19 outbreak has been well contained in China. The prevention and control measures for the outbreak have been downgraded to a normalized level. However, until now, the change in level of psychological health amongst perinatal women during the remission phase of the COVID-19 outbreak has not been investigated in China. The aim of this current study was to assess the symptoms of anxiety, depression, insomnia and quality of life (QOL) in perinatal women and to identify potential risk factors associated with these symptoms.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted between March 25th till June 5th, 2020 in southern China. Convenient sampling method was adopted. Women's anxiety, depression, insomnia symptoms and QOL was examined through standardized measurements. Multivariate logistic regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for the same.

Results: A total of 625 perinatal women completed the study; of them, 195 women (31.2%, 95%CI=27.56%-34.84%) reported anxiety, 120 (19.2%, 95%CI=16.10%-22.30%) reported depression, and 87 (13.9%, 95%CI=11.20%-16.64%) experienced symptoms of insomnia. Previous adverse experiences during pregnancy was a significant risk factor for anxiety (OR=1.628, 95%CI=1.069-2.480, P=0.023), depression (OR=1.853, 95%CI=1.153-2.977, P=0.011), and insomnia (OR=2.160, 95%CI=1.290-3.616, P=0.003). Participants having infected friends/families/colleagues were more likely to report anxiety (OR=2.195, 95%CI=1.245-3.871, P=0.007) and depression (OR=2.666, 95%CI=1.482-4.794, P=0.001). Those women whose regular check-ups were severely interrupted by the COVID-19 were also more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety (OR=2.935, 95%CI=1.701-5.062, P<0.001) and insomnia (OR=2.195, 95%CI=1.098-4.390, P=0.026).

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic does affect the mental health and well being of perinatal women. Increased attention should be paid to women who have infected friends/families/colleagues and those with previous adverse experiences during pregnancy. Coping strategies that relieve psychological stress during the COVID-19 outbreak should be provided to prevent adverse outcomes for women and their infants.

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depression of women during pregnancy and perinatal period.

Methods: We systematically searched online databases to identify any report on maternal depression during pregnancy or postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Survey (EPDS) and maternal anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) until 5th July 2020. The random-effects model was used to pool the effect sizes and standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Eight studies reported depressive and anxiety states of 7750 women, either pregnant or postpartum were included. The overall pooled EPDS score was higher among women during pandemic (SMD= 0.40, 95% CI: -0.05 - 0.86, p = .083) compared to previous non-pandemic times, without reaching a statistically significant difference. However, the overall pooled STAI score was significantly higher during pandemic (SMD= 0.82, 95% CI: 0.49 - 1.16, p < .001). No significant publication bias existed in selected studies (p > .05).

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly increases the risk of anxiety among women during pregnancy and perinatal period. Support measures should be considered for women during pregnancy or perinatal period to guarantee mental health for this susceptible population.

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Objective: To consolidate qualitative research studies that examined the experiences and needs of pregnant women, midwives, and nurses of maternity units to provide a way forward for future research and practices during the current pandemic and future epidemics and pandemics.

Design: Qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis.

Data source: Four electronic databases-PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL).

Review methods: Qualitative studies with samples of pregnant women, midwives, and/or nurses of maternity units who experienced epidemics and/or pandemics were searched from 1 January 2000 to 4 April 2020. The included studies were critically appraised using the ten-item Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool.

Findings: Eight studies were included in this review. Four themes emerged from the synthesis: (1) psychological responses, (2) challenges faced, (3) coping strategies, and (4) sources of support and support needs.

Key conclusions: Pregnant women, midwives, and nurses experienced negative psychological responses during epidemics and pandemics. Challenges, such as limited available information and public stigma, were faced. Various coping strategies, such as actively looking for more information and seeking solace in religions, were practiced by pregnant women, midwives, and nurses. Families were both sources of support and stress and they expressed needs for more informational, emotional, and financial support during pandemics.

Implications for practice: More culturally diverse research in the future that includes the development of technology-based programs, trained community volunteer-led programs, psychosocial interventions, and anti-stigma and awareness initiatives are needed to combat the current pandemic and future public health crises.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many changes in health care. The status quo has been upended. We have been challenged in many ways to maintain our ability to meet the needs of our clients while keeping them safe. The Center for Perinatal Education and Lactation at NYU Langone Hospitals, in one of the initial epicenters of the pandemic in New York City, had to abruptly transition the childbirth education program to a virtual format in March of 2020. The goal for this change was to continue to provide evidence-based support and guidance our to our expectant and new families through this crisis. This report focuses on the process and challenges of transitioning to and implementation of the virtual format in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. We discuss the rapidly evolving programmatic changes to our approach and reflect on the themes and changing landscape of our newly structured model. Questions and answers live discussion webinars "Ask the Educator" on various topics were a valuable tool in connecting with families and allaying anxiety and fear.

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Objective: The perinatal consequences of neonates born to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected mothers are uncertain. This study aimed to compare the differences in clinical manifestation, laboratory results, and outcomes of neonates born to mothers with or without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Study design: A total of 48 neonates were admitted to Tongji Hospital and HuangShi Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital from January 17 to March 4, 2020. The neonates were divided into three groups according to the mothers' conditions: neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19, neonates born to mothers with clinically diagnosed COVID-19, and neonates born to mothers without COVID-19. The clinical data of mothers and infants in the three groups were collected, compared, and analyzed.

Results: The deliveries occurred in a negative pressure isolation room, and the neonates were separated from their mothers immediately after birth for further observation and treatment. None of the neonates showed any signs of fever, cough, dyspnea, or diarrhea. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of the throat swab and feces samples from the neonates in all three groups was negative. No differences were detected in the whole blood cell, lymphocytes, platelet, and liver and renal function among the three groups. All mothers and their infants showed satisfactory outcomes, including a 28-week preterm infant.

Conclusion:

The clinical manifestations, radiological, and biochemical results did not show any difference between the three groups. No evidence of vertical transmission was found in this study whether the pregnant women developed coronavirus infection in the third (14 cases) or second trimester (1 case).

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Objective: The novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a terrifying pandemic. The range of illness severity among children is variable. This study aims to assess the characteristics of newborns born to SARS-CoV-2-positive women compared with those mothers who tested negative.

Study design: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Brookdale Hospital Medical Center in New York City from March to May 2020. Electronic medical records of mother-baby dyads were reviewed.

Results: Seventy-nine mothers tested for SARS-CoV-2 were included, out of which 18.98% of mothers tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. We found a significant association between symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 status. We observed a significant association between newborns of SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative mothers regarding skin-to-skin contact (p < 0.001). Both groups showed significant differences regarding isolation (p < 0.001). Interestingly, regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in newborns, only one newborn tested SARS-CoV-2 positive and was unstable in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). With the multivariable logistic regression model, babies of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were three times as likely to have desaturations in comparison to newborns from negative mothers. Also, newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were four times more likely to have poor feeding, compared with newborns of SARS-CoV-2-negative mothers. Finally, babies of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were ten times more likely to be symptomatic at the 2-week follow-up.

Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 has caused major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Neonates born to mothers with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 are most of the time asymptomatic. However, neonatal critical illness due to SARS-CoV-2 is still a possibility; thus, isolation precautions (such as avoiding skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding) and vertical transmission should be studied thoroughly. In addition, testing these newborns by nasopharyngeal swab at least at 24 hours after birth and monitoring them for the development of symptoms for 14 days after birth is needed.

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Key message: Among SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers, vaginal delivery rates were high and associated with favorable outcomes with no cases of neonatal COVID-19.

Purpose: To investigate the mode of delivery and its impact on immediate neonatal outcome in SARS-CoV-2-infected women.

Methods: A prospective study following pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 who delivered between March 15th and July 4th in seven university affiliated hospitals in Israel.

Results: A total of 52 women with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 delivered in the participating centers during the study period. The median gestational age at the time of delivery was 38 weeks, with 16 (30.8%) cases complicated by spontaneous preterm birth. Forty-three women (82.7%) underwent a trial of labor. The remaining 9 women underwent pre-labor cesarean delivery mostly due to obstetric indications, whereas one woman with a critical COVID-19 course underwent urgent cesarean delivery due to maternal deterioration. Among those who underwent a trial of labor (n = 43), 39 (90.7%) delivered vaginally, whereas 4 (9.3%) cases resulted in cesarean delivery. Neonatal RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs tested negative in all cases, and none of the infants developed pneumonia. No maternal and neonatal deaths were encountered.

Conclusions: In this prospective study among SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers, vaginal delivery rates were high and associated with favorable outcomes with no cases of neonatal COVID-19. Our findings underscore that delivery management among SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers should be based on obstetric indications and may potentially reduce the high rates of cesarean delivery previously reported in this setting.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the 3rd epidemic coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since December 2019, the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has aroused great attention around the world. Pregnant women and their fetuses have been concerned as a high-risk population. We explained why pregnant women are susceptible to coronavirus in terms of their adaptive changes in physiology and immune system during pregnancy, and described the associations between maternal clinical symptoms, perinatal outcomes and coronavirus infections.

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Shortly after the identification of a novel coronavirus, the coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, a global pandemic was declared. There have been conflicting data about the severity of COVID-19 disease course in pregnant women, with most US data suggesting an increase in severity and increased need for hospitalization and intubation in obstetric patients. In the general population, the disease is more common among racial and ethnic minority populations, and severity is increased with comorbid conditions and obesity. The purpose of this study is to characterize COVID-19 infection in pregnancy in a population of women getting prenatal care at an urban safety-net hospital. Beginning in April, 2020, all women were tested at admission for delivery, and additionally as an outpatient if presenting with COVID-19 symptoms. In three months, there were 208 discrete women tested and 23 (11.1%) who were positive for COVID-19. The incidence of COVID-19 was 5.1% in asymptomatic women being screened upon admission to the hospital. There was a high prevalence of obesity (68.2%) and other comorbid conditions (43.5%) in this population, and all patients were racial/ethnic minorities. Despite these risk factors, the patients uniformly had either mild or asymptomatic disease. No symptomatic patients required hospitalization for their infection. In this population of pregnant women at high risk for severe COVID-19 infection, only mild disease was observed.

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Objective: To assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on obstetric care and outcomes.

Methods: A prospective observational single-center study was performed, including all antenatal and parturient women admitted from April to August 2020. Data were collected regarding number of admissions, deliveries, antenatal visits, reason for inaccessibility of health care, and complications during pregnancy, and compared with data from the pre-COVID period of October 2019 to February 2020.

Results: There was a reduction of 45.1% in institutional deliveries (P<0.001), a percentage point increase of 7.2 in high-risk pregnancy, and 2.5-fold rise in admission to the intensive care unit of pregnant women during the pandemic. One-third of women had inadequate antenatal visits. The main reason for delayed health-seeking was lockdown and fear of contracting infection, resulting in 44.7% of pregnancies with complications. Thirty-two symptomatic women who tested positive for COVID-19 were managed at the center with good maternal and fetal outcomes.

Conclusion: Although COVID-19 disease does not directly affect pregnancy outcomes, it has indirect adverse effects on maternal and child health. Emergency obstetric and antenatal care are essential services to be continued with awareness of people while maintaining social distancing and personal hygiene.

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The COVID-19 ongoing pandemic constitutes a major challenge for countries throughout the world due to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and devastating consequences in health. No one is free from COVID-19 impact. In this regard, pregnant women are not the exception. The COVID-19 outbreak represents a massive source of stressful agents for women and their babies during the perinatal period. The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to potentially have short- and long-term detrimental effects on pregnant women and the baby. These adverse consequences range from mental to medical diseases. During the last centuries, several dreadful and fatal incidents have put pregnant women and their babies at higher risk of mortality and health deterioration. For example, it has been informed that women exposed to the 1918 flu pandemic (commonly known as the Spanish flu) while pregnant showed higher rates of premature delivery in the short term. Long-term consequences have also been reported and individuals (both males and females) who were exposed to the 1918 flu pandemic while in utero had a higher risk of developing schizophrenia, diabetes, coronary heart disease or cancer throughout their lifespan.

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(1) Background: Until now, several reports about pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. However, there are no comprehensive systematic reviews collecting all case series studies on data regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially association with treatment modalities. (2) Objective: We aimed to synthesize the most up-to-date and relevant available evidence on the outcomes of pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed infection with COVID-19. (3) Methods: PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Google scholar, and Embase were explored for studies and papers regarding pregnant women with COVID-19, including obstetrical, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes and complications published from 1 January 2020 to 4 May 2020. Systematic review and search of the published literature was done using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). (4) Results: In total, 11 case series studies comprising 104 pregnant women with COVID-19 were included in our review. Fever (58.6%) and cough (30.7%) were the most common symptoms. Other symptoms included dyspnea (14.4%), chest discomfort (3.9%), sputum production (1.0%), sore throat (2.9%), and nasal obstruction (1.0%). Fifty-two patients (50.0%) eventually demonstrated abnormal chest CT, and of those with ground glass opacity (GGO), 23 (22.1%) were bilateral and 10 (9.6%) were unilateral. The most common treatment for COVID-19 was administration of antibiotics (25.9%) followed by antivirals (17.3%). Cesarean section was the mode of delivery for half of the women (50.0%), although no information was available for 28.8% of the cases. Regarding obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, fetal distress (13.5%), pre-labor rupture of membranes (9.6%), prematurity (8.7%), fetal death (4.8%), and abortion (2.9%) were reported. There are no positive results of neonatal infection by RT-PCR. (5) Conclusions: Although we have found that pregnancy with COVID-19 has significantly higher maternal mortality ratio compared to that of pregnancy without the disease, the evidence is too weak to state that COVID-19 results in poorer maternal outcome due to multiple factors. The number of COVID-19 pregnancy outcomes was not large enough to draw a conclusion and long-term outcomes are yet to be determined as the pandemic is still unfolding. Active and intensive follow-up is needed in order to provide robust data for future studies.

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Objective: To investigate the frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in parturient women, their partners, and their newborns and the association of such antibodies with obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: From April 4 to July 3, 2020, in a single university hospital in Denmark, all parturient women and their partners were invited to participate in the study, along with their newborns. Participating women and partners had a pharyngeal swab and a blood sample taken at admission; immediately after delivery, a blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord. The swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and the blood samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Full medical history and obstetric and neonatal information were available.

Results: A total of 1,313 parturient women (72.5.% of all women admitted for delivery at the hospital in the study period), 1,188 partners, and 1,206 newborns participated in the study. The adjusted serologic prevalence was 2.6% in women and 3.5% in partners. Seventeen newborns had SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and none had immunoglobulin M antibodies. No associations between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and obstetric or neonatal complications were found (eg, preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, Apgar score, low birth weight, umbilical arterial pH, need for continuous positive airway pressure, or neonatal admission), but statistical power to detect such differences was low. Full serologic data from 1,051 families showed an absolute risk of maternal infection of 39% if the partner had antibodies.

Conclusion: We found no association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and obstetric or neonatal complications. Sixty-seven percent of newborns delivered by mothers with antibodies had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. A limitation of our study is that we lacked statistical power to detect small but potentially meaningful differences between those with and without evidence of infection.

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To date, 18 living recommendations for the clinical care of pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 have been issued by the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce. This includes recommendations on mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, antenatal corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, disease-modifying treatments (including dexamethasone, remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and advanced respiratory support interventions (prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). Through continuous evidence surveillance, these living recommendations are updated in near real-time to ensure clinicians in Australia have reliable, evidence-based guidelines for clinical decision-making. Please visit https://covid19evidence.net.au/ for the latest recommendation updates.

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Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a current global public health emergency. However, current research on the blood test results of pregnant women with COVID-19 is insufficient. Methods: A case-control study was carried out based on clinical blood test results. Pregnant COVID-19 patients, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes, and pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension, were assessed in this study. Also, 120 controls were matched by age, parity, fetus number, and presence of chronic disease. T-tests, Chi-square tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare data from the blood tests and liver function indices among the selected groups. Results: Between January 24 and March 14, 2020, 60 pregnant COVID-19 patients delivered at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province. The average maternal age of pregnant COVID-19 patients was 30.97 years and the mean gestational period was 37.87 weeks. 71.67% (43/60) of pregnant COVID-19 patients gave birth by cesarean delivery. In total, 21.67% (13/60) were diagnosed with diabetes and 18.33% (11/60) were diagnosed with hypertension during pregnancy. Compared to controls, pregnant COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower numbers of blood lymphocytes and higher numbers of neutrophils, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein and total bilirubin. Among the three groups, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes had significantly higher levels of neutrophils and lower levels of total protein. Aspartate transaminase levels were higher in pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension than in pregnant COVID-19 patients with no comorbidities and controls with hypertension. Interpretations: Blood and liver function indices indicate that chronic complications, including hypertension and diabetes, could increase the risk of inflammation and liver injury in pregnant COVID-19 patients.

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BACKGROUND There are few reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women. Although coagulation dysfunction was reported to affect the severity of COVID-19, the association between pregnancy, which is usually accompanied by changes in coagulation function, and the worsening of COVID-19 is unknown. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman in the 36th week of pregnancy who was diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and required postpartum extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. CASE REPORT A 30-year-old, 36-weeks pregnant woman presented to our hospital and was diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia soon after she had undergone a cesarean section. Her respiratory failure could not be managed by conventional therapeutic approaches. Therefore, ECMO was administered on day 7. Controlling coagulation function to maintain ECMO therapy was challenging. Nafamostat mesylate and cryoprecipitate were administered to treat the hypercoagulative status and severe hypofibrinogenemia, respectively. Since coagulopathy and her respiratory state improved, the ECMO therapy was terminated on day 15. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of severe COVID-19 pneumonia in a pregnant woman urgently treated with ECMO in the postpartum period. Thus, this case highlights the importance of close monitoring and appropriate medical care for pregnant women with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

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Around the end of December 2019, a new beta-coronavirus from Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China began to spread rapidly. The new virus, called SARS-CoV-2, which could be transmitted through respiratory droplets, had a range of mild to severe symptoms, from simple cold in some cases to death in others. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named COVID-19 by WHO and has so far killed more people than SARS and MERS. Following the widespread global outbreak of COVID-19, with more than 132758 confirmed cases and 4955 deaths worldwide, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic disease in January 2020. Earlier studies on viral pneumonia epidemics has shown that pregnant women are at greater risk than others. During pregnancy, the pregnant woman is more prone to infectious diseases. Research on both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which are pathologically similar to SARS-CoV-2, has shown that being infected with these viruses during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal death, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation and, preterm delivery. With the exponential increase in cases of COVID-19 throughout the world, there is a need to understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the health of pregnant women, through extrapolation of earlier studies that have been conducted on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. There is an urgent need to understand the chance of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus and the possibility of the virus crossing the placental barrier. Additionally, since some viral diseases and antiviral drugs may have a negative impact on the mother and fetus, in which case, pregnant women need special attention for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.

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BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious virus and is responsible for the current pandemic. It mainly infects cells of the lower respiratory tract and has been linked to severe respiratory complications. Although multiple routes of transmission have been reported in the literature, there is no definitive evidence for transplacental transmission. We present a case of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 likely due to transplacental transmission. CASE REPORT 31-year-old Hispanic woman in the final week of pregnancy developed mild respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. She had a history of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and gestational diabetes. Two days later, she gave birth to a baby girl who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on the first day after birth. She was delivered via elective cesarean section adhering to a strict infection control protocol. CONCLUSIONS This report presents a case of a 31-year-old mother with mild symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia who was positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth to a baby girl who was also positive for SARS-CoV-2. This case supports the possibility of transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

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Objective: In this study we describe the management of women with gestational diabetes (GD) and an ongoing Sars-Cov-2 infection. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the COVID-19 infection can further complicate pregnancies and thus if the protocol we usually use for GDM pregnancies is also applicable to patients who have contracted a Sars-Cov-2 infection.

Methods: This is a retrospective study analysing all pregnant women with gestational diabetes and a concomitant COVID-19 infection admitted to our Institution for antenatal care between March 1st and April 30th 2020.

Results: Among pregnant women with GD and a concomitant COVID-19 infection, the mean age was 32,9 (SD 5,6) years. Two patients (33%) were of Caucasian ethnicity while four (67%) were non-Caucasian. All patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the third trimester of pregnancy. Two women were asymptomatic while four were symptomatic. Only two patients (33,3%) received treatment with insulin. None of the patients required intensive care or mechanical ventilation. No complications were found among the newborns.

Conclusion: the COVID-19 infection was not found to worsen the prognosis of GD patients or of their offspring. Glycaemic monitoring, diet therapy and insulin, when needed, are sufficient for a good metabolic control and a favourable maternal and fetal outcome.

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Background: The complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its COVID-19 disease on mothers and their offspring are less known.

Objective: The aim of this review was to determine the transmission, severity, complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pregnancy. This review showed the influence of COVID-19 disease on the neonatal neurogenesis. Owing to no specific vaccines or medicines that were reported for the treatment of COVID-19 disease, this review suggested some control strategies like treatments (medicinal plants, antiviral therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy), nutrition uptake, prevention, and recommendations.

Discussion: This overview showed in severely states that SARS-CoV-2 infection during the early stage of pregnancy might increase the risk of stress, panic, and anxiety. This disorder can disturb the maternal immune system, and thus causing a neurodevelopmental disturbance. This hypothesis may be depending on the severity and intensity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. However, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from dams to their fetuses is absent until now.

Conclusion: During this global pandemic disease, maintaining safety during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and breastfeeding may play a vital role in a healthy life for the offspring. Thus, international and national corporations should be continuing for perinatal management, particularly during the next pandemic or disaster time.

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There remain a number of uncertainties globally about the risks posed to women who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. Furthermore, our understanding of the spread of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa is limited, owing to low testing rates in many parts of the continent. PeriCOVID Africa, in conjunction with the WHO/HRP Alliance, plans to address these knowledge gaps by harnessing research infrastructures in place in five sub-Saharan African countries in order to screen more than 50,000 pregnant women and their infants for SARS-CoV-2, while monitoring pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. We anticipate that the results of this study will provide much needed information about the risks that SARS-CoV-2 poses to pregnant women and their babies, as well as establishing potential routes of mother-to-child transmission.

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The COVID-ASSESS questionnaire (COVID-19 related Anxiety and StreSs in prEgnancy, poSt-partum and breaStfeeding) was developed and distributed by CiaoLapo Foundation, an Italian charity for healthy pregnancy and perinatal loss support. Data were collected during phase 1 and phase 2 of COVID-19 lockdown in Italy (March, April and May 2020). The final dataset consists of 2448 women, of whom 1307 during pregnancy and 1141 women during post-partum or breastfeeding period. Variables collected for each subject are: sociodemographic and clinical information (previous losses, history of psychological disorders), birth expectations before and after COVID-19, concerns regarding pandemic consequences, perception of media and health professionals' information and communication on COVID-19, psychopathological assessment (anxiety, post-traumatic stress and general psychopathology).

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• What is the impact of perinatal SARS-CoV2 infection on the incidence of preterm birth and stillbirth?
• Is the rate of SARS-CoV2 infection predictable based on prevalence of significant disease in the community?
• SARS-CoV2 infection did not increase the incidence of preterm birth or stillbirth.
• The rate of SARS-CoV2 infection in women admitted to the delivery service tracked as 0.26% +/- 0.002% of total COVID-19 hospitalizations in our health system.
• SARS-CoV2 infection in the labor and delivery population is predictable, and did significantly not increase rates of preterm birth or stillbirth in our health system.

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Morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is age-dependent. It remains unclear whether vertical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs during pregnancy and how such infection will affect fetal development. Here, we performed single-cell transcriptomic analysis of placenta and other tissues from fetuses in comparison with those from adults using public-available datasets. Our analysis revealed that a very small proportion of trophoblast cells expressed the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene, suggesting a low possibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus during pregnancy. We found that the fetal adrenal gland, heart, kidney and stomach were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, because these organs contained cell clusters that expressed high levels of the ACE2 gene. In particular, a higher proportion of ACE2-expressing cell clusters in the adrenal gland and kidney also expressed the Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) gene compared with other organs. Surprisingly, ACE2-expressing type II alveolar (AT2) equivalent cells were absent in fetal lungs. This is in sharp contrast to adult lungs. As ACE2 expression is regulated by various conditions, including oxygen concentration, inflammation and smoking, caution is warranted to avoid triggering potential ACE2 expression in fetal and placental tissue.

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Objective: To compare VEGF-A values between pregnant women with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the association of inflammation parameters, disease severity and obstetric complications with VEGF-A was investigated.

Methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted on pregnant women who were admitted to Ankara City Hospital between 14 June 2020 and 28 August 2020. Pregnant women with COVID-19 (n=95) were compared with a control group of healthy pregnant women (n=92) with similar clinical and demographic characteristics. Demographic featues, clinical characteristics, laboratory test results, VEGF-A values were compared between the groups. A correlation analysis was performed between VEGF-A levels, inflammation parameters and clinical characteristics of the cases for pregnant women with COVID-19. VEGF-A levels were also compared between patients with composite adverse outcome and patients without any complication in the COVID-19 group.

Results: Two groups were similar except for obstetric complications (p>0.05). Obstetric complication rate was higher in the COVID-19 group (p=0.02). Two groups were comparable in terms of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and VEGF-A values. VEGF-A values were slightly different between the trimesters. A negative moderate statistically significant correlation was found between the neutrophil and VEGF-A values (r=-0.231, p=0.02).VEGF-A values were similar between patients with and without composite adverse outcomes (p>0.05).

Conclusion: VEGF-A values were similar between pregnant women with COVID-19 and healthy controls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Objective: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to affect adults and pediatric patients differently. While neonates are a special population, little is known about the neonatal outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes in COVID-19 positive neonates and incidence of vertical transmission of the virus by reviewing available literature.

Study design: This study is a narrative review of available literature on "COVID-19 in neonates," for which PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search the published articles.

Results: We summarized the data from 39 published studies that are comprised of 326 COVID-19 positive peripartum mothers with respective neonatal outcomes. Twenty-three neonates have been reported to be COVID-19 positive. Male neonates were affected significantly more (79%) than female neonates. Approximately 3% neonates acquired infection through suspected vertical transmission. Strict infection prevention measures during the perinatal time can significantly reduce the chance of horizontal transmission of the virus. Overall, neonates were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic regardless of gestational age at birth and required only supportive measures. There was 0% mortality in COVID-19 positive neonates.

Conclusion: From available published data to date, we can conclude that the prognosis of COVID-19 positive neonates is good with no mortality. There appears to be minimal vertical transmission of the infection.

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Objective: This study was aimed to describe the hospitalization and early postpartum psychological experience for asymptomatic obstetric patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as part of a universal testing program and report the impact of this program on labor and delivery health care workers' job satisfaction and workplace anxiety.

Study design: This is a cohort study of asymptomatic pregnant women who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing between April 13, 2020 and April 26, 2020. Semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone at 1 and 2 weeks posthospitalization to assess maternal mental health. Depression screening was conducted using the patient health questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). An online survey of labor and delivery health care workers assessed job satisfaction and job-related anxiety before and during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as employees' subjective experience with universal testing. Patient and employee responses were analyzed for recurring themes.

Results: A total of 318 asymptomatic women underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing during this 2-week period. Six of the eight women (75%) who tested positive reported negative in-hospital experiences secondary to perceived lack of provider and partner support and neonatal separation after birth. Among the 310 women who tested negative, 34.4% of multiparous women reported increased postpartum anxiety compared with their prior deliveries due to concerns about infectious exposure in the hospital and lack of social support. Only 27.6% of women, tested negative, found their test result to be reassuring. Job satisfaction and job-related anxiety among health care workers were negatively affected. Universal testing was viewed favorably by the majority of health care workers despite concerns about delays or alterations in patient care and maternal and neonatal separation.

Conclusion: Universal testing for SARS-CoV-2 in obstetric units has mixed effects on maternal mental health but is viewed favorably by labor and delivery employees. Ongoing evaluation of new testing protocols is paramount to balance staff and patient safety with quality and equality of care.

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Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of the lockdown period on the glycemic balance in patients with GDM.

Methods: A retrospective study in one center (Lille, France) compared two periods: the COVID-19 lockdown of 18 March 2020 to 7 May 2020 versus the same period during 2019. Glucose targets were defined by a capillary fasting glucose target < 5.1mmol/L and/or a 2-hour postprandial capillary glucose < 6.6 mmol/L. GDM control was defined as: good (< 20% of the glycemic values were not within the target range), acceptable (20 to 40% of the glycemic values were not within the target range) or poor (> 40% of the glycemic values were not within the target range).

Results: Two hundred twenty-nine patients were included in 2019 and 222 in 2020. The same mean number of capillary blood sugar tests was performed by the two groups. Postprandial blood sugar was significantly less well controlled in 2020, with a lower rate of good control (61.6% vs 69.4%) and higher rates of acceptable (24.7% vs 21.8%) and poor control (13.7% and 8.7%) (p < 0.05). Use of insulin therapy was significantly higher in 2020 compared with 2019 (47.7% and 36.2%, respectively; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Diabetes control was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, even if follow-up was not impacted. This may be explained by reduced physical activity, modified dietary habits and anxiety during this period.

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Background: - There is a paucity of data describing the effects of COVID-19, especially in asymptomatic patients, on placental pathology. Although the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is not completely understood, there is emerging evidence that it causes a severe systemic inflammatory response and results in a hypercoagulable state with widespread microthrombi. We hypothesized that it is plausible that a similar disease process may occur in the fetal-maternal unit.

Objective: - The aim of this study was to determine whether COVID-19 in term patients admitted to Labor and Delivery, including women without COVID-19 symptomatology, is associated with increased placental injury compared to a cohort of COVID-19 negative controls.

Study design: - This was a retrospective cohort study performed at NYU Winthrop Hospital between 3/31/2020 and 6/17/2020. During the study period all women admitted to Labor and Delivery were routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of symptomatology. The placental histopathological findings of COVID-19 patients (n=77) who delivered a singleton gestation at term were compared to a control group of term patients without COVID-19 (n=56). Controls were excluded if they had obstetric or medical complications including fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, hypertension, diabetes, coagulopathy or thrombophilia. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed for variables that were significant in univariable analyses. A subgroup analysis was also performed comparing asymptomatic COVID-19 cases to negative controls.

Results: - In univariable analyses, COVID-19 cases were more likely to have evidence of fetal vascular malperfusion, i.e. presence of avascular villi and/or mural fibrin deposition (32.5% (25/77) vs. 3.6% (2/56), p<0.0001) and villitis of unknown etiology (20.8% (16 /77) vs. 7.1% (4 /56), p=0.030). These findings persisted in a subgroup analysis of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases compared to COVID-19 negative controls. In a multivariable model adjusting for maternal age, race /ethnicity, mode of delivery, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios, the frequency of fetal vascular malperfusion abnormalities remained significantly higher in the COVID-19 group (OR=12.63, 95% CI [2.40, 66.40]). While the frequency of villitis of unknown etiology was more than double in COVID-19 cases compared to controls, this did not reach statistical significance in a similar multivariable model (OR=2.11, 95% CI [0.50, 8.97]). All neonates of mothers with COVID-19 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR.

Conclusions: - Despite the fact that all neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR, we found that COVID-19 in term patients admitted to Labor and Delivery is associated with increased rates of placental histopathologic abnormalities, particularly fetal vascular malperfusion and villitis of unknown etiology. These findings appear to occur even among asymptomatic term patients.

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Background: Universal screening has been proposed as a strategy to identify asymptomatic individuals infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and mitigate transmission.

Aim: To investigate the rate of positive tests among pregnant women in Melbourne, Australia.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional prevalence study at three maternity hospitals (one tertiary referral hospital and two secondary maternities) in Melbourne, Australia. SARS-CoV-2 testing was offered to all pregnant women attending face-to-face antenatal visits and to those attending the hospital with symptoms of possible coronavirus disease, between 6th and 19th of May 2020. Testing was performed by multiplex-tandem polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on combined oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs. The primary outcome was the proportion of positive SARS-CoV-2 tests.

Findings: SARS-CoV-2 testing was performed in 350 women, of whom 19 had symptoms of possible COVID-19. The median maternal age was 32 years (IQR 28-35 years), and the median gestational age at testing was 33 weeks and four days (IQR 28 weeks to 36 weeks and two days). All 350 tests returned negative results (p̂=0%, 95% CI 0-0.86%).

Conclusion: In a two-week period of low disease prevalence, the rate of asymptomatic coronavirus infection among pregnant women in Australia during the study period was negligible, reflecting low levels of community transmission.

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SARS-CoV-2 IgG screening of 1,000 antenatal serum samples in the Oxford area, United Kingdom, between 14 April and 15 June 2020, yielded a 5.3% seroprevalence, mirroring contemporaneous regional data. Among the 53 positive samples, 39 showed in vitro neutralisation activity, correlating with IgG titre (Pearson's correlation p<0.0001). While SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in pregnancy cohorts could potentially inform population surveillance, clinical correlates of infection and immunity in pregnancy, and antenatal epidemiology evolution over time need further study.

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In this article, we reviewed and compared some of COVID-19 and pregnancy guidelines; this can be useful for pregnant women including those with a history of infertility specially those undergone assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The general advice given for prenatal care is to reduce face-to-face visits. All women who refer for prenatal visits should be evaluated for signs of the infection at the time of entry. The triage of suspected women should be done separately from other patients. Outpatient monitoring with a 14-day selfquarantine can be considered for asymptomatic infected women and for those with mild symptoms. Inpatient management criteria include moderate to severe symptoms and the target level of oxygen saturation is 92 to 95% in different guidelines. In the presence of fever, it is important to conduct a thorough examination of other causes of the fever. It is important to monitor fluid intake and output, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and prevent fluid overload. Thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended. Corticosteroid administration is based on obstetrics indications, while in critical ill cases, it should be based on multi-disciplinary teams (MDT) decision. A positive COVID-19 result in the absence of other obstetrics causes, cannot be considered an indication for delivery in mild and asymptomatic cases. In critically ill pregnant women, an individualized decision should be made about delivery time by the MDT. General anesthetic should be avoided unless inevitable for standard procedures such as intubation is an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). There is agreement on the point that babies born to infected mothers, even if isolated from the mother at birth, should be considered a close contact of the mother and tested for COVID-19 and separated from other neonates. Breastfeeding is encouraged and hand hygiene and face mask during feeding are highly recommended by all guidelines.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global health emergency [1, 2], with Lombardy being the epicenter of this outbreak in Italy [3].

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Background: There are specific physiologic features regarding the immunity and coagulation among pregnant women, which may play important roles in the illness development of COVID-19.

Objective: To determine the key factors associated with the deterioration of patients with COVID-19 and the differentiating clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19, to interfere with the progression of COVID-19.

Study design: A retrospective study of 539 Chinese Han adult patients with COVID-19 was conducted, of which 36 cases were pregnant women. 36 pregnant women without COVID-19 were recruited as the control. The characteristics of severe and critical illness which were differentiated from mild and moderate illness in patients with COVID-19 were analyzed using a machine learning algorithm. Additionally, major differences between pregnant women with COVID-19 and age-matched non-pregnant women with severe/critical COVID-19, paired with pregnant women without COVID-19, were explored to identify specific physiological features of pregnant women with COVID-19.

Results: For the total patient population, the lymphocyte, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD16+56+ cell counts were significantly lower, and white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were higher in those with severe/critical illness than those with mild/moderate illness (P<0.001). The plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-6 to IL-10 ratio (IL-6 /10) were significantly increased in critical patients, compared to mild, moderate and severe patients (P<0.001). The above immunological co-clusters achieved an AUC of 0.801 (95% CI: 0.764-0.838); and its combined model with the coagulation and fibrinolysis index (prothrombin time, d-dimer) achieved an AUC of 0.815 (95% CI: 0.779-0.851) using the random Forest regression model to predict severe or critical illness. For the pregnant women with COVID-19, none had pre-existing diseases. They displayed increased WBC, neutrophil count, NLR, and levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen, along with decreased lymphocyte and IL-4 level (P<0.05), compared with non-pregnant women with mild/moderate COVID-19. Although they presented similar changes of immunological markers of lymphocyte, WBC, NLR, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+56+ cell count and IL-6/10 compared with non-pregnant women with severe/critical COVID-19, none of the pregnant women with COVID-19 deteriorated into severe or critical illness. There were no significant differences in comparison to WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil, NLR, immunological markers or coagulation fibrinolysis markers between pregnant women with COVID-19 and pregnant women without COVID-19. As for the discrepancy of pathophysiological features between pregnant women with COVID-19 and non-pregnant women with severe/critical COVID-19, the immunological markers achieved an AUC of 0.875 (95% CI: 0.773-0.977); and its combined model with coagulation and fibrinolysis index achieved an AUC of 0.931 (95% CI: 0.850-1.000).

Conclusions: Immune dysregulation was identified as a crucial feature of COVID-19 patients which developed severe or critical illness, and pregnant women with COVID-19 presented with similar immune responses but rarer incidences of severe or critical illness. Immune dysregulation is related to the risks of deterioration into severe or critical illness. The specific coagulation/fibrinolysis system of pregnancy may reduce pregnant women with COVID-19 without pre-existing disease from the development of severe illness.

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Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the new coronavirus responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and atypical pneumonia. In non-pregnant women, studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 causes cardiac injury, which can result in myocardial inflammation and damage. Despite many studies investigating the extent of cardiac compromise in severely ill COVID-19 patients, little is known regarding its impact on pregnant women.

Objective: To illustrate the clinical, laboratory, radiological findings, and outcomes of COVID-19 pregnant patients who developed myocardial injury with ventricular dysfunction.

Study design: We retrospectively reviewed the paper records of fifteen pregnant women with COVID-19, who developed myocardial injury on a single tertiary care hospital in the Dominican Republic. Patient's baseline characteristics, clinical picture, laboratory, and radiological findings were presented, and maternal and fetal outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Of 154 pregnant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at our hospital during the study period, 15 (9.7%), developed myocardial injury. These patients' mean age and gestational age were 29.87 ± 5.83 and 32.31 ± 3.68, respectively. 66.7% of patients presented with shortness of breath and 16.3% with palpitations. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 86.6% needed intubation. Patients developed myocardial injury confirmed with highly elevated troponin (34.6 [14.4-55.5 ng/ml]), and pro-BNP concentrations (209 [184-246 pg/ml]). Additionally, all patients developed left ventricular dysfunction demonstrated by an echocardiogram with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 37.67 ± 6.4 %. Two patients that presented with palpitations passed away a few days after admission.

Conclusion: Our study showed COVID-19 induced myocardial injury and left ventricular dysfunction in pregnant women with a 13.3% mortality rate which was attributed to malignant arrhythmias.

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Objectives Information on the usefulness of screen-and-test strategies of pregnant women for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is lacking. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital database and searched for pregnant women, who were admitted to the hospital between March 15 and May 16, 2020, for a planned procedure or hospitalization. Their medical records were examined and SARS-CoV-2 test results were retrieved. Results During the two-month period analyzed, there were a total of 265 scheduled admissions of pregnant women to our hospital. Two hundred two (76.2%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 1 day prior to admission. All tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, regardless of having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-compatible signs or symptoms (n=28) or not (n=174). Conclusions In a population with a low SARS-CoV-2 burden, usefulness of universal testing of pregnant women before admission to the hospital is limited. We recommend that obstetric units in regions with low SARS-CoV-2 burden enforce rational use of personal protective equipment and diligent screening protocols using targeted questionnaires, whereas SARS-CoV-2 laboratory testing should be performed only in screen-positives: those with high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 and/or suspected epidemiological history.

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Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience high rates of malaria and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), such as dengue [1]. The COVID-19 pandemic complicates these matters further as COVID-19 in pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, and in some LMICs it is associated with a higher risk of maternal death [2].

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Peripartum deaths remain significantly high in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted essential services, which could lead to an increase in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, the lockdowns, curfews, and increased risk for contracting COVID-19 may affect how women access health facilities. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that requires a community-centred response, not just hospital-based interventions. In this prolonged health crisis, pregnant women deserve a safe and humanised birth that prioritises the physical and emotional safety of the mother and the baby. There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to prevent the deterioration of maternal and child outcomes in an already strained health system. We propose strengthening community-based midwifery to avoid unnecessary movements, decrease the burden on hospitals, and minimise the risk of COVID-19 infection among women and their newborns.

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Objective:The objective of this study was to define the threatened perception types of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the correlations between the perception types and their demographic factors, their preventive knowledge of COVID-19 and their mental status in order to provide suggestions for pregnant women during pandemic.

Methods:Latent class analysis were used to explore the optimal numbers of clusters. Multinomial logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis were used to analyze the demographic variables of the latent categories. MANOVA was used to analyze the difference of knowledge of COVID-19 obtained among clusters and their psychological status, and chi-square test was used determine the relationship between the latent clusters and the participant's COVID-19 worry level.

Results:Five clusters were found: the first cluster (n = 120, 39%) was unthreatened and confident. Cluster 2(n = 84, 28%) was unthreatened but not confident. Cluster 3 (n = 49, 17%) was threatened but confident. Cluster 4 (n = 25, 9%) was threaten, not confident and knowledgeable, and Cluster 5 (n = 20, 7%) was threatened, not confident and lacking knowledge. Three demographic variables were shown an effect on the classification, they were support from work, family support and intrapartum and postpartum complications.

Conclusion:This study can help assess the mental health risks of pregnant women during an epidemic. The results could be helpful for families, work units, communities and medical institutions to make targeted intervention decisions for pregnant women.

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Recent evidence supports the use of an early, short course of glucocorticoids in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation or oxygen support. As the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continues to increase, the number of pregnant women with the disease is very likely to increase as well. Because pregnant women are at increased risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation support, obstetricians will be facing the dilemma of initiating maternal corticosteroid therapy while weighing its potential adverse effects on the fetus (or neonate if the patient is postpartum and breastfeeding). Our objective is to summarize the current evidence supporting steroid therapy in the management of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19 and to elaborate on key modifications for the pregnant patient.

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The rapid emergence of the novel coronavirus [SARS-CoV2] and the coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] has caused significant global morbidity and mortality. This is particularly concerning for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Care for pregnant IBD patients in itself is a complex issue because of the delicate balance between controlling maternal IBD as well as promoting the health of the unborn child. This often requires continued immunosuppressive maintenance medication or the introduction of new IBD medication during pregnancy. The current global COVID-19 pandemic creates an additional challenge in the management of pregnant IBD patients. In this paper we aimed to answer relevant questions that can be encountered in daily clinical practice when caring for pregnant women with IBD during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

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Objectives The burden of undocumented SARS-Cov-2 infections in Portuguese pregnant women is unknown. At our institution, routine COVID-19 testing was implemented from 19th of March on to all pregnant women who were admitted for delivery. The purpose of the study was to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in our obstetric population admitted for delivery. Mathods Between 19th March and May 4th, 184 pregnant women were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection upon admission. Results Eleven women were positive for SARS-CoV-2, corresponding to a global prevalence of 6.0%. Of these, only two reported symptoms at admission. The prevalence of asymptomatic infection was 4.9%. We report a lower rate of positive cass than other studies. Eighty-two percent of our cases had no symptoms at admission. Conclusions The proportion of asymptomatic infection highlights the importance of universal laboratory screening for all women admitted for delivery as opposed to symptom-based screening.

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The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a challenge to every health system. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that this pandemic will disappear soon. No health system, with its present resources and workflow, is capable enough to deal with a full-blown wave of this pandemic. Acquisition of specific new skills may be fundamental in delivering appropriate health care for our patients. The gold standard for diagnosis of the COVID-19 infection is real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Radiological investigations (chest X-ray or high-resolution computerized tomography [CT]) can be helpful both for diagnosis and management, but they have many limitations. Ultrasound has been suggested as a reliable and accurate tool for assessing the lungs in COVID-19 patients. Lung ultrasound (LUS) can show specific signs of interstitial pneumonia, which is characteristic of COVID-19 pulmonary infection. In addition, nonradiologist specialists with experience in ultrasound can be trained on LUS with a relatively rapid learning curve. In pregnancy, LUS can be particularly useful due to the avoidance of exposure to ionizing radiation. In this review, we present the advantages, techniques, and limitations of the use of LUS during the COVID-19 pandemic, with specific focus on pregnancy.

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No abstract.

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Stress is one of the effective factors in the occurrence of negative effects during pregnancy that can cause adverse outcomes such as preterm delivery and reduced intrauterine growth of the fetus in pregnant women. Therefore, one of the serious concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic is the physical health and mental health of pregnant women. This study aimed to evaluate the physical health status with the spiritual and mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a descriptive study in 2019-2020 and the samples were randomly selected from all pregnant women who referred to hospitals and private maternity centers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and performed all pregnancy and fetal health tests. It was performed on 560 pregnant female samples. The mental status of pregnant women was assessed using the DASS Spiritual Health and Stress Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software (version 24). The results of this study showed that preterm birth, height, weight, and head circumference of babies and lungs and respiratory status of children with mental health and stress levels of pregnant women during the corona are significant compared with the previous of corona (p < 0.05). Increasing stress and decreasing the mental health of pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic can increase the influencing factors in preterm delivery and unhealthy birth.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emergent disease that has spread rapidly to infect more than 210 countries across the world. With the increasing number of infected pregnant women, many physicians hypothesized the perinatal transmission as a potential route of transmission. Some cases of perinatal transmission have been described, but it is unclear if these occurred via the transplacental or the transcervical routes or through environmental exposure. In this report, we described a case of a female infant who was delivered by caesarean section at 34 weeks' gestation to an infected mother. The neonate was transferred into the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Level 3, with the precaution of airborne and contact isolation. All required investigations were performed, including blood gases, nasopharyngeal swab, chest x-ray, and echocardiogram. On the fifth day of delivery, her investigations demonstrated a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Despite applying all recommended guidelines and following the treatment protocol, she developed severe respiratory symptoms with persistent pulmonary hypertension, which progressed significantly to her death.

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The rapidly expanding cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have exposed vulnerable populations, including pregnant women to an unprecedented public health crisis. Recent data show that pregnancy in COVID-19 patients is associated with increased hospitalization, admission of the intensive care unit, and intubation. However, very few resources exist to guide the multidisciplinary team in managing critically ill pregnant women with COVID-19. We report our experience with managing a morbidly obese pregnant woman at 36 weeks' gestation with history of asthma and malignancy who presented with persistent respiratory symptoms at an outside hospital after being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Early in the course of the hospitalization, patient received remdesivir, convalescent plasma, bronchodilator, systemic steroids, and IV heparin for COVID-19 and concomitant asthma exacerbation and pulmonary embolism. Due to increasing oxygen requirements, she was eventually intubated and transferred to our institution for higher level of care. Respiratory acidosis, severe hypoxemia, and vent asynchrony were managed with vent setting adjustment and paralytics. After 12 hours from spontaneous rupture of her membranes and with stabilization of maternal status, patient underwent a term cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal heart tracing. The neonate was discharged on the 2nd day of life, while the patient was extubated on the 6th postpartum day and was discharged to acute inpatient rehabilitation facility on the 19th hospital day. This report highlights the disease progression of COVID-19 in a pregnant woman, the clinical challenges in the critical care aspect of patient management, and the proposed multidisciplinary strategies utilizing an algorithmic approach to optimize maternal and neonatal outcomes.

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Objectives The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy, especially in Lombardy and Bergamo city, represented probably nowadays one of the first major clusters of COVID-19 in the world. The aim of this report is to describe the activity of Bergamo Teratology Information Service (TIS) in supporting the public and health-care personnel in case of drug prescriptions in suspected/confirmed COVID-19 pregnant and lactating patients during COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Methods All Bergamo TIS requests concerning COVID-19 pregnant and lactating women have been retrospectively evaluated from 1 March to 15 April 2020. Type of medications, drug's safety profile and compatibility with pregnancy and lactation are reported. Results Our service received information calls concerning 48 (9 pregnant, 35 lactating) patients. Among pregnant and lactating women, the requests of information were related to 16 and 60 drugs prescriptions respectively. More than half concerned drugs prescriptions during the first and second trimester (13/16) and during the first six months of lactation (37/60). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were the most involved. Conclusions Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin at dosages used for COVID-19 may be considered compatible and reasonably safe either in pregnancy and lactation. Antivirals may be considered acceptable in pregnancy. During lactation lopinavir and ritonavir probably exhibit some supportive data from literature that darunavir and cobicistat do not. Tocilizumab may be considered for COVID-19 treatment because no increased malformation rate were observed until now. However caution may be advised because human data are limited and the potential risk of embryo-fetal toxicity cannot be excluded.

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Background: To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown has been decreed in many countries worldwide. The impact of pregnancy as a severity risk factor is still debated, but strict lockdown measures have been recommended for pregnant women.

Objectives:To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the seroprevalence and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a maternity ward in an area that has been significantly affected by the virus.

Study design: Prospective study at the Antoine Béclère Hospital maternity ward (Paris area, France) from May 4 (one week before the end of lockdown) to May 31, 2020 (three weeks after the end of lockdown). All patients admitted to the delivery room during this period were offered a SARS-CoV-2 serology test as well concomitant SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on one nasopharyngeal sample.

Results: A total of 249 women were included. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8%. The RT-PCR positive rate was 0.5%. 47.4% of the SARS-CoV-2-IgG-positive pregnant women never experienced any symptoms. A history of symptoms during the epidemic, such as fever (15.8%), myalgia (36.8%) and anosmia (31.6%), was suggestive of previous infection.

Conclusions: Three weeks after the end of French lockdown, SARS-CoV-2 infections were scarce in our region. A very high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-IgG-negative pregnant women, which is comparable to that of the general population, must be taken into consideration in the event of a resurgence of the pandemic. The traces of a past active circulation of the virus in this fragile population during the spring wave should encourage public health authorities to take specific measures for this independent at-risk group, in order to reduce viral circulation in pregnant patients.

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On April 2, 2020, we received a maternal transport from a local city hospital of a pregnant woman (38 weeks and 0 days of gestation) in her 20s, who had the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed an emergency cesarean section with spinal anesthesia because of an abnormal fetal heart rate pattern. A healthy 3106-g male baby was delivered. All the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction tests of nasal and oral discharges, anal swabs and blood samples of the neonate at 9 h, 30 h and 4 days after birth were negative. Because the mother was diagnosed as having COVID-19 pneumonia, the neonate was given formula milk. The mother's nasal discharge samples at 20 and 21 days were negative. The mother first held her baby in her arms on the 22nd day after birth, and they were discharged on the following day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Japan of a delivery of a baby from a woman infected with COVID-19.

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The study examined two angles of childbirth anxieties of Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel during the COVID-19 pandemic (March-April, 2020). Specifically, we examined the contribution of personal resources: self-compassion and perceived social support, as well as a couple of COVID-19-related fears of being infected and concern for the foetus, to both the woman's global fear of childbirth (FOC) and her COVID-19-related childbirth anxiety. Participants were Jewish and Arab pregnant women (n = 403) aged 20-47, who completed a set of structured self-report questionnaires from 18 March to 9 April 2020. Findings indicated that Arab women reported higher level of COVID-19-related childbirth anxiety and COVID-19-related fears of being infected and concern for the foetus. In addition, poorer health, being an Arab woman, being in the third trimester, lower self-compassion, and higher COVID-19-related fears contributed significantly to greater COVID-19-related childbirth anxiety. Furthermore, poorer health, being primiparous, at-risk pregnancy, lower self-compassion and higher fear of being infected contributed significantly to greater FOC. Importantly, social support was found to moderate the association between self-compassion and FOC. The results highlight the need to be attentive to pregnant women in times of crisis, and in particular to especially vulnerable subgroups, such as cultural minorities. They also highlight the importance of personal resources that may be applied in targeted interventions to reduce distress in vulnerable populations.

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Coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is mainly transmitted through droplets, but other ways of transmission have been hypothesized. We report a case of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a preterm born to an infected mother, confirmed by the presence of the virus in the neonatal blood, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs collected in the first half an hour of life. The neonate presented with acute respiratory distress, similar to the findings in severely affected adults. This case highlights the importance of pregnancy, labor and neonatal period surveillance of affected mothers and their newborns.

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With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and its rapid spread, concerns regarding its effects on pregnancy outcomes have been growing. We reviewed 245 pregnancies complicated by maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection across 48 studies listed on PubMed and MedRxiv. The most common clinical presentations were fever (55.9%), cough (36.3%), fatigue (11.4%), and dyspnea (12.7%). Only 4.1% of patients developed respiratory distress. Of all patients, 89.0% delivered via cesarean section (n = 201), with a 33.3% rate of gestational complications, a 35.3% rate of preterm delivery, and a concerning 2.5% rate of stillbirth delivery or neonatal death. Among those tested, 6.45% of newborns were reported positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relative to known viral infections, the prognosis for pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 is good, even in the absence of specific antiviral treatment. However, neonates and acute patients, especially those with gestational or preexisting comorbidities, must be actively managed to prevent the severe outcomes being increasingly reported in the literature.

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Objectives To assess perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods An analysis was performed using Stata 15.0, and Q-test was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results The most common symptoms were found to be fever (64.78%), cough (59.81%) and shortness of breath or dyspnea (23.86%). Of this 88.73% patients demonstrated typical COVID-19 signs on chest CT or X-ray. Intubation was carried out in 35.87% of patients, and 4.95% of mothers were admitted to the intensive care unit, where the rate of maternal death was <0.01% and that of premature delivery was 25.32%. The rate of the birth weight being <2,500 g was 30.65% and that of Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission was 24.41%. Positive nasopharynx swabs or sputum from newborns was <0.01%. Conclusions Pregnant patients with COVID-19 most commonly presented with fever, cough, shortness of breath and dyspnea, most of which possessed imaging manifestations. The risk of intubation and admission to intensive care unit were high. The risk of premature delivery was higher, leading to a high risk of NICU admission and low neonatal birthweight. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child was found to be unlikely.

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Objective: This study aimed to describe two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and resulting in premature delivery.

Study design: The clinical course of two women hospitalized with ARDS due to COVID-19 care in our intensive care (ICU) is summarized; both participants provided consent to be included in this case series.

Results: Both women recovered with no clinical sequelae. Neonatal outcomes were within the realm of expected for prematurity with the exception of coagulopathy. There was no vertical transmission to the neonates.

Conclusion: This case series highlights that ECMO is a feasible treatment in the pregnant woman with severe COVID-19 and that delivery can be performed safely on ECMO with no additional risk to the fetus. While ECMO carries its natural risks, it should be considered a viable option during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

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No abstract.

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Objective: Previous studies comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to prepandemic periods reported either no change or a decrease in extremely preterm birth (PTB) rates during the pandemic.1, 2 These studies evaluated a limited number of potential PTB confounders and a short pandemic period. We aimed to determine the change in PTB rate and neonatal outcomes during the pandemic in comparison to prepandemic periods by evaluating multiple obstetrical characteristics, during more than three pandemic months.

Study design: We compared maternal, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies at the Sheba Medical Center, Israel, during three periods: from 20/03/2020 (date of implementation of governmental state of lockdown) to 27/06/2020 (group 1), a parallel period in 2019 (group 2), and to another group that included the parallel annual periods in 2011-2019 (group 3) (see Table). We also compared maternal and pregnancy characteristics during the pandemic and corresponding prepandemic period in 2019 between pregnancies complicated by PTB <340 /7 versus ≥340 /7 weeks (see Table). Multivariate regression analysis was performed in order to study independent factors associated with PTB. The institutional review board approved this study (7068-20-SMC, 03 /30/2020).

Results: There were 2,594 deliveries during the pandemic period (group 1) and 2,742 and 28,686 deliveries in the prepandemic periods (groups 2 and 3, respectively). Maternal and obstetrical characteristics did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Predelivery hemoglobin levels were higher in the pandemic period. PTB <340 /7 weeks rate was significantly lower in the pandemic period compared to group 2 (OR 0.45 95% CI 0.30-0.68, p<0.001), as was the rate of composite neonatal outcome (OR 0.76 95% CI 0.59-0.96, p=0.023). Age, body mass index, parity, diabetes rates and hematologic characteristics differed between groups 1 and 3 with significantly higher predelivery hemoglobin levels in group 1. PTB <340/7 weeks rate was lower in the pandemic period (OR 0.60 95% CI 0.41-0.85, p=0.004). On multivariate regression analysis, delivering during the pandemic period was independently associated with a decreased risk for delivery <340/7 weeks (adjusted OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15-0.56, p=0.001).

Conclusion: We observed more than 50% reduction in the rate of PTB <340 /7 weeks of gestation, possibly resulting in improved neonatal outcome.

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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. However, little is known about the association between pregnant women with COVID-19 and the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

Method: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the Maternal and Child Health Information System (MCHIMS) of Wuhan, China. All pregnant women with singleton live birth recorded by the system between January 13 and March 18, 2020, were included. The adverse birth outcomes were preterm birth, low birth weight, neonatal asphyxia, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), and cesarean section delivery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between maternal COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse birth outcomes.

Results: Out of 11,078 pregnant women, 65 were confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No deaths occurred from these confirmed cases or their newborns. Compared to pregnant women without COVID-19, pregnant women with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis had an increased risk of preterm birth (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.60-7.00) and cesarean section (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.95-6.76). There was no statistical difference in low birth weight, neonatal asphyxia, and PROM between the mothers with and without COVID-19. Among these newborns that were born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19, none was tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive or had abnormal CT results. Only one had diarrhea and three had a fever.

Conclusions:This population-based cohort study suggests that COVID-19 during the later pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, including iatrogenic preterm birth and cesarean section delivery. Our data provide little evidence for maternal-fetal vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It is important to monitor the long-term health effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant women and their children.

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Background:Today, COVID-19 has become the most important health burdenall over the world.Pregnant women are determined as one of the high-risk groups. COVID-19 infection in this group may result in huge damages. This study aimed to report COVID-19 infection in four pregnant women in Ilam, Iran.

Findings: In the present study, four pregnant women infected with COVID-19 were reported. They were first positive for real-time PCR and then their CT scan werepositive, main clinical parameters of these patients were presented. All of these patients were hospitalized and all of them were treated successfully.

Conclusion: This study showed although pregnant women were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, they were treated successfully. This study also reported that receiving the necessary care and treatment atthe hospital for pregnant women can be a good experience.

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Objective: To investigate pregnancy outcomes and compare the clinical characteristics of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease in pregnant and agematched non-pregnant women.

Materials and methods: Hospital records of four tertiary care centers were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects comprised 188 pregnant patients and 799 non-pregnant women who were admitted to these hospitals.

Results: Pregnancy significantly affected the clinical severity of COVID-19 and this effect was more prominent in pregnant women at >20 weeks gestation (p<0.001). Rates of oxygen support (10.1% vs 4.8%; p≤0.001), intensive care unit admission (3.2% vs 0.6%; p=0.009), presence of fever (12.8% vs 4.4%; p<0.001), tachypnea (7.0% vs 2.4%; p=0.003) and tachycardia (16.0% vs 1.9%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Pregnancy was strongly associated with the need for oxygen support [relative risk (RR), 2.125; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-3.60] and admission to the intensive care unit (RR, 5.1; 95% CI: 1.57-16.53) compared with non-pregnant women. Some 14.4% of the pregnant women had co-morbidities. Sixty of the 188 pregnant women (31.9%) delivered during the Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, 11 (18.3%) had vaginal deliveries and 49 (81.7%) were by cesarean section. Of these 60 deliveries, 40 (66.7%) were <37 weeks gestation.

Conclusion: Pregnancy worsens the morbidity of COVID-19 and this effect seems to increase as the pregnancy advances, but not the mortality rate.

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Objective: Reliable data regarding maternal mental well-being during the Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are scarce. This study aimed to assess the state/trait anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms of pregnant women and compare those with the non-pregnant population using patient-reported validated outcome measures.

Materials and methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted at a tertiary 'Coronavirus Pandemic Hospital' in İstanbul, Turkey in April, 2020. Pregnant and non-pregnant women were consecutively allocated to two groups regardless of gestational age. The primary outcome was to identify the anxiety levels and obsessive-compulsive symptoms of pregnant women during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic using the State-Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI) and Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive inventory (MOCI), respectively.

Results: Two hundred three pregnant women and 101 non-pregnant women were included. The mean STAI-S questionnaire score of pregnant and nonpregnant women was 41.96±9.15 and 46.62±12, respectively (p=0.001). The overall incidence of STAI >40 in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 62.6% and 73.3%, respectively. The mean total score of MOCI was 17.9±6.7 and 15±6.6 in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. The overall incidence of 30-item-MOCI ≥13.1 in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 61.6% (125/203) and 30.7% (31/103), respectively (p<0.001).

Conclusion: State anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in pregnant women were found increased during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pregnant women showed more favourable anxiety levels compared with non-pregnant women. These findings can be used to improve the coping skills of pregnant women during the pandemic, to prepare for the post-pandemic period, and to deal with the long-term mental health impact of COVID-19.

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Objective: Evidence for the use of lung ultrasound scan (LUS) examinations in coronavirus 2019 pneumonia is rapidly growing. The safe and non-ionizing nature of LUS drew attention, particularly for pregnant women. This study aimed to contribute to the interpretation of LUS findings in pregnant women for the obstetricians.

Materials and methods: LUS was performed to pregnant women suspected of or diagnosed as having Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the first 24 hours of admission. Fourteen areas (3 posterior, 2 lateral, and 2 anterior) were scanned per patient for at least 10 seconds along the indicated anatomical landmarks. The scan was performed in supine, right-sided and left-sided positions, respectively. Each area was given a score between 0 and 3 according to the specific pattern.

Results: In this study, 21 still images and 21 videoclips that enabled dynamic and real-time evaluation were provided. Pleural line assessment, physiologic A-lines, pathologic B-lines, light beam pattern, white lung pattern, and specific patterns for quick recognition and evaluation are described.

Conclusion: The potential advantages and limitations of LUS and its areas of use for obstetricians are discussed. LUS is a promising supplementary imaging tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is easy to perform and may be feasible in the hands of obstetricians after a brief didactic course. It may be a firstline imaging modality for pregnant women.

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At the onset of the global pandemic of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), guidelines recommended using regional anaesthesia for caesarean section in preference to general anaesthesia. National figures from the UK suggest that 8.75% of over 170,000 caesarean sections are performed under general anaesthetic. We explored whether general anaesthesia rates for caesarean section changed during the peak of the pandemic across six maternity units in the north-west of England. We analysed anaesthetic information for 2480 caesarean sections across six maternity units from 1 April to 1 July 2020 (during the pandemic) and compared this information with data from 2555 caesarean sections performed at the same hospitals over a similar period in 2019. Primary outcome was change in general anaesthesia rate for caesarean section. Secondary outcomes included overall caesarean section rates, obstetric indications for caesarean section and regional to general anaesthesia conversion rates. A significant reduction (7.7 to 3.7%, p < 0.0001) in general anaesthetic rates, risk ratio (95%CI) 0.50 (0.39-0.93), was noted across hospitals during the pandemic. Regional to general anaesthesia conversion rates reduced (1.7 to 0.8%, p = 0.012), risk ratio (95%CI) 0.50 (0.29-0.86). Obstetric indications for caesarean sections did not change (p = 0.17) whilst the overall caesarean section rate increased (28.3 to 29.7%), risk ratio (95%CI) 1.02 (1.00-1.04), p = 0.052. Our analysis shows that general anaesthesia rates for caesarean section declined during the peak of the pandemic. Anaesthetic decision-making, recommendations from anaesthetic guidelines and presence of an on-site anaesthetic consultant in the delivery suite seem to be the key factors that influenced this decline.

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Since February 24, 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have been continually reported in Oman, with a mortality rate of 0.7% [1]. This retrospective descriptive study aims to describe maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with COVID-19 at a tertiary care center in Muscat, Oman. Additionally, the present study highlights the specific clinical features and management of COVID-19 in this part of the world.

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Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with cardiac injury1-3 and bradycardia4 in the non-pregnant population. The incidence of these complications in pregnancy is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of abnormal serum cardiac biomarkers or bradycardia among pregnant and immediately postpartum women admitted for treatment of severe or critical COVID-19 in a large integrated health system in New York.

Study design: This is a retrospective review of all pregnant and immediately postpartum women hospitalized for COVID-19 at 7 hospitals within Northwell Health, the largest academic health system in New York state, from March 1 to April 30, 2020. Women who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and who met the National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria for severe or critical illness5 were included. Women with a positive PCR test who were admitted for a reason other than treatment of COVID-19 (eg, labor) were excluded. The Northwell Health Institutional Review Board approved the study as minimal-risk research using data collected for routine clinical practice and waived the requirement for informed consent. Clinical records were manually reviewed. Data collected included demographics, medical comorbidities, pregnancy characteristics, laboratory and imaging results, medications administered, and clinical outcomes. Laboratory and imaging studies were ordered at the discretion of the attending physician. The primary outcomes evaluated were elevated cardiac troponins (I, T, or high sensitivity), elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), bradycardia (defined as < 60 beats per minute, bpm), and maternal heart rate (HR) nadir. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the data.

Results: A total of 31 women met inclusion criteria; 20 (65%) had cardiac biomarkers measured during hospitalization (Table). Cardiac troponins and BNP were elevated in 22% (n=4/18) and 30% (n=3/10) of these patients, respectively. Four patients had transthoracic echocardiograms performed and all were reported as normal. No patients had preexisting cardiovascular disease or hypertension. Two maternal mortalities in this cohort were previously reported;6 both patients had elevated cardiac troponins and one also had an elevated BNP. The nadir HR ranged from 30-92 bpm and bradycardia occurred in one-third of patients (n=10/31). Half of women with elevated troponin and three-fourths of women with elevated BNP had an episode of bradycardia recorded during their hospital course.

Conclusion: Myocardial injury as demonstrated by abnormal cardiac biomarkers and bradycardia may be common among pregnant women with severe or critical COVID-19. In this study, one-fifth of patients who had troponin levels measured were found to have elevations (one-eighth of the overall study population). Among patients who had brain natriuretic peptide levels measured, 30% were elevated (10% of the overall study population). One third of women had bradycardia. This study is limited by a small sample size. Laboratory testing and imaging was not uniform due to the retrospective nature of the study. Sampling bias was unavoidable because the decision to measure cardiac markers or perform imaging studies was made by the patient's care team, based on clinical presentation rather than a formal protocol. Few studies have evaluated the risk of cardiac injury or arrhythmia among pregnant women with COVID-19. It is also unknown whether there are long-term sequelae that affect maternal health or future pregnancy outcomes. This is an important area of focus for future research.

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The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation remains unclear. Here, we analyse the viral genome on maternal and newborns nasopharyngeal swabs, vaginal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord plasma, placenta and umbilical cord biopsies, amniotic fluids and milk from 31 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we also test specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in placentas, and in maternal and umbilical cord plasma. We detect SARS-CoV-2 genome in one umbilical cord blood and in two at-term placentas, in one vaginal mucosa and in one milk specimen. Furthermore, we report the presence of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in one umbilical cord blood and in one milk specimen. Finally, in the three documented cases of vertical transmission, SARS-CoV-2 infection was accompanied by a strong inflammatory response. Together, these data support the hypothesis that in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, while low, is possible. These results might help defining proper obstetric management of COVID-19 pregnant women, or putative indications for mode and timing of delivery.

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Background: Older age and medical comorbidities are identified risk factors for developing severe COVID-19. However, there are limited data on risk stratification, clinical and laboratory course, and optimal management of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Objective: Our study aims to describe the clinical course of COVID-19, effect of comorbidities on disease severity, laboratory trends, and pregnancy outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women.

Study design: This is a case series of pregnant and postpartum women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 3/1/2020 and 5/11/2020 within 3 hospitals of the Yale-New Haven Health delivery network. Charts were reviewed for basic sociodemographic and pre-pregnancy characteristics, COVID-19 course, laboratory values, and pregnancy outcomes.

Results: Out of 1,567 tested pregnant and postpartum women between 3/1/2020 and 5/11/2020, 9% (n=141) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 result. Hispanic women were overrepresented in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group (n=61; 43.8%). Additionally, Hispanic ethnicity was associated with higher rate of moderate and severe disease compared to non-Hispanic (18% (11/61) vs 3.8% (3/78), respectively, OR 5.5 95% CI 1.46-20.7, p=0.01). Forty-four women (31.2%) were asymptomatic, 37 (26.2%) of whom were diagnosed on universal screening upon admission for delivery. Fifty-nine percent (n=83) were diagnosed antepartum, 36% (n=51) upon presentation for childbirth and 5% (n=7) postpartum. Severe disease was diagnosed in 6 cases (4.3%) and there was one maternal death. Obese women were more likely to develop moderate and severe disease than non-obese women (16.4% (9/55) vs 3.8% (3/79), OR 4.96, 95%CI 1.28-19.25, p=0.02). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were diagnosed in 22.3% (17/77) of women who delivered after 20 weeks. Higher levels of C-reactive protein during antepartum COVID-19-related admission were more common in women with worse clinical course; this association, however, did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: COVID-19 in pregnancy may result in severe disease and death. Hispanic women were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 than other ethnic groups. Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity represent risk factors for moderate and severe disease.

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The aim of the current study was to assess the risk for post-partum depression among women delivering during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the risk among women delivering before the COVID-19 pandemic. A cohort study was performed among women delivering singletons at term which were recruited in the maternity wards of the Soroka University Medical Center. Recruitment was done during the COVID-19 strict isolation period (March 18 and April 29, 2020). Women delivering during the COVID-19 pandemic completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the results were compared to women delivering at the same medical center before the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to control for potential confounders. A total of 223 women who delivered during the COVID-19 strict isolation period were recruited. Women delivering during the COVID-19 pandemic had lower risk of having a high (> 10) or very high (≥ 13) EPDS score as compared with women delivering before the COVID-19 pandemic (16.7% vs 31.3%, p = 0.002, and 6.8% vs 15.2%, p = 0.014, for EPDS ≥ 10 and EPDS ≥ 13, respectively). These results remained similar in the multivariable logistic regression models, for both EPDS score ≥ 10 and EPDS score ≥ 13, while controlling for maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, and adverse pregnancy outcomes (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.23-0.70, p = 0.001 and adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.15-0.74, p = 0.007 for EPDS score > 10 and > 13, respectively). In our population, delivering during the COVID-19 pandemic was independently associated with lower risk of post-partum depression.

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Background: Improving and maintaining the health of mothers and newborns is indisputably a global priority, especially during a pandemic. This study intends to examine the factors associated with cesarean section (CS) during lockdown time.

Methods: A total of 678 women who just gave birth within 7 days were enrolled from maternal and children hospitals in nine cities of China from April to May 2020. The delivery modes and potential influencing factors were investigated. The subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to examine the association of CS and risk factors among populations with different characteristics and to control for possible confounding, respectively.

Results: The overall rate of cesarean delivery was 37.3%. In multi-variant model, maternal age > 30 years (OR, 95% CI = 1.71, 1.21-2.41), higher pre-gestational BMI (OR, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.10-1.23), living in regions with confirmed COVID-19 cases > 500 (OR, 95% CI = 2.45, 1.74-3.45), and excess gestational weight gain (OR, 95% CI = 1.73, 1.17-2.55) were associated with cesarean delivery. These trends of associations were not changes in sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. Cesarean delivery occurred more in women who got more nutrition instruction during the pandemic period in the univariant model; however, this association showed insignificance in the multiple-variant analysis.

Conclusion: A high cesarean delivery rate was found in uninfected women who experienced lockdown in their third trimester. During the COVID-19 pandemic, more medical support should be provided in severely affected regions to ensure and promote health in pregnancy.

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No abstract.

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Objective: Randomized controlled trials document the safety and efficacy of reduced frequency prenatal visit schedules and virtual visits, but real-world data are lacking. Our institution created a prenatal care delivery model incorporating these alternative approaches to continue safely providing prenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to evaluate institutional-level adoption and patient and provider experiences with the COVID-19 prenatal care model.

Study design: We conducted a single-site evaluation of a COVID-19 prenatal care model incorporating a reduced frequency visit schedule and virtual visits deployed at a suburban academic institution on March 20, 2020. We used Electronic Health Record data to evaluate institution-level model adoption, defined as changes in overall visit frequency and proportion of virtual visits in the three months before and after implementation. To evaluate the patient and provider experience with the COVID-19 model, we conducted an online survey of all pregnant patients (>20 weeks gestation) and providers in May 2020. Three domains of care experience were evaluated: 1) access, 2) quality and safety, and 3) satisfaction. Quantitative data were analyzed with basic descriptive statistics. Free-text responses coded by the three survey domains elucidated drivers of positive and negative care experiences.

Results: Following COVID-19 model adoption, average weekly prenatal visit volume fell by 16.1%, from 898 to 761 weekly visits, the average weekly proportion of prenatal visits conducted virtually increased from 10.8% (97/898) to 43.3% (330/761), and the average visit no-show rate remained stable (4.3% pre-implementation; 4.2%, post-implementation). Of those eligible, 74.8% (77/103) of providers and 15.0% (253/1690) of patients participated in the surveys. Patient respondents were largely white (180/253, 71.1%) and privately insured (199/253, 78.7%), reflecting the study site population. Rates of chronic conditions and pregnancy complications also differed from national prevalence. Provider respondents were predominantly white (44/66, 66.7%) and female (50/66, 75.8%). Most patients and almost all providers reported that virtual visits improved access to care (patients: 68.8%, 174/253; providers: 74/77, 96.1%). Over half of respondents (patients: 124/253, 53.3%; providers: 41/77, 62.1%) believed virtual visits were safe. Nearly all believed home blood pressure cuffs were important for virtual visits (patients: 213/231, 92.2%; providers: 63/66, 95.5%). Most reported satisfaction with the COVID-19 model (patients: 196/253, 77.5%; providers: 64/77, 83.1%). In free-text responses, drivers of positive care experiences were similar for patients and providers, and included perceived improved access to care through decreased barriers (e.g. transportation, childcare); perceived high quality of virtual visits for low-risk patients and increased safety during the pandemic; and improved satisfaction through better patient counseling. Perceived drivers of negative care experience were also similar for patients and providers, but less common. These included concerns that unequal access to virtual visits could deepen existing maternity care inequities, concerns that the lack of home devices (e.g. blood pressure cuffs) would impact care quality and safety, and dissatisfaction with poor patient-provider continuity and inadequate expectation-setting for the virtual visit experience.

Conclusion: Reduced visit schedules and virtual visits were rapidly integrated into real-world care, with positive experiences for many patients and providers. Future research is needed to understand the health outcomes and care experience associated with alternative approaches to prenatal care delivery across more diverse patient populations outside of the COVID-19 pandemic, to inform broader health policy decisions.

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Background: The disease caused by the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2) was named Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy are limited to the second and the third trimester of pregnancy, while data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether SARS-CoV-2 is one of them is still unknown.

Objective(s): With this study we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, COVID-19 course in the first trimester was assessed. Study design: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among first trimester pregnant women, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by detection of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharingeal swab and SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies in blood sample. Patient demographics, COVID-19-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected.

Results: Twenty-three of the 225 women (23/225, 10.2%) tested positive for COVID-19 infection. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (p=0.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that COVID-19 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (Odd Ratio 1.28, confidence interval 0.53-3.08). COVID-19 related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia and diarrhea; no pneumonia or Hospital admission due to COVID-19-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the two groups.

Conclusion(s): SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not appear to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. COVID-19 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and the third trimester.

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This study aims to investigate whether maternal SARS-CoV-2 status affects placental pathology. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts and slides of placentas delivered between April 1 to July 24, 2020. Clinical history of "COVID-19" was searched in Pathology Database (CoPath). Controls were matched with SARS-CoV-2-negative women with singleton deliveries in the 3rd-trimester. Pathological features were extracted from placental pathology reports. Results: Twenty-one 3rd trimester placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women were identified and compared to 20 placentas from SARS-CoV-2-negative women. There were no significant differences in individual or group gross or microscopic pathological features. Within the SARS-CoV-2+ group, there are no differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Conclusion: Placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women do not demonstrate a specific pathological pattern. Pregnancy complicated with COVID-19 during the 3rd trimester does not have a demonstrable effect on placental structure and pathology.

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Background: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period of growth and enrichment along with many physiological and psychological challenges. These changes can lead to complications if compounded by external stress and anxiety. COVID-19 has emerged as a chief stressor among the general population and is a serious threat among vulnerable populations. Therefore, there is a need for stress management tools, such as Yoga and physical exercises, both at home and at work. These can be adopted during the pandemic with proper maintenance of social distancing.

Objective: To evaluate and compile literature that has reported the health outcomes of Yoga intervention on pregnancy at the workplace and analyzes both the restrictions as well as advantages of its beneficial effects in comparison to physical exercises.

Methodology: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used for the search include "Yoga", "work", "complications", "physical exercise", "drugs" and "COVID" indifferent permutations and combinations with "pregnancy". We compiled the literature with respect to pregnancy complications and the effects of drugs, physical activity and Yoga for preventing these complications.

Results: We noted that pregnancy-related complications are becoming more prevalent because of a sedentary lifestyle, restricted physical activity and growing stress. In such situations, a home or workplace Yoga protocol can combine both exercise and mindfulness-based alleviation of anxiety for both working and non-working women. Conclusion: Yoga can be effective for combating stress and anxiety besides boosting immunity in pregnant working women confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Pregnant women may be at risk for more severe manifestations and sequelae of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At this time, there remain significant evidence gaps to allow for comprehensive counseling of pregnant women and their families, specifically regarding the risks of gestational-age specific maternal outcomes and potential risks of intrauterine or peripartum viral transmission to the fetus or newborn. As maternal fetal medicine providers and consultants, we are uniquely positioned to mitigate the risks associated with maternal infection and to guide the care for infected pregnant women by being able to provide the most current evidence-based recommendations. Such care requires incorporating the rapidly evolving data regarding this virus and its impact on pregnancy, as well as taking a stand to advocate for best scientific and clinical practices to optimize both women's health and public health during this pandemic.

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Physical activity is known to decline during pregnancy and the postnatal period, yet physical activity is recommended during this time due to the significant health benefits for mothers and their offspring. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed to reduce infection rates, pregnant and postnatal women have experienced disruption not just to their daily lives but also to their pregnancy healthcare experience and their motherhood journey with their new infant. This has included substantial changes in how, when and why they have engaged with physical activity. While some of these changes undoubtedly increased the challenge of being sufficiently active as a pregnant or postnatal woman, they have also revealed new opportunities to reach and support women and their families. This commentary details these challenges and opportunities, and highlights how researchers and practitioners can, and arguably must, harness these short-term changes for long-term benefit. This includes a call for a fresh focus on how we can engage and support those individuals and groups who are both hardest hit by COVID-19 and have previously been under-represented and under-served by antenatal and postnatal physical activity research and interventions.

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Background: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences.

Methods: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey.

Results: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help.

Conclusions: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.

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We aimed to summarize reliable medical evidence by the meta-analysis of all published retrospective studies that examined data based on the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by clinical symptoms, molecular (RT-PCR) diagnosis, and characteristic CT imaging features in pregnant women. The MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalKey, and CINAHL databases were used to select the studies. Then, 384 articles were received, including the studies until 01/May/2020. As a result of the full-text evaluation, 12 retrospective articles covering all the data related were selected. A total of 181 pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infections were included in the meta-analysis within the scope of these articles. According to the results, the incidence of fever was 38.1% (95% CI: 14.2-65%) and cough was 22% (95% CI: 10.8-35.2%) among all clinical features of pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. So, fever and cough are the most common symptoms in pregnant cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 91.8% (95% CI: 76.7-99.9%) of RT-PCR results are positive. Moreover, abnormal CT incidence is 97.9% (95% CI: 94.2-99.9%) positive. No case was death. However, as this virus spreads globally, it should not be overlooked that the incidence will increase in pregnant women and maybe in the risky group. RT-PCR and CT can be used together in an accurate and safe diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings will provide important guidance for current studies regarding the clinical features and correct detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, as well as whether it will create emergency tables that will require the use of a viral drug.

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The World Health Organization announced on 12 March 2020 a global pandemic of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causing COVID-19 disease associated with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. SARS-CoV-2 has caused so far over 6.66 million recorded cases, of which 393,000 ended in death (as of June 1, 2020). Despite the demographic statistics of incidence, there is no current recording of cases in the group of pregnant or perinatal women. Changes occurring in the female body system during pregnancy also affect and alter the immune system, and as studies based on other viral respiratory infections have shown, the population of pregnant women is at risk of having a severe course of the disease. The aim of the study is to summarize current reports on the course of COVID-19 disease in a group of pregnant women and the possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the foetus and vertical transmission, taking into account changes occurring in the woman's immune system during pregnancy. Available advice and recommendations for antenatal and perinatal care of pregnant women during the pandemic period are also included.

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Background: Remdesivir is efficacious for severe COVID-19 in adults, but data in pregnant women are limited. We describe outcomes in the first 86 pregnant women with severe COVID-19 who were treated with remdesivir.

Methods: Reported data span March 21 to June 16, 2020 for hospitalized pregnant women with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and room air oxygen saturation ≤94% whose clinicians requested remdesivir through the compassionate use program. The intended remdesivir treatment course was 10 days (200mg on Day 1, followed by 100mg for Days 2-10, given intravenously).

Results: Nineteen of 86 women delivered before their first dose and were reclassified as immediate "postpartum" (median postpartum day=1; range 0-3). At baseline, 40% of pregnant women (median gestational age 28 weeks) required invasive ventilation, in contrast to 95% of postpartum women (median gestational age at delivery 30 weeks). By Day 28 of follow-up, the level of oxygen requirement decreased in 96% and 89% of pregnant and postpartum women, respectively. Among pregnant women, 93% of those on mechanical ventilation were extubated, 93% recovered, and 90% were discharged. Among postpartum women, 89% were extubated, 89% recovered, and 84% were discharged. Remdesivir was well tolerated, with a low incidence of serious adverse events (16%). Most adverse events were related to pregnancy and underlying disease; most laboratory abnormalities were Grades 1 or 2. There was one maternal death attributed to underlying disease and no neonatal deaths.

Conclusions:

Among 86 pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, recovery rates were high, with a low rate of serious adverse events.

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Pregnancy has always been a concern in epidemics all over the world. While coronavirus (COVID-19) disease ravages the world, it is a big curiosity how pregnant women will be affected by this disease. There are a few published case series and commentary of COVID-19 occurring during pregnancy. In this study, we discussed how to manage this disease in pregnant women. A 38-week pregnant, 37-year-old woman whose father passed away from COVID-19 admitted to the hospital with dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and fever. She had positive radiological features for COVID-19, and her rapid antibody test was positive. Lopinavir-ritonavir combination and azithromycin treatments were given, and the patient's symptoms regressed with treatment. The patient was taken to cesarean by providing isolation conditions, and she had a healthy baby with an uncomplicated delivery. There are no certain data about whether COVID-19 infection is worse in pregnant patients or not. On the basis of the limited data in the literature, we cannot see intrauterine transmission from infected mother to baby. However, we know that there would be serious pulmonary complications for the infected mother. Fortunately, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection did not progress more severely in pregnant women than in the normal population compared with the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak.

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Objectives: The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 identified late 2019 in China had spread across all continents. In the majority of cases, patients have mild symptoms (fever, cough, myalgia, headache, some digestive disorders) or are asymptomatic, however it can cause serious lung diseases and lead to death. On September 2020, over 28 million people have been infected with over 920,000 deaths.

Methods: In view of the evolution of the epidemic the French National College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has decided to update the recommendations previously issued. To do this, the same group of experts was called upon to carry out a review of the literature and take into account the opinions of the General Directorate of Health (DGS), the "Haute Autorité de Santé" (HAS) and the "Haut Conseil de santé Publique" (HCSP).

Results: The data on consequences during pregnancy have accumulated. The symptoms in pregnant women appear to be similar to those of the general population, but an increased risk of respiratory distress exists in pregnant women especially in the third trimester. A case of intrauterine maternal-fetal transmission has been clearly identified. Induced prematurity and cases of respiratory distress in newborns of infected mothers have been described.

Conclusion: In light of the new data, we propose updated recommendations. These proposals may continue to evolve in view of the pandemic and of advances in studies in pregnant women.

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Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, symptomology, and disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy.

Methods: The PRIORITY (Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY) study is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study of people in the United States who are pregnant or up to 6 weeks postpregnancy with known or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We analyzed the clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19 in participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reported symptoms at the time of testing.

Results: Of 991 participants enrolled from March 22, 2020, until July 10, 2020, 736 had symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing; 594 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 142 tested negative in this symptomatic group. Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.1), and 37% will nulliparous. Ninety-five percent were outpatients. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-infection were a geographically diverse cohort: 34% from the Northeast, 25% from the West, 21% from the South, and 18% from the Midwest. Thirty-one percent of study participants were Latina, and 9% were Black. The average gestational age at enrollment was 24.1 weeks, and 13% of participants were enrolled after pregnancy. The most prevalent first symptoms in the cohort of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were cough (20%), sore throat (16%), body aches (12%), and fever (12%). Median time to symptom resolution was 37 days (95% CI 35-39). One quarter (25%) of participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection had persistent symptoms 8 or more weeks after symptom onset.

Conclusion: COVID-19 has a prolonged and nonspecific disease course during pregnancy and in the 6 weeks after pregnancy.

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Background: Due to spread and impact of COVID-19 in the world and Turkey lead to fear, stress and anxiety in individuals. This trend is increasing more especially in pregnant women at risk as they are concerned about the safety of themselves and the fetus.

Aim: In our study, concerns, problems and attitudes of pregnant women related to diseases in the pandemic process will be determined by detailed discussions based on their individual experience, and by increasing the awareness of midwives and nurses about what pregnant women experience in this process.

Methods: : Content analysis is used as qualitative study pattern. Due to the social isolation rules during the coronavirus pandemic, interviews with pregnant women were planned to be held via mobile phone. The study was completed with 15 pregnant women.

Results: As a result of the content analysis of the interviews, 3 main themes and 11 sub-themes were identified. The identified themes were as following: (1) not understanding the seriousness and fear of the unknown, (2) coronavirus pandemic and disruption of the routine prenatal care (3) disrupted routines and social lives. Each theme was necessarily discussed separately.

Conclusion: The results of the study show that coronavirus pandemic has a significant potential for creating anxiety, adversity and fear, which has a negative emotional effect on pregnant people. It will be useful to provide awareness for midwives and nurses not only about the physical health of pregnant women, but also their mental health, and to cooperate with mental health experts if necessary.

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Introduction: A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus, known as COVID-19, is recognized as a potentially life-threatening disease by causing severe respiratory disease. Since this virus has not previously been detected in humans, there is a paucity of information regarding its effects on humans. In addition, only limited or no information exists about its impact during pregnancy.

Case presentation: In the present case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a 32-year-old mother with coronavirus disease 2019 in Ilam, Iran, with Kurdish ethnicity. We report the infection and death of a neonate in Iran with a chest X-ray (CXR) marked abnormality 2 hours after birth demonstrating coronavirus disease 2019 disease. The neonate was born by elective cesarean section, the fetal health was assessed using fetal heart rate and a non-stress test before the birth, and there was no evidence of fetal distress. All the above-mentioned facts and radiographic abnormalities suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 is involved.

Conclusions: In this case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019, 11 hours after birth. There is a paucity of data on the vertical transmission and the adverse maternal-fetal consequences of this disease, so vertical transmission from mother to child remains to be confirmed.

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Background: There are no published cases of tonic-clonic seizures and posterior bilateral blindness during pregnancy and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (COV) 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. We do not just face new and unknown manifestations, but also how different patient groups are affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, such as pregnant women. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), preeclampsia, eclampsia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy share endothelium damage and similar pathophysiology.

Case presentation: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for tonic-clonic seizures and SARS-COV-2 infection. She had a normal pregnancy control and no other symptoms before tonic-clonic seizures development. After a Caesarean section (C-section) she developed high blood pressure, and we initiated antihypertensive treatment with labetalol, amlodipine and captopril. Few hours later she developed symptoms of cortical blindness that resolved in 72 h with normal brain computed tomography (CT) angiography.

Conclusion: The authors conclude that SARS COV-2 infection could promote brain endothelial damage and facilitate neurological complications during pregnancy.

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Background: South America has become the epicenter of coronavirus pandemic. It seems that asymptomatic population may contribute importantly to the spread of the disease. Transmission from asymptomatic pregnant patients' needs to be characterized in larger population cohorts and symptom assessment needs to be standardized.

Objective:To assess the prevalence of SARS CoV-2 infection in an unselected obstetrical population and to describe their presentation and clinical evolution.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. Medical records of pregnant women admitted at the Obstetrics & Gynecology department of Clínica Dávila for labor & delivery, between April 27th and June 7th, 2020 were reviewed. All patients were screened with RT-PCR for SARS CoV-2 at admission. After delivery, positive cases were inquired by the researchers for clinical symptoms presented before admission and clinical evolution. All neonates born from mothers with confirmed SARS CoV-2 were isolated and tested for SARS CoV-2 infection.

Results: A total of 586 patients were tested for SARS CoV-2 during the study period. Outcomes were obtained from 583 patients which were included in the study. Thirty-seven pregnant women had a positive test for SARS CoV-2 at admission. Cumulative prevalence of confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection was 6.35% (37/583) [CI 95%: 4.63-8.65]. From confirmed cases, 43.2% (16/37) were asymptomatic. From symptomatic patients 85.7% (18/21) had mild symptoms and evolved without complications and 14.3% (3/21) presented severe symptoms requiring admission to intensive care unit. Only 5.4% (2/37) of the neonates born to mothers with a positive test at admission had a positive RT-PCR for SARS CoV-2.

Conclusion: In our study nearly half of pregnant patients with SARS CoV-2 were asymptomatic at the time of delivery. Universal screening, in endemic areas, is necessary for adequate patient isolation, prompt neonatal testing and targeted follow-up.

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Objective: Better understand knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women and mothers of infants around coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A 58-item electronic survey was distributed to pregnant and postpartum women (infants <12 months) who were>15 years, English-speaking and enrolled in prenatal programs. Data is summarized using central tendency, frequencies and nonparametric statistics.

Results: Of 114 (51 % response rate) participants, 82.5 % reported negative changes in mental status measures (e.g. stress, anxious thoughts, changes in sleep patterns). All reported risk-reduction behavior changes (e.g. handwashing/use of sanitizer, social distancing). Significant changes were reported in employment and financial status due to the pandemic. Increases in alcohol consumption among postpartum women were also reported. Few reported changes in prenatal, infant or postpartum healthcare access.

Conclusion: This study provides initial insight into the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study is limited as participants represent a single Midwest community and social desirability response bias may have impacted responses. However, results may inform future interventions to support pregnant women and mothers of infants during pandemics.

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Objective: To evaluate whether clinical and social risk factors are associated with negative outcomes for COVID-19 disease among Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women.

Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of the official Acute Respiratory Syndrome Surveillance System database. Pregnant and postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19 ARDS until July 14, 2020, were included. Adverse outcomes were a composite endpoint of either death, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), or mechanical ventilation. Risk factors were examined by multiple logistic regression.

Results: There were 2475 cases of COVID-19 ARDS. Among them, 23.8% of women had the composite endpoint and 8.2% died. Of those who died, 5.9% were not hospitalized, 39.7% were not admitted to the ICU, 42.6% did not receive mechanical ventilation, and 25.5% did not have access to respiratory support. Multivariate analysis showed that postpartum period, age over 35 years, obesity, diabetes, black ethnicity, living in a peri-urban area, no access to Family Health Strategy, or living more than 100 km from the notification hospital were associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: Clinical and social risk factors and barriers to access health care are associated with adverse outcomes among maternal cases of COVID-19 ARDS in Brazil.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is affiliated with the β-coronavirus subgroup, which includes SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but is far more infectious than the 2. Because it is potentially life-threatening to infants and pregnant women with weak immune systems, clinical manifestations and vertical transmission of COVID-19 are matters of interest. Staff of the obstetrics department of university hospitals in Daegu and of the Daegu metropolitan government designated Daegu Fatima Hospital for the delivery of pregnant women with suspected and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thirteen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were identified. Among them was a 28-year-old pregnant woman who had recovered from COVID-19 and had given birth to a healthy girl at 38 weeks of gestational age. We present our uncommon experience with a brief review of literatures.

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Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, African-American mothers were three times as likely to die from pregnancy-related causes compared to white mothers. The impact of the pandemic among African-Americans could further worsen the racial disparities in maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM). This study aimed to create a theoretical framework delineating the contributors to an expected rise in maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM) among African-Americans in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic due to preliminary studies suggesting heightened vulnerability of African-Americans to the virus as well as its adverse health effects. Rapid searches were conducted in PubMed and Google to identify published articles on the health determinants of MM and SMM that have been or likely to be disproportionately affected by the pandemic in African-Americans. We identified socioeconomic and health trends determinants that may contribute to future adverse maternal health outcomes. There is a need to intensify advocacy, implement culturally acceptable programs, and formulate policies to address social determinants of health.

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Objective: Coronavirus infections, including SARS, MERS and COVID-19 have significant impact on global health as well as on pregnancies. The aim of this review was to enlighten and summarize the cumulative knowledge regarding the relationship between Coronavirus outbreaks and pregnancy.

Materials and methods: Literature search was commenced in order to analyze the maternofetal effects of Coronavirus outbreaks.

Results: Fever and cough are the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19 which mostly affects pregnant women in their 3rd trimester with a maternal mortality rate of 0-77% and fetal and neonatal mortality rates of 1.2%. Fetal demise is common in critically ill pregnant. Pregnancy seems as a worsening factor for SARS and MERS epidemics and both infections affect prominently 3rd trimester pregnancies, although abortion (57%) is a significant risk for cases of early pregnancy. Clinical course of COVID-19, SARS and MERS may be rapid and worse in pregnant women than non-pregnant individuals. Cesarean section is the choice of delivery in most reported women due to mostly obstetrical reasons, although vaginal delivery seems not a worsening factor for the disease.

Conclusions: COVID-19, SARS and MERS have significant detrimental effect on pregnancy. Rapid intervention, treatment, and intensive care support are essential for infected pregnant. Timely delivery is important in order to avoid intrauterine fetal death.

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Objective: To determine the cardiotocograph (CTG) changes in women with symptomatic COVID-19 infection.

Study design: 12 anonymised CTG traces from 2 hospitals in Spain were retrospectively analysed by 2 independent assessors. CTG parameters were studied based on fetal pathophysiological responses to inflammation and hypoxia that would be expected based on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 patients. Correlation was made with perinatal outcomes (Apgar score at 5 min and umbilical cord pH).

Results: All fetuses showed an increased baseline FHR > 10 percent compared to the initial recording, in addition to absence of accelerations. 10 out of 12 CTG traces (83.3 percent) demonstrated late or prolonged decelerations and 7 out of 12 fetuses (58.3 percent) showed absence of cycling. Not a single case of sinusoidal pattern was observed. ZigZag pattern was found in 4 CTG traces (33 percent). Excessive uterine activity was observed in all CTG traces where uterine activity was monitored (10 out of 12). Apgar scores at 5 min were normal (>7) and absence of metabolic acidosis was found in the umbilical cord arterial pH (pH > 7.0) in the cases that were available (11 and 9, respectively).

Conclusion: Fetuses of COVID-19 patients showed a raised baseline FHR (>10 percent), loss of accelerations, late decelerations, ZigZag pattern and absence of cycling probably due to the effects of maternal pyrexia, maternal inflammatory response and the "cytokine storm". However, the perinatal outcomes appear to be favourable. Therefore, healthcare providers should optimise the maternal environment first to rectify the reactive CTG changes instead of performing an urgent operative intervention.

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Purpose: This evaluation describes efforts taken by MIECHV administrators and staff during the pandemic using data collected from 60 MIECHV staff surveys and nine statewide weekly focus groups.

Description: The Florida Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Initiative funds perinatal home visiting for pregnant women and families with infants throughout the state. Florida MIECHV has shown resilience to disasters and times of crises in the past, while generating a culture of adaptation and continuous quality improvement among local implementing agencies. Florida MIECHV responded to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis within the first few days of the first reported case in Florida by providing guidance on virtual home visits and working remotely.

Assessment: Findings highlight the role of administrative leadership and communication, staff willingness/morale, logistical considerations, and the needs of enrolled families who face hardships during the pandemic such as job loss, limited supplies, food insecurity, technology limitations, and stress. Home visitors support enrolled families by connecting them with resources, providing public health education and delivering evidence-based home visiting curricula virtually. They also recognized the emotional burden surrounding COVID-19 impacts and uncertainties along with achieving work-life balance by caring for their own children.

Conclusion: This evaluation helped in understanding the impact of the pandemic on this maternal and child health program and fundamentals of transition to virtual home visiting services. Virtual home visiting appears to be feasible and provides an essential connection to supports for families who may not otherwise have the means or knowledge to access them.

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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic response is affecting maternal and neonatal health services all over the world. We aimed to assess the number of institutional births, their outcomes (institutional stillbirth and neonatal mortality rate), and quality of intrapartum care before and during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Nepal.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, we collected participant-level data for pregnant women enrolled in the SUSTAIN and REFINE studies between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, from nine hospitals in Nepal. This period included 12·5 weeks before the national lockdown and 9·5 weeks during the lockdown. Women were eligible for inclusion if they had a gestational age of 22 weeks or more, a fetal heart sound at time of admission, and consented to inclusion. Women who had multiple births and their babies were excluded. We collected information on demographic and obstetric characteristics via extraction from case notes and health worker performance via direct observation by independent clinical researchers. We used regression analyses to assess changes in the number of institutional births, quality of care, and mortality before lockdown versus during lockdown.

Findings: Of 22 907 eligible women, 21 763 women were enrolled and 20 354 gave birth, and health worker performance was recorded for 10 543 births. From the beginning to the end of the study period, the mean weekly number of births decreased from 1261·1 births (SE 66·1) before lockdown to 651·4 births (49·9) during lockdown-a reduction of 52·4%. The institutional stillbirth rate increased from 14 per 1000 total births before lockdown to 21 per 1000 total births during lockdown (p=0·0002), and institutional neonatal mortality increased from 13 per 1000 livebirths to 40 per 1000 livebirths (p=0·0022). In terms of quality of care, intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring decreased by 13·4% (-15·4 to -11·3; p<0·0001), and breastfeeding within 1 h of birth decreased by 3·5% (-4·6 to -2·6; p=0·0032). The immediate newborn care practice of placing the baby skin-to-skin with their mother increased by 13·2% (12·1 to 14·5; p<0·0001), and health workers' hand hygiene practices during childbirth increased by 12·9% (11·8 to 13·9) during lockdown (p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Institutional childbirth reduced by more than half during lockdown, with increases in institutional stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality, and decreases in quality of care. Some behaviours improved, notably hand hygiene and keeping the baby skin-to-skin with their mother. An urgent need exists to protect access to high quality intrapartum care and prevent excess deaths for the most vulnerable health system users during this pandemic period.

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We read with interest the article by Collin et al. that described an increased risk of requiring intensive care in pregnant or postpartum women with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, even when considering only cases needing invasive mechanical ventilation (RR: 3.49; 95% CI:1.89‐6.52).1 The results of this study have implications for countries with limited resources, such as Brazil, the current epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Maternal deaths due to COVID‐19 were not reported in initial studies from China.

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Background:The occurrence of trans-placental transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains highly debated. Placental positivity for SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in selected cases, but infection or virus-associated disease of fetal tissues or newborns remains to be demonstrated.

Methods: We screened for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein expression placentas from 101 women who delivered between February 7 and May 15, 2020, including 15 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, 34 tested negative, and 52 not evaluated as they did not meet testing criteria (32), or delivered before COVID-19 pandemic declaration (20). Immunostain for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) was performed in the placentas of all COVID-19 positive women. One placenta resulted positive for the SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins, which was further studied by RNA-in situ hybridization and RT-PCR for S transcripts, and by electron microscopy. A comprehensive immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis of the placental inflammatory infiltrate completed the investigations.

Findings: SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins were strongly expressed in the placenta of a COVID-19 pregnant woman whose newborn tested positive for viral RNA and developed COVID-19 pneumonia soon after birth. SARS-CoV-2 antigens, RNA and/or particles morphologically consistent with coronavirus were identified in villous syncytiotrophoblast, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, in maternal macrophages, and in Hofbauer cells and fetal intravascular mononuclear cells. The placenta intervillous inflammatory infiltrate consisted of neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages expressing activation markers. Absence of villitis was associated with an increase in the number of Hofbauer cells, which expressed PD-L1. Scattered neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were identified by immunofluorescence.

Interpretation: We provide first-time evidence for maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2, likely propagated by circulating virus-infected fetal mononuclear cells. Placenta infection was associated with recruitment of maternal inflammatory cells in the intervillous space, without villitis. PD-L1 expression in syncytiotrophoblast and Hofbaeur cells, together with limited production of NETs, may have prevented immune cell-driven placental damage, ensuring sufficient maternal-fetus nutrient exchanges.

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The substantial burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased feelings of fear and uncertainty. The contagious nature and high mortality associated with the disease has caused psychological distress, depression, stress, and anxiety among the general population, including pregnant women [1, 2]. The COVID-19 pandemic affects pregnant women's perceptions, appetite, psychosocial behavior, and sleep patterns, which in turn may impact the physical and cognitive development of their newborn babies [3].

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Purpose: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Design and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 403 pregnant women using a web-based survey. The hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to measure anxiety and depression.

Findings: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 64.5% and 56.3%, respectively. Working status, physical activity status, discomfort with hospital visits, having information about COVID-19, and being informed by healthcare workers about COVID-19 were factors related to anxiety (p < .05). Education level, physical activity status, discomfort with hospital visits, and having information about COVID-19 were factors related to depression (p < .05).

Practice implications: The aforementioned factors should be considered for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

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Objective: The study aimed to compare the quantitative blood loss (QBL) and hemorrhage-related outcomes of pregnant women with and without a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis.

Study design: This retrospective cohort study of all live deliveries at Boston Medical Center between April 1, 2020 and July 22, 2020 compares the outcomes of pregnant women with a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 positive diagnosis and pregnant women without COVID-19. The primary outcomes are QBL and obstetric hemorrhage. The secondary outcomes analyzed were a maternal composite outcome that consisted of obstetric hemorrhage, telemetry-level (intermediate care unit) or intensive care unit, transfusion, length of stay greater than 5 days, or intraamniotic infection, and individual components of the maternal composite outcome. Groups were compared using Student's t-test, Chi-squared tests, or Fisher's exact. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables.

Results: Of 813 women who delivered a live infant between April 1 and July 22, 2020, 53 women were diagnosed with COVID-19 on admission to the hospital. Women with a COVID-19 diagnosis at their time of delivery were significantly more likely to identify as a race other than white (p = 0.01), to deliver preterm (p = 0.05), to be diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features (p < 0.01), and to require general anesthesia (p < 0.01). Women diagnosed with COVID-19 did not have a significantly higher QBL (p = 0.64). COVID-19 positive pregnant patients had no increased adjusted odds of obstetric hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-1.04) and no increased adjusted odds of the maternal morbidity composite (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.50-1.93) when compared with those without a diagnosis of COVID-19.

Conclusion: Pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis do not have increased risk for obstetric hemorrhage, increased QBL or risk of maternal morbidity compared with pregnant women without a COVID-19 diagnosis. Further research is needed to describe the impact of a COVID-19 diagnosis on maternal hematologic physiology and pregnancy outcomes.

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Our aim was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection raised high risks of late pregnancy complications, and posed health problems in fetuses and neonates. We analyzed the data of COVID-19 pregnant women with COVID-19 during late pregnancy and their neonates. Eleven out of 16 (69%) pregnant women with COVID-19 had ++ or +++ of ketone body in urine. The blood uric acid of pregnant patients was 334 μmol/L (IQR, 269-452). D-dimer and FDP in pregnant patients were 3.32 mg/L (IQR, 2.18-4.21) and 9.6 mg/L (IQR, 5.9-12.4). Results of blood samples collected at birth showed that 16 neonates had leukocytes (15.7 × 109/L (IQR, 13.7-17.2)), neutrophils (11.1 × 109/L (IQR, 9.2-13.2)), CK (401 U/L (IQR, 382-647)), and LDH (445 U/L (IQR, 417-559)). Twenty-four hours after birth, a neonate from COVID-19 woman had fever and positive of SARS-CoV-2 gene. Another woman had strongly positive for SARS-CoV-2 gene (+++) for 4 weeks, and delivered one neonate who had SARS-CoV-2 IgM (46 AU/mL) and IgG (140 AU/mL) on day 1 after birth. In the third trimester, COVID-19 infection in pregnant patients raised high risks of ketonuria, hypercoagulable state, and hyperfibrinolysis, which may lead to severe complications. COVID-19 increased the inflammatory responses of placenta, and fetuses and neonates had potential organ dysregulation and coagulation disorders. There was a potential intrauterine transmission while pregnant women had high titer of SARS-CoV-2, but it is necessary to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the blood cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid to further confirm intrauterine infection of fetuses.

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There is limited data regarding the vertical transmission (VT) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection. We report the first case of VT in preterm triplet pregnancy, with all triplets positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 at 20 hours and day 5 of life. This report reiterates the need for an expedited formulation of a simple, standardized, and reproducible international case definition and classification for VT.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the well-being of vulnerable populations in the US, including Black people. The impact on pregnant women is of special concern for the intrauterine and post-natal development of their offspring. We evaluated in an online survey a sample of 913 pregnant women, 216 Black, 571 White, 126 Other, during a 2-week stay-at-home mandate in the Philadelphia region. We applied logistic regression models and analysis of covariance to examine general and pregnancy-specific worries and negative consequences arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and resilience. Black pregnant women reported greater likelihood of having their employment negatively impacted, more concerns about a lasting economic burden, and more worries about their prenatal care, birth experience, and post-natal needs. In the full sample, 11.1% of women met screening criteria for anxiety and 9.9% met criteria for depression. Black women were more likely to meet criteria for depression than White women, but this difference was not significant accounting for covariates. Resilience factors including self-reliance and emotion regulation were higher in Black women. Racial disparities related to COVID-19 in pregnant women can advance the understanding of pregnancy related stressors and improve early identification of mental health needs.

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Background: During the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19, pregnant women who are susceptible to COVID-19 should be highly concerned. The issue of vertical transmission and the possibility of neonatal infection is a major concern.

Case presentation: Case 1: A 35-year-old pregnant woman with a gestational age of 37 weeks and 6 days was admitted to our hospital at the point of giving birth. Except for the abnormalities in her chest CT image, she was asymptomatic. She had an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery, and her infant was discharged home for isolation. Because of the positive result of the maternal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 obtained on the 2nd day after sampling, we transferred the mother to the designated hospital and followed up with her by telephone interviews. Luckily, it was confirmed on February 23 that the newborn did not develop any COVID-19 symptoms after observation for 14 days after birth. Case 2: Another pregnant woman, with a gestational age of 38 weeks and 2 days, was also admitted to our hospital because of spontaneous labor with cervical dilation of 5 cm. Since she had the typical manifestations of COVID-19, including cough, lymphopenia, and abnormal chest CT images, she was highly suspected of having COVID-19. Based on the experience from case 1, we helped the mother deliver a healthy baby by vaginal delivery. On the 2nd day after delivery, the maternal nasopharyngeal swab result was positive, while the infant's result was negative.

Conclusion: There is still insufficient evidence supporting maternal-fetal vertical transmission for COVID-19-infected mothers in late pregnancy, and vaginal delivery may not increase the possibility of neonatal infection.

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Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe how the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has affected pregnancy, prenatal maternity care practices, and infant feeding plans among pregnant persons in the United States.

Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an app-based survey.

Methods: A link to the survey was sent via email to users of the Ovia Pregnancy app on May 20, 2020 and was open for 1 week. Participants were asked to complete the survey as it applied to their pregnancy, breastfeeding, and maternity care received during the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning approximately February 2020 through the time of the survey. There were 258 respondents who completed the survey.

Results: The majority (96.4%; n = 251) of pregnant women felt they received safe prenatal care during this time period. Slightly less 86.3% (n = 215) felt they received adequate prenatal care during this time period. 14.2% (n = 33) reported changing or considering changing the location where they planned to give birth due to COVID-19. Of those who reported they had begun purchasing items for their baby, 52.7% reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their ability to get items they need for their baby.

Clinical implications: Although it is imperative to implement policies that reduce risk of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women and health care providers, it is necessary for healthcare providers and policy makers to listen to the collective voices of women during pregnancy about how COVID-19 has affected their birth and infant feeding plans and their perception of changes in prenatal care.

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Since the outbreak of a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, the disease was later officially named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), quickly spreading globally. Pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable during disasters and emergencies. Comprehensive and applicable emergency preparedness and response are definitely important methods to prevent and contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The rational allocation of pharmaceutical resources plays an important role in the medical emergency plan. This paper aimed to share experiences for the allocation of pharmaceutical resources in hospitals focusing primarily on women and children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Background: COVID-19 may be associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy, but there is little controlled data to quantify the magnitude of these risks or to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors.

Objective: To quantify the associations of COVID-19 with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy and to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors. Methods: We performed a matched case-control study of pregnant patients with confirmed COVID-19 (cases) who delivered between 16 and 41 weeks' gestation from March 11-June 11, 2020. Uninfected pregnant women (controls) were matched to COVID-19 cases on a 2:1 ratio based on delivery date. Maternal demographic characteristics, COVID-19 symptoms, laboratory evaluations, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and clinical management were chart abstracted. The primary outcomes included (i) a composite of adverse maternal outcome, defined as preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, antepartum admission, maternal intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen, or maternal death; and (ii) a composite of adverse neonatal outcome, defined as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, five-minute Apgar score <5, persistent category 2 fetal heart rate tracing despite intrauterine resuscitation, or neonatal death. In order to quantify the associations between exposure to mild and severe /critical COVID-19 and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression (to account for matching), with matched-pair odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) based on 1000 bias-corrected bootstrap resampling as the effect measure. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: 61 confirmed COVID-19 cases were enrolled during the study period (mild disease: n=54, 88.5%; severe disease: n=6, 9.8%; and critical disease: n=1, 1.6%). The odds of adverse composite maternal outcome were 3.4 times higher among cases compared to controls (18.0% versus 8.2%, adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4). The odds of adverse composite neonatal outcome were 1.7 times higher in the case group compared to the control group (18.0% versus 13.9%, adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-4.8). Stratified analyses by disease severity indicated that the morbidity associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy was largely driven by the severe/critical disease phenotype. Major risk factors for associated morbidity were Black and Hispanic race, advanced maternal age, medical comorbidities, and antepartum admissions related to COVID-19.

Conclusions: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, an association that is primarily driven by morbidity associated with severe/critical COVID-19. Black and Hispanic race, obesity, advanced maternal age, medical comorbidities, and antepartum admissions related to COVID-19 are risk factors for associated morbidity.

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The aim of this study is to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women's anxiety and identify factors most strongly associated with greater changes in anxiety. An anonymous, online, survey of pregnant women (distributed April 3-24, 2020) included a modified pregnancy-related anxiety scale (PRAS) reflecting respondents' perception of pregnancy anxiety before COVID-19 and a current assessment of pregnancy-related anxiety. The difference between these scores was used as the outcome variable. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Two thousand seven hundred forty pregnant women from 47 states completed the survey. 25.8% (N = 706) stopped in-person visits, 15.2% used video visits (N = 415), and 31.8% (N = 817) used phone visits for prenatal care as a result of COVID-19. Those planning a hospital birth dropped from 2641 (96.4%) to 2400 (87.7%) following COVID-19. More than half of women reported increased stress about food running out (59.2%, N = 1622), losing a job or household income (63.7%, N = 1745), or loss of childcare (56.3%, N = 1543). More than a third reported increasing stress about conflict between household members (37.5%, N = 1028), and 93% (N = 2556) reported increased stress about getting infected with COVID-19. Slightly less than half of respondents (either selves or family members) were healthcare workers (41.4%, N = 1133) or worked in essential services (45.5%, N = 1246). In multivariate analysis, those reporting higher agreement with COVID-19-related stressors had greater changes in pre- to post-COVID-19 pregnancy-related anxiety. The COVID-19 pandemic is profoundly affecting pregnant women's mental health, and factors independent of pregnancy appear to be driving changes in pregnancy-specific anxiety.

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Objective: The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy.

Methods: Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of preterm birth and C-section. Vertical transmission is still a possibility, due to a few reported cases of neonatal positive real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in nasal swab, amniotic fluid, and positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) in neonatal blood. Treatments must be weighed in with caution due to the lack of quality trials that prove their effectiveness and safety during pregnancy. Medical staff must use personal protective equipment in handling SARS-CoV2 suspected or positive patients and be alert for respiratory decompensations.

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Background: In the last two decades, the world faced three epidemics caused by novel coronaviruses, namely, SARS CoV in 2002, MERS CoV in 2012, and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 that started in late 2019. Despite a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology, epidemiology, and clinical management strategies, other aspects, such as mode of delivery, vertical transmission, and maternal bonding, remain controversial. The question we faced upon the decision to separate the neonates of SARS-CoV-2 positive mother is whether we follow the principle of "do no harm"?

Methods: This is a quality improvement project that analyzed all cases of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies that delivered at a major health care system from 3 January 2020 to 6 January 2020. The article was prepared following Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) 2.0 guidelines. Data were prospectively collected and entered into the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Maternal bonding was defined by events such as rooming-in, skin to skin contact (STSC), and breastfeeding. Descriptive analysis was performed using the same software platform.

Intervention: We compared neonatal transmission rates between those neonates who experienced bonding versus those who were separated.

Results: A total of 1989 women were screened for SARS-CoV-2, from which 86 tested positive. Out of 31 analyzed pregnancies, five women (16%) were admitted to ICU and required mechanical ventilation. From the remaining 26 (84%), 17 (65%) opted for rooming-in, 12 (46%) for STSC, and 16 (61%) fed the infants with breastmilk (11 direct breastfeedings and five pumped the breast milk). All neonatal tests for SARS-CoV-2 returned negative.

Conclusion: Our results have illustrated that maternal bonding appears safe in neonates born to mothers that are SARS-CoV-2 positive.

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Special Issue on COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Consequences for Maternal and Neonatal Health. Sharma S et al. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2020 Oct 1.

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The objective of this review was to identify the most significant studies reporting on COVID-19 during pregnancy and to provide an overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and perinatal outcomes. Eligibility criteria included all reports, reviews; case series with more than 100 individuals and that reported at least three of the following: maternal characteristics, maternal COVID-19 clinical presentation, pregnancy outcomes, maternal outcomes and/or neonatal/perinatal outcomes. We included eight studies that met the inclusion criteria, representing 10,966 cases distributed in 15 countries around the world until July 20, 2020. The results of our review demonstrate that the maternal characteristics, clinical symptoms, maternal and neonatal outcomes almost 11,000 cases of COVID-19 and pregnancy described in 15 different countries are not worse or different from the general population. We suggest that pregnant women are not more affected by the respiratory complications of COVID-19, when compared to the outcomes described in the general population. We also suggest that the important gestational shift Th1-Th2 immune response, known as a potential contributor to the severity in cases of viral infections during pregnancy, are counter-regulated by the enhanced-pregnancy-induced ACE2-Ang-(1-7) axis. Moreover, the relatively small number of reported cases during pregnancy does not allow us to affirm that COVID-19 is more aggressive during pregnancy. Conversely, we also suggest, that down-regulation of ACE2 receptors induced by SARS-CoV-2 cell entry might have been detrimental in subjects with pre-existing ACE2 deficiency associated with pregnancy. This association might explain the worse perinatal outcomes described in the literature.

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Pregnant women are considered among the high-risk population for COVID-19. Therefore, research for methods of treatment and prevention of COVID-19 positive pregnancies carries an importance. The aim of this study was to measure serum 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and zinc levels in COVID-19 positive pregnant women to evaluate the role of these micronutrients in treatment and prevention. A total of 44 COVID-19 positive pregnant women who were hospitalized and treated at a tertiary clinic were included in this study. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was measured to be 9.70 ± 59.14. The mean serum zinc level was 62.58 ± 2.63, and the mean serum vitamin B12 level was 295.55 ± 302.48. All these variables were significantly lower than the accepted cut-off values (p < 0.001). These low values might have contributed to a deficiency in their immune response and thus made these patients susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Supplementation of micronutrients during the pandemic could be beneficial during pregnancy for prevention.

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Background: Telehealth has been successfully implemented for the delivery of obstetrical care. However, little is known regarding the attitudes and acceptability of patients and providers in high risk obstetrics and if implementation improves access to care in non-rural settings.

Objective: The study aims to: 1) Describe patient and provider attitudes toward telehealth for delivery of high risk obstetrical care in a large health care system with both urban and suburban settings. 2) Determine if implementation of a telehealth model improves patient adherence to scheduled appointments in this patient population.Study DesignTwo self-administered surveys were designed. The first survey was sent to all high-risk obstetrical patients who received a telehealth visit between March 1, 2020 and May 30, 2020. The second survey was designed for providers who participated in these visits. We also compared the attended, cancelled and no show visit rates before (March 1-May 30, 2019) and after (March 1-May 30, 2020) telehealth implementation, as well as telehealth versus in person visits in 2020. We reviewed scheduled high-risk prenatal care appointments, diabetes education sessions, and genetic counseling and Maternal- Fetal Medicine consultations.

Results: A total of 91 patient surveys and 33 provider surveys were analyzed. Overall, 86.9% of patients were satisfied with the care they received and 78.3% would recommend telehealth visits to others. 87.8% of providers reported having a positive experience using telehealth, and 90.9% believed that telehealth improved patients' access to care. When comparing patient and provider preference regarding future obstetrical care after experiencing telehealth, 73.8% of patients desired a combination of in person and telehealth visits during their pregnancy. However, a significantly higher rate of providers preferred in-person visits (56% vs 23% respectively). When comparing visits between 2019 and 2020, there was a significantly lower rate of no-show appointments, patient-cancelled appointments, and patient same-day cancellations with the implementation of telehealth. There was also a significantly lower rate of patient-cancelled appointments, and patient same-day cancellations with those receiving telehealth visits compared to in person visits in 2020.

Conclusion: Implementation of telehealth in high risk obstetrics has the potential to improve access to high risk obstetrical care, by reducing the rate of missed appointments. Both patients and providers surveyed expressed a high rate of satisfaction with telehealth visits and a desire to integrate telehealth into the traditional model of high risk obstetrical care.

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Objective: This study aims to compare a conventional medical treatment model with a telehealth platform for Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) outpatient care during the global novel coronavirus pandemic.

Methods: In this study, we described the process of converting our MFM clinic from a conventional medical treatment model to a telemedicine platform. We compared clinical productivity between the two models. Outcomes were analysed using standard statistical tests.

Results: We suffered three symptomatic COVID-19 infections among our clinical providers and staff prior to the conversion, compared with none after the conversion. We had a significant decrease in patient visits following the conversion (53.35 visits per day versus 40.3 visits per day, p < 0.0001). However, our average daily patient visits per full-time equivalent (FTE) were only marginally reduced (11.1 visit per FTE versus 7.6 visits per FTE, p < 0.0001), resulting in a relative decrease in adjusted work relative value units (6987 versus 5440). There was an increase in more basic follow-up ultrasound procedures, complexity (current procedural technology [CPT] code 76816 (10.7% versus 19.5%, relative risk [RR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.60-2.05, p < 0.0001)) over comprehensive follow-up ultrasound procedures, CPT code 76805 (17.2% versus 7.8%, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.39-0.53, p < 0.0001) after conversion. Despite similar proportions of new consults, there was an increase in the proportion of follow-up visits and medical decision-making complexity evaluation and management CPT codes (e.g. 99214/99215) after the conversion (17.2% versus 24.6%, RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.26-163, p < 0.0001). There were no differences between amniocentesis procedures performed between the two time periods (0.3% versus 0.2%, p = 0.5805).

Conclusion: The rapid conversion of an MFM platform from convention medical treatment to telemedicine platform in response to the novel coronavirus pandemic resulted in protection of healthcare personnel and MFM patients, with only a modest decrease in clinical productivity during the initial roll-out. Due to the ongoing threat from the novel coronavirus-19, an MFM telemedicine platform is a practicable and innovative solution and merits the continued support of CMS and health care administrators.

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Objective: The Spanish registry of Covid-19 in Spanish pregnant women, made up of 100 centers, is created in response to the need to know the morbidity that Covid-19 generates in pregnant women and their newborns, to know the real incidence of the disease in this population group and to establish and monitor the package of measures to improve their care. The aim of this paper was the creation of a registry of pregnant women with Covid-19 infection in order to establish the interventions and measures necessary to improve the care of these patients during hospital admission.

Methods: To prepare the registry, the main researcher of each center collected weekly / biweekly the number of total pregnant women screened, as well as the total number of positive and negative, sending these data to the responsible researchers so that it could be available in real time of the percentage of infected asymptomatic pregnant population and the evolution by weeks in the centers of each participating province. The data were analyzed using the linear regression test and the Mantel test.

Results: As of May 31stsup> 2020, 16,308 screening tests were carried out in these hospitals, in which 338 pregnant women were positive, which translates into 2.07% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.86-2.30) of the asymptomatic pregnant women we attended in our centers were carriers of the virus and could develop the disease in subsequent days.

Conclusions: The Spanish epidemiological registry allows us to know the incidence of infection in pregnant women attended in the Spanish delivery centers, as well as the weekly and / or fortnightly evolution of the same, observing a significant decrease in the proportion of positive pregnant women over the total of screenings throughout this period, with an average of 6.5% in early April 2020 to an average of 0.93% positive in late May 2020.

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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious viral disease has spread from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China to all over the world from its first recognition on December 2019. To date, only a few neonatal early-onset sepsis by SARS-COV-2 has been reported worldwide. Case presentation: In this report, we present two seriously ill neonates who were born from mothers with stablished COVID-19 pneumonia. Laboratory tests showed lymphopenia with high LDH and hypocalcemia right after the birth. They had fever for days without responding to antibiotics and despite ruling out other potential causes. Both patients had positive RTPCR for SARS-COV-2 in the second round of testing but the first assay tested was negative. Hydroxychloroquine was used to treat both patients; the first patient was treated with it over a period of 14 days before showing signs of improvement. The second patient responded to the treatment over a period of 5 days. Conclusion: Although based on the available evidences, vertical transmission of COVID-19 is less likely, many aspects of pathogenesis and transmission of this novel virus are still unclear. Therefore we cannot rule out the vertical transmission totally. Further investigations are warranted to determine the exact mechanisms and routes of transmission.

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Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Conclusions Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.

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Short Communications The physical health impact of the coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) has received attention worldwide; however, data around the psychological impact of the pandemic is still emerging and little has been reported on psychological effects among vulnerable groups. This study was undertaken with the aim of studying the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions on perinatal mental health among women in Qatar. Objectives and Methods A cross- sectional survey of women accessing maternity services in Qatar was carried out during the months of June and July 2020 at the local peak of the pandemic. Background data including relevant demographic details, pregnancy and mental health history, concerns, as well as helpful stress-reducing factors reported by women was collected. Depression and anxiety symptomatology was studied using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results The survey results revealed a high prevalence of anxiety and Depressive symptomatology (34.4 and 39.2% respectively), based on PHQ-ADS scoring. These rates appeared much higher than the reported pre-pandemic prevalence and were not affected by occupation, previous mental health problems or pregnancy complications. Women's most commonly reported concerns as well as coping factors are discussed. Conclusions Results indicate a marked increase in anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, among pregnant and puerperal individuals, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to mental health morbidity. These findings can be used to inform public health interventions, among which, consideration should be given to routine mental health screening of vulnerable groups during major health crises.

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ACE2 binds the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and facilitates its cellular entry. Interferons activate ACE2 expression in pneumocytes, suggesting a critical role of cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 target cells. Viral RNA was detected in breast milk in at least seven studies, raising the possibility that ACE2 is expressed in mammary tissue during lactation. Here, we show that Ace2 expression in mouse mammary tissue is induced during pregnancy and lactation, which coincides with the activation of intronic enhancers. These enhancers are occupied by the prolactin-activated transcription factor STAT5 and additional regulatory factors, including RNA polymerase II. Deletion of Stat5a results in decommissioning of the enhancers and an 83% reduction of Ace2 mRNA. We also demonstrate that Ace2 expression increases during lactation in lung, but not in kidney and intestine. JAK/STAT components are present in a range of SARS-CoV-2 target cells, opening the possibility that cytokines contribute to the viral load and extrapulmonary pathophysiology.

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and pregnancy has been the topic of hundreds of publications over the last several months, however, few studies have focused on the implications of infection in early pregnancy and reproductive tissues. Here we analyzed available evidence pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 infection, early pregnancy, and reproductive tissues. We searched PubMed and Embase databases in accordance with guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for publications from inception to June 4, 2020. Four reviewers screened titles and abstracts, and obtained full text articles for analysis. 62 studies were included in the review. Biological plausibility for infection with SARS-CoV-2 exists in testis, ovaries, and placenta as they express ACE2 receptor activity. In males, SARS-CoV-2 infection could lead to functional abnormalities leading to spermatogenic failure and male infertility. In females, an alteration of the ACE2 cascade via SARS-CoV-2 infection could lead to impairment in important follicular and luteal processes. There is also evidence of significant placental pathology in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unclear what effects there may be for early pregnancy, though available data suggest less severe effects compared to other respiratory virus outbreaks. Further investigation is needed regarding SARS-CoV-2 in reproductive function and early pregnancy.

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Introduction: Coronavirus pandemic causes stress and anxiety for pregnant women worldwide. The present study was conducted for the path analysis of the relationship among fear and anxiety caused by coronavirus, pregnancy experience, and the mental health of pregnant women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 pregnant women who were referred to Kamali Hospital in Alborz province in 2020. The eligible individuals entered the study through convenience sampling, and data were collected using five questionnaires including the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Anxiety of COVID-19 Scale, the pregnancy experiences Scales, Depression Anxiety Stress scale, and demographic checklist. The obtained data were then analyzed using SPSS-16 and Amos software.

Results: According to results of the path analysis, the anxiety of COVID-19 and concerns during pregnancy were variables that were positively and significantly correlated with mental health only through one path, which was direct, and anxiety of COVID-19 had also the highest positive direct correlation among them (B = 0.32). The next variable was the happiness during pregnancy experiencing, which had a significantly negative and direct correlation with mental health disorder (B = 0.29). Moreover, fear of COVID-19 through the mediating concerns of pregnancy experiences was shown to have a significant positive relationship with mental health through an indirect path (B = 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it is necessary to pay more attention to the mental health of pregnant women during a pandemic. In addition, it is recommended to provide a virtual training group to reduce anxiety caused by coronavirus and pregnancy concerns, as well as emphasizing the feeling of enjoying happiness caused by pregnancy experience during a pandemic.

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There are many unknowns for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical experience of pregnancies complicated with infection by other coronaviruses e.g. SARS and MERS, has led to pregnant woman being considered potentially vulnerable to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Physiological changes during pregnancy have a significant impact on the immune system, respiratory system, cardiovascular function and coagulation. These may have positive or negative effects on COVID-19 disease progression. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy remains to be determined and a concerted, global effort is required to determine effects on implantation, fetal growth and development, labour and neonatal health. Asymptomatic infection presents a further challenge regarding service provision, prevention and management. As well as direct impacts of the disease, a plethora of indirect consequences of the pandemic will adversely affect maternal health including reduced access to reproductive health services, increased mental health strain and increased socioeconomic deprivation. In this review we explore the current knowledge of COVID-19 in pregnancy and signpost areas for further research to minimise its impact for women and their children.

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Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). The COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) (3) collects data on hospitalized pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19; to date, such data have been limited. During March 1-August 22, 2020, approximately one in four hospitalized women aged 15-49 years with COVID-19 was pregnant. Among 598 hospitalized pregnant women with COVID-19, 54.5% were asymptomatic at admission. Among 272 pregnant women with COVID-19 who were symptomatic at hospital admission, 16.2% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 8.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation. During COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 448 of 458 (97.8%) completed pregnancies resulted in a live birth and 10 (2.2%) resulted in a pregnancy loss. Testing policies based on the presence of symptoms might miss COVID-19 infections during pregnancy. Surveillance of pregnant women with COVID-19, including those with asymptomatic infections, is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of COVID-19 for mothers and newborns. Identifying COVID-19 in women during birth hospitalizations is important to guide preventive measures to protect pregnant women, parents, newborns, other patients, and hospital personnel. Pregnant women and health care providers should be made aware of the potential risks for severe COVID-19 illness, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and ways to prevent infection.

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Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), possibly related to changes in their immune system and respiratory physiology* (1). Further, adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm delivery and stillbirth, might be more common among pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (2,3). Information about SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is rapidly growing; however, data on reasons for hospital admission, pregnancy-specific characteristics, and birth outcomes among pregnant women hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infections are limited. During March 1-May 30, 2020, as part of Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)† surveillance of COVID-19 hospitalizations, 105 hospitalized pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, including 62 (59%) hospitalized for obstetric reasons (i.e., labor and delivery or another pregnancy-related indication) and 43 (41%) hospitalized for COVID-19 illness without an obstetric reason. Overall, 50 (81%) of 62 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted for obstetric reasons were asymptomatic. Among 43 pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19, 13 (30%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, six (14%) required mechanical ventilation, and one died from COVID-19. Prepregnancy obesity was more common (44%) among pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19 than that among asymptomatic pregnant women hospitalized for obstetric reasons (31%). Likewise, the rate of gestational diabetes (26%) among pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19 was higher than it was among women hospitalized for obstetric reasons (8%). Preterm delivery occurred in 15% of pregnancies among 93 women who delivered, and stillbirths (fetal death at ≥20 weeks' gestation) occurred in 3%. Antenatal counseling emphasizing preventive measures (e.g., use of masks, frequent hand washing, and social distancing) might help prevent COVID-19 among pregnant women,§ especially those with prepregnancy obesity and gestational diabetes, which might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

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On April 7, 2020 Mehreen Zaigham and Ola Andersson published a systematic review of maternal and perinatal outcomes in 108 pregnancies with Covid-19 concluding that careful monitoring of such pregnancies and is warranted.1 We would like to emphasise the need to assess objectively the impact of the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing Covid-19 disease on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by conducting epidemiological studies among pregnant women.

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No abstract.

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Objectives: To review the current scientific evidence of vertical transmission related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: An integrative review was performed by two independent researchers, based on the literature available in the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and LILACS databases, using the descriptors "pregnancy" AND "COVID-19" AND "vertical transmission". This search included case reports or case series published up until 17th June 2020 in English or Portuguese. After reading the articles available in their entirety, those related specifically to the potential risks of vertical transmission of COVID-19 during pregnancy were selected. We initially found a total of 57 articles; 26 were carefully screened and 15 were finally selected.

Results: Pregnancy can make women more susceptible to infections, especially by viral pathogens, given the various physiological and immunological changes that occur to maintain maternal-fetal balance. It is speculated that the fetus may be a possible target for COVID-19. Few studies (3 out of 15) in our analysis have found positive results for SARS-CoV-2 in fetal membranes, placenta, and in newborns right after birth. Additionally, no difference was noticed when comparing different modes of delivery, and seems reasonable to assume that pregnant women with stable clinical conditions can be encouraged for vaginal delivery.

Conclusion: Further studies with a great number of cases are warranted to elucidate whether the virus may be vertically transmitted to the fetus and if any maternal conditions can influence that. Our findings seem to demonstrate that vertical transmission is possible but quite unusual.

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No abstract.

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Objectives: PThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented levels of unemployment and financial strain for many Americans. Among the individuals impacted by financial strain are pregnant women, for whom added financial stress may be particularly impactful due to the costs associated with prenatal care and providing for a newborn. Financial stress has been previously associated with elevated depression symptoms among pregnant women, which could have significant impacts on birth outcomes and long-term offspring health. However, the impacts of COVID-19-associated financial stress on maternal depression in pregnancy has not been investigated.

Methods: Here, we evaluated whether COVID-19-associated financial stress was associated with increased likelihood of a clinically significant depression score (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score ≥ 15) among pregnant women living in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data come from an online survey administered to a convenience sample in April 2020 (N = 2099).

Results: Forty-three percent of participants reported experiencing financial stress as a result of the pandemic, while 24% of participants had a clinically significant depression score. COVID-19-related financial stress was significantly associated with increased likelihood of a clinically significant depression score, even after adjustment for covariates including participant education and income (adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.23, 95% CI = 1.80, 2.77, P < .001).

Conclusions: Financial stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with more than two times the likelihood of depression during pregnancy, which could impact birth outcomes and long-term offspring health.

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Background: Despite the vulnerability of pregnant women, few studies have been conducted on their perceived risk and protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present cross-sectional study aims to investigate the perceived risk and protective behaviors regarding COVID-19 among pregnant women, in Hamadan, Iran. Using a two-stage cluster sampling method, 225 pregnant women referring to the health centers completed the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests as well as a stepwise linear regression model at 95% confidence level.

Results: 93.8% of pregnant women had a high level of knowledge, 97.3% had a high performance in protective behaviors, and 72.9% had a moderate level of risk perception related to COVID-19. The highest mean score of knowledge was observed in women who had a history of influenza in their previous pregnancies (90.97 ± 5.94). The mean score of protective behaviors was significantly higher in women with a high economic level (97.78 ± 5.11), and the highest level of risk perception was observed in nulliparous women (59.97 ± 9.80). Risk perception was an independent predictor of protective behaviors related to COVID-19 (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Pregnant women had a high level of knowledge, high performance in protective behaviors, and a moderate level of risk perception related to COVID-19. History of influenza in previous pregnancies, high economic level, and nulliparity were associated with higher levels of knowledge, protective behaviors, and risk perception, respectively. Risk perception of pregnant women regarding COVID-19 can predict their protective behaviors.

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Background: Pregnancy as a sensitive period of a woman's life can be affected by various psychological factors that can have adverse effects on the woman, her fetus and future baby. Since COVID-19 is a new phenomenon with limited information available, it may have adverse psychological effects on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of depression, stress, anxiety and their predictors in Iranian pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 205 pregnant women covered by Tabriz health centers in Iran. The sampling method used was cluster sampling. The data collection tool was the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and the DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21), which were completed online by pregnant women. The general linear model was used to determine the predictive factors of depression, anxiety and stress.

Results: The mean (SD) score of depression, stress, and anxiety were 3.91 (3.9), 6.22 (4.25), and 3.79 (3.39), respectively; the score range of 0 to 21. Depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms were observed in 32.7, 32.7, and 43.9% of the participants, respectively, with varying degrees from mild to very severe. Based on the adjusted general linear model, variables of education level, spouse's job and marital life satisfaction were the predictors of depressive symptoms. Variables of spouse's education level, spouse's support, marital life satisfaction and the number of pregnancies were the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and the variables of spouse's education level, household income sufficiency, spouse's support and marital life satisfaction were predictors of stress symptoms.

Conclusions: Considering the role of marital life satisfaction, high level of spouse's education and income in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women in critical situations such as the prevalence of COVID-19, it seems that using strategies to promote marital life satisfaction and socio-economic status can play an effective role in controlling anxiety and reducing stress and depression in pregnant women.

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No abstract.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16-0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.

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No abstract.

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Here, we discussed a 22-year-old pregnant woman (gestational age: 32 weeks) infected with COVID-19 who presented with fever (39.1 °C) and respiratory symptoms. Thoracic computed tomography could not be obtained due to pregnancy. PCR testing was positive. The patient was treated with supportive care and anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents; however, general health status deteriorated and patient was admitted to intensive care unit on day 3. After admission to COVID-19 ICU, clinical picture was rapidly worsened with development of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, "extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption" (CytoSorb®, Cytosorbents Corporation, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA) was planned and performed with regular intervals in order to remove inflammatory cytokines from circulation and to relieve systemic inflammatory response. The fever response and CRP elevation were controlled by hemoadsorption and cytokine filter performed in alternate days. On day 7 of ICU admission, it was decided to terminate pregnancy due to worsening hypoxemia and a healthy, premature infant was born. On day 2 after cesarean section, the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation support was initiated. However, the patient showed an increasingly complicated clinical course and died on day 22 after ICU admission. It is seen that COVID-19 positivity carries an important risk for both mother and fetus, particularly in those at advanced stages of gestation, by physiological changes in the mother during pregnancy. We believe that, in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications during pregnancy, cytokine filter treatment can give time to patient for hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization.

Article here

Aim: To observe the clinical course of symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19.

Methods: This study analyzed the clinical and laboratory results of 27 patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 and 25 patients with a suspected COVID-19 diagnosis based on their symptoms and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. The patients' coagulation parameters and acute-phase reactants were evaluated both before and after treatment. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were also reviewed.

Results: The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.1 ± 3 days. The gestational age of the patients ranged from 6w2d to 40w2d. Thirty-five patients' CT scan findings suggested viral pneumonia. Four patients delivered vaginally, and 10 patients underwent a cesarean section during the study period. Four of the cesarean deliveries were indicated due to COVID-19 hypoxemia-related fetal distress. Four patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after the cesarean section.

Conclusion: Early hospitalization and medical treatment can alleviate symptoms, improve the clinical course and reduce the need for ICU in symptomatic pregnant patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Chest CT scans are a suitable option for suspected but unconfirmed COVID-19 infection.

Article here

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March-April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March-April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients.

Article here

No abstract.

Article here

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16-0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.

Article here

No abstract.

Article here

Here, we discussed a 22-year-old pregnant woman (gestational age: 32 weeks) infected with COVID-19 who presented with fever (39.1 °C) and respiratory symptoms. Thoracic computed tomography could not be obtained due to pregnancy. PCR testing was positive. The patient was treated with supportive care and anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents; however, general health status deteriorated and patient was admitted to intensive care unit on day 3. After admission to COVID-19 ICU, clinical picture was rapidly worsened with development of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, "extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption" (CytoSorb®, Cytosorbents Corporation, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA) was planned and performed with regular intervals in order to remove inflammatory cytokines from circulation and to relieve systemic inflammatory response. The fever response and CRP elevation were controlled by hemoadsorption and cytokine filter performed in alternate days. On day 7 of ICU admission, it was decided to terminate pregnancy due to worsening hypoxemia and a healthy, premature infant was born. On day 2 after cesarean section, the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation support was initiated. However, the patient showed an increasingly complicated clinical course and died on day 22 after ICU admission. It is seen that COVID-19 positivity carries an important risk for both mother and fetus, particularly in those at advanced stages of gestation, by physiological changes in the mother during pregnancy. We believe that, in the treatment of COVID-19 and its complications during pregnancy, cytokine filter treatment can give time to patient for hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization.

Article here

Aim: To observe the clinical course of symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19.

Methods: This study analyzed the clinical and laboratory results of 27 patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 and 25 patients with a suspected COVID-19 diagnosis based on their symptoms and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. The patients' coagulation parameters and acute-phase reactants were evaluated both before and after treatment. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were also reviewed.

Results: The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.1 ± 3 days. The gestational age of the patients ranged from 6w2d to 40w2d. Thirty-five patients' CT scan findings suggested viral pneumonia. Four patients delivered vaginally, and 10 patients underwent a cesarean section during the study period. Four of the cesarean deliveries were indicated due to COVID-19 hypoxemia-related fetal distress. Four patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after the cesarean section.

Conclusion: Early hospitalization and medical treatment can alleviate symptoms, improve the clinical course and reduce the need for ICU in symptomatic pregnant patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Chest CT scans are a suitable option for suspected but unconfirmed COVID-19 infection.

Article here

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March-April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March-April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients.

Article here

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in health care in the perinatal period and women's childbirth experiences. Organizations that represent health care professionals have responded with general practice guidelines for pregnant women, but limited attention has been devoted to mental health in the perinatal period during a pandemic. Evidence suggests that in this context, significant psychological distress may have the potential for long-term psychological harm for mothers and infants. For infants, this risk may extend into early childhood. In this commentary, we present recommendations for practice, research, and policy related to mental health in the perinatal period. These recommendations include the use of a trauma-informed framework to promote social support and infant attachment, use of technology and telehealth, and assessment for mental health needs and experiences of violence.

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Objective: During the lockdown period, the fear about the risk of infection in hospital has reduced the admission to Emergency Services (ES) with possible negative health effects. We have investigated the changes in the emergency flow occurred during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in an obstetrics and gynecological ES and the short-term adverse outcomes on women's and reproductive health.

Study design: The study was conducted in the OBGYN ES of the Clinica Mangiagalli, the largest maternity clinic of Milan, Lombardy, Northern Italy. We analyzed retrospectively the records of all women consecutively admitted at the ES from February 23rd to June 24th 2019, and compared them with the admissions during the lockdown executive order from February 23rd to June 23rd, 2020. Patients were assessed in terms of demographic features, presentation times, triage classification (urgent/not urgent), reason for admission and outcome of the visit (discharge/admission to the ward). A total of 9291 data were retrieved from ES files and automation system, 5644 from 2019 and 3647 from 2020. Categorical variables were compared by the chi-square test calculating the p value and computed were percentage changes (with 95 % Confidence interval, CI).

Results: During the period February 24 th - May 31 th 2020 the admissions at the ES decreased by 35.4 % (95 % CI-34.1-36.6) compared with the corresponding period in 2019. The reduction was more marked for gynecological complaints (-63.5 %, 95 %CI -60.5 to -66.5): in particular we observed a reduction of admissions for genital infection/cystitis of 75.7 % (95 %CI -71.4 to -80.1). The admission for complaints associated with pregnancy decreased by 28.5 % (95 %CI -27.2 to-29.9). In the index period, five fetal deaths were diagnosed compared with one observed in the reference period in 2019 (chi square computed using as denominator all observed pregnancies = 4.29, p = 0.04). The frequency of admission for elective caesarean section/labor induction increased from 47.5 % in 2019 to 53.6 % in 2020: this difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion: The lockdown negatively influenced ES admissions and consequently the women's/reproductive health. As possible short-term consequences, we observed an increase of intrauterine deaths and a decrease of natural births.

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Background: Our aim was to describe the clinical features of mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection during gestation or delivery, and the potential vertical transmission. We also wish to evaluate the possible horizontal transmission after hospital discharge, by means of a follow-up of all the newborns included at 1 month of age.

Methods: This multicenter descriptive study involved 16 Spanish hospitals. We reviewed the medical records of 242 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 from March 13 to May 31, 2020, when they were in their third trimester of pregnancy. They and their 248 newborn infants were monitored until the infant was 1 month old.

Results: Caesarean sections (C-sections) were performed on 63 (26%) women. The initial clinical symptoms were coughing (33%) and fever (29.7%). Mothers hospitalized due to COVID-19 pathology had a higher risk of ending their pregnancy via C-section (P = 0.027). Newborns whose mothers had been admitted due to their COVID-19 infection had a higher risk of premature delivery (P = 0.006). We admitted 115 (46.3%) newborn infants to the neonatal unit, of those, 87 (75.6%) were only admitted due to organizational circumstances. No infants died and no vertical or horizontal transmission was detected. Regarding type of feeding, 41.7% of the newborns received exclusive breast-feeding at discharge and 40.4% at 1 month.

Conclusions: We did not detect COVID-19 transmission during delivery or throughout the first month of life in the newborns included in our study. Exclusive breast-feeding rates at discharge and at 1 month of age were lower than expected.

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Infant outcomes after maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection are not well-described. In a prospective U.S. registry of 263 infants born to mothers testing positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.

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Background and aim: The outbreak of the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. According to the findings, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of this virus. Due to the need for quarantine and social distancing in the current disease situation and need to receive repeated medical care in GDM patients, this review study aimed to evaluate the self-care strategies for women with GDM during COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: 25 related articles from 2011 to 2020 and 3 guidelines were reviewed with the keywords of gestational diabetes mellitus, diabetes, pregnancy and COVID-19 in combination with self-care and self-management in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley Online Library and SID.

Results: According to the results of the studies, face-to-face visits should be limited and instead, telemedicine services recommended. Self-care throughout telemedicine services were improved maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with GDM.

Conclusion: Although self-care program through telemedicine services is beneficial for women with GDM, performing clinical trials are recommended to assess maternal and neonatal outcomes in this condition.

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No abstract.

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Rationale: Women pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic are experiencing moderate to high levels of emotional distress, which has previously been shown to be attributable to two types of pandemic-related pregnancy stress: stress associated with feeling unprepared for birth due to the pandemic (Preparedness Stress) and stress related to fears of perinatal COVID-19 infection (Perinatal Infection Stress).

Objective: Given the well-documented harms associated with elevated prenatal stress and the critical importance of developing appropriately targeted interventions, we investigated factors predictive of pandemic-related pregnancy stress.

Method: Between April 25 and May 15, 2020, 4,451 pregnant women in the U.S. were recruited via social media to complete an online questionnaire that included sociodemographic, medical, and COVID-19 situational factors, as well as the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS). Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for high stress.

Results: Nearly 30% of participants reported high Preparedness Stress; a similar proportion reported high Perinatal Infection Stress. Abuse history, chronic illness, income loss due to the pandemic, perceived risk of having had COVID-19, alterations to prenatal appointments, high-risk pregnancy, and being a woman of color were associated with greater levels of one or both types of stress. Access to outdoor space, older age, and engagement in healthy behaviors were protective against stress.

Conclusions: Practices that may alleviate pandemic-related stress such as minimizing disruptions to prenatal care, ensuring access to outdoor space, and motivating engagement in health behaviors are of vital importance. Particular attention is needed for more vulnerable populations including women of color, women with a history of abuse, and those with high-risk pregnancy. Research focused on the short and longer-term impact of pandemic-related pregnancy stress on maternal mental and physical health, perinatal outcomes, and child development is critical to identify these effects and marshal appropriate resources to reduce them.

Article here.

Background: Limited medical facilities are available due to Covid-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, all efforts should be made in planning judicial and possible methods of delivering health care, particularly to pregnant woman with GDM. GDM may play a crucial role in the increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity and also may be the origin of cardiometabolic diseases.

Methods: It is mandatary to diagnose and care pregnant woman with GDM. The test suggested to diagnose GDM has to be evidence based and in this regard "a single test procedure" evaluated meets this requirement. This doable test has been accepted by the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) and approved by MHFW-GOI, WHO, International Diabetes Federation, and International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. MHFW-GOI also recommends testing at first antenatal visit and then at 24-28 weeks of gestation. This opportunity can also be utilized for performing ultrasonography for assessing fetal development.

Result: The first-line management is MNT and life style modifications. Non-responders may require insulin or OHA. The target glycemic control is FPG ~ 5.0 mmol/dl (90 mg/dl) and 2 h PPPG ~ 6.7 mmol/dl (120 mg/dl). The goal is to obtain newborns birth weight appropriate for gestational age between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, a step to prevent offspring developing diabetes.

Conclusion: The essential precaution required during COVID pandemic is to wear face mask, avoid crowded places, and maintain social distancing. Finally, the economical and evidence based "single test procedure" of DIPSI is most appropriate for screening during the COVID pandemic.

Article here.

This article evaluates the potential influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women on the development of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates and discusses the possibility of mother-to-child vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. With reference to related articles published up to now and the information on official websites, a retrospective review was performed for the clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results of the neonates born to the mothers with infection during pregnancy during the epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome and after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection since December 2019. Based on the limited data, there is no conclusive evidence for mother-to-child vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019, and more cases need to be collected for further evaluation.

Article here.

Aortic dissection and rupture is a rare occurrence in pregnant and postpartum patients. This case discusses the presentation and diagnosis of a patient with an acute contained thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture at 38 weeks of gestation, after presenting with throat pain and syncope during the COVID-19 pandemic. The patient underwent emergent caesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, following which continued syncope workup revealed an aortic aneurysm and pericardial effusion. Diagnosis in this case was finalized with multimodality imaging, including transthoracic echocardiogram, and the patient underwent surgical aortic repair.

Article here.

We report a case of COVID-19 in third-trimester pregnancy, who required support in an intensive care unit and received remdesivir. After discharge, she had an uncomplicated vaginal delivery at term. COVID-19 in pregnancy may be managed without emergent delivery; a multispecialty team is critical in caring for these patients.

Article here.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and led to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which quickly spread globally. Protocols for surgical patients with COVID-19 were lacking, particularly for pregnant women undergoing cesarean deliveries. Perioperative nurses at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan retrospectively analyzed the perioperative nursing process, including OR preparation, intraoperative care, and OR cleanup, for women with COVID-19 undergoing cesarean deliveries. Preparation involved altering the layout of the surgical suite, educating staff members, providing personal protective equipment, and creating new in-house guidelines to help protect personnel and patients. This article describes how perioperative personnel strategized to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in the OR and presents a multiple-case summary of six pregnant patients with COVID-19 who underwent cesarean deliveries at Tongji Hospital in January and February 2020.

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Despite rapidly evolving knowledge about COVID 19 infection, routes of perinatal COVID 19 transmission and viral load in mother neonate dyad remain uncertain. Data were analysed to describe the clinicodemographic profile and viral load in neonates born to COVID 19 positive mothers. Of 2947 deliveries, 69 mothers were COVID 19 positive (2.3%), with 1 abortion, 2 macerated stillbirths and 2 fresh stillbirths as pregnancy outcomes. Of 65 tested neonates, 10.7% (7) were confirmed COVID 19 positive by RTPCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). Viral load (cycle threshold, Ct of E, RDRp) in neonates was comparable with the Ct reported from adults; however, neonates had milder clinical manifestations. All 7 neonates who tested positive for COVID 19 were subsequently discharged. Six of the 7 neonates were asymptomatic and 1 neonate needed respiratory support (indication being prematurity) which resolved after 48 h. Maternal and neonatal comparison of Ct of E and RdRp gene was statistically non-significant (25.97 vs 19.68, p = 0.34 and 26.5 vs 25.0, p = 0.84). Viral loads of mothers with COVID 19 positive neonates compared with mothers with COVID 19 negative neonates for E and RdRp gene were also statistically non-significant (25 vs 27.19, p = 0.63 and 19.6 vs 27.6, p = 0.08). The majority (93%) of neonates tested later than 48 h (roomed in with mother and breastfed) tested negative.Conclusion: The study supports milder manifestation in COVID 19 positive neonates. Risk of transmission from COVID 19 positive mother to neonate by rooming-in and breastfeeding is low. In this study on a limited number of neonates, maternal viral load was not found to be associated with the positivity status or severity of the illness of neonate. What is Known: • Neonates born to COVID 19 positive mothers are at risk of COVID 19 infection. What is New: • Risk of transmission of COVID 19 from mother to neonate, with rooming-in and breastfeeding, appears low. • In this study on a limited number of neonates, maternal viral load of COVID 19 (E and RdRp cycle thresholds) was not associated with severity of illness or COVID 19 positivity in neonates.

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, was first identified after a cluster of cases in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Whether vertical transmission or placental pathology might occur following maternal infection during pregnancy remains unknown. This review aimed to summarise all studies that examined the placenta or neonates following infection with SARS-CoV-2, or closely related highly pathogenic coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1, or the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)). Structured literature searches found 50 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Twenty studies reported placental histopathology findings in third trimester placentas following maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using the Amsterdam Consensus criteria to categorise the histopathology results, evidence of both fetal vascular malperfusion (35.3% of cases; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 27.7-43.0%) and maternal vascular malperfusion (46% of cases; 95% CI 38.0-54.0%) were reported, along with evidence of inflammation in the placentas (villitis 8.7% cases, intervillositis 5.3% of cases, chorioamnionitis 6% of cases). The placental pathologies observed in SARS-CoV-2 were consistent with findings following maternal SARS-CoV-1 infection. Of those tested, a minority of neonates (2%) and placental samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (21%). Limited conclusions can be drawn about the effect of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on placental pathology as most lack control groups and the majority of reports followed third trimester infection. Collaboration to maximise the number of samples examined will increase the reliability and generalisability of findings. A better understanding of the association between maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and placental pathology will inform maternity care during the coronavirus pandemic.

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It has recently been reported that some hospitals in the UK have placed a blanket restriction on the provision of maternal request caesarean sections (MRCS) as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnancy and birthing services are obviously facing challenges during the current emergency, but we argue that a blanket ban on MRCS is both inappropriate and disproportionate. In this paper, we highlight the importance of MRCS for pregnant people's health and autonomy in childbirth and argue that this remains crucial during the current emergency. We consider some potential arguments-based on pregnant people's health and resource allocation-that might be considered justification for the limitation of such services. We demonstrate, however, that these arguments are not as persuasive as they might appear because there is limited evidence to indicate either that provision of MRCS is always dangerous for pregnant people in the circumstances or would be a substantial burden on a hospital's ability to respond to the pandemic. Furthermore, we argue that even if MRCS was not a service that hospitals are equipped to offer to all pregnant persons who seek it, the current circumstances cannot justify a blanket ban on an important service and due attention must be paid to individual circumstances.

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Purpose: We report a case of a pregnant female presenting with pituitary apoplexy and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection with a focus on management decisions.

Clinical history: A 28-year-old G5P1 38w1d female presented with 4 days of blurry vision, left dilated pupil, and headache. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on routine nasal swab testing but denied cough or fever. Endocrine testing demonstrated an elevated serum prolactin level, and central hypothyroidism. MRI showed a cystic-solid lesion with a fluid level in the pituitary fossa and expansion of the sella consistent with pituitary apoplexy. Her visual symptoms improved with corticosteroid administration and surgery was delayed to two weeks after her initial COVID-19 infection and to allow for safe delivery of the child. A vaginal delivery under epidural anesthetic occurred at 39 weeks. Two days later, transsphenoidal resection of the mass was performed under strict COVID-19 precautions including use of Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPRs) and limited OR personnel given high risk of infection during endonasal procedures. Pathology demonstrated a liquefied hemorrhagic mass suggestive of pituitary apoplexy. She made a full recovery and was discharged home two days after surgery.

Conclusion: Here we demonstrate the first known case of successful elective induction of vaginal delivery and transsphenoidal intervention in a near full term gravid patient presenting with pituitary apoplexy and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further reports may help determine if there is a causal relationship or if these events are unrelated. Close adherence to guidelines for caregivers can greatly reduce risk of infection.

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Pregnant women are susceptible population of COVID-19 which are more likely to have complications and even progress to severe illness. Pregnancy with COVID-19 and neonates are rarely reported. We report a newborn with normal IgM and elevated IgG antibodies born to an asymptomatic infection mother with COVID-19. We assessed whether there was intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19.

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We report the first case of SARS-CoV-2 pregnancy in the U.S. Our literature review highlights the rarity of COVID-19 intrauterine transmission and the need for clinicians to promptly test neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers at delivery for COVID-19. It is imperative to establish the real risk of intrauterine transmission and to develop appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

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Concerns regarding infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 are particularly marked for pregnant women with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). There is currently a relative paucity of information to guide advice given to and the clinical management of these individuals. Much of the limited available data around COVID-19 and pregnancy derives from the obstetric literature, and as such, neurologists may not be familiar with the general principles underlying current advice. In this article, we discuss the impact of potential infection on the pregnant woman, the impact on her baby, the impact of the current pandemic on antenatal care, and the interaction between COVID-19, MS and pregnancy. This review provides a framework for neurologists to use to guide the individualised advice given to both pregnant women with MS, and those women with MS who are considering pregnancy. This includes evidence derived from previous novel coronavirus infections, and emerging evidence from the current pandemic.

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Objectives: To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women affected by SARS-COV-2.

Methods: This was a multinational retrospective cohort study including women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-COV-2 from 73 centers from 22 different countries in Europe, United States, South America, Asia and Australia from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020. Confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite measure of maternal mortality and morbidity including admission to intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation, or death.

Results: 388 singleton pregnancies tested positive to SARS-COV-2 at RT-PCR nasal and pharyngeal swab were included in the study. The primary outcome was observed in 47/388 women (12.1%). 43/388 women (11.1%) were admitted to ICU, 36/388 (9.3%) required mechanical ventilation, and 3/388 women deceased (0.8%). Of the 388 women included in the study, 122 (31.4%) were still pregnant at the time of the study. Among the other 266 women, 6 had spontaneous first-trimester abortion, 3 had elective termination of pregnancy, 6 had stillbirth, and 251 delivered a live-born infant. The rate of preterm birth less than 37 weeks of gestation was 26.3% (70/266). Of the 251 live-born infants, 69/251 (27.5%) were admitted to NICU, with 5 neonatal deaths (2.0%). The overall rate of perinatal death was 4.1% (11/266). Only one infant (1/251, 0.4%) born from a mother tested positive during the third trimester, was found positive to SARS-COV-2 at RT-PCR.

Conclusions: SARS-COV-2 in pregnant women is associated with 0.8% rate of maternal mortality, but 11.1% rate of admission to ICU. The risk of vertical transmission seems to be negligible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Background: Data pertaining to COVID-19 in pregnancy are limited; to better inform clinicians, we collated data from COVID-19 cases during pregnancy and summarized clinical trials enrolling this population.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review of PubMed/MEDLINE to identify cases of COVID-19 in pregnancy or the postpartum period and associated outcomes. We then evaluated the proportion of COVID-19 clinical trials (from ClinicalTrials.gov) excluding pregnant or breastfeeding persons (both through June 29, 2020).

Results: We identified 11 308 published cases of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Of those reporting disease severity, 21% (416/1999) were severe/critical. Maternal and neonatal survival were reassuring (98% [10 437/10 597] and 99% [1155/1163], respectively). Neonatal disease was rare, with only 41 possible cases of infection reported in the literature. Of 2351 ongoing COVID-19 therapeutic clinical trials, 1282 were enrolling persons of reproductive age and 65% (829/1282) excluded pregnant persons. Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion for 69% (75/109) of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, 80% (28/35) of lopinavir/ritonavir, and 48% (44/91) of convalescent plasma studies. We identified 48 actively recruiting or completed drug trials reporting inclusion of this population.

Conclusions: There are limited published reports of COVID-19 in pregnancy despite more than 14 million cases worldwide. To date, clinical outcomes appear reassuring, but data related to important long-term outcomes are missing or not yet reported. The large number of clinical trials excluding pregnant persons, despite interventions with safety data in pregnancy, is concerning. In addition to observational cohort studies, pregnancy-specific adaptive clinical trials could be designed to identify safe and effective treatments.

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The novel coronavirus outbreak induces many concerns about the management of pregnancy, as well as rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. The very rapid spread of the infection throughout all inhabited continents leads to a fast-growing number of infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requires answers and special recommendations to the most vulnerable group of people: pregnant woman and patients on immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus database for studies describing COVID-19 infection in pregnant women diagnosed with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. From the 1,115 initially identified articles, we selected 29 publications in the English language, from which 18 were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Limited number of cases and further researches are required to evaluate the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to her infant as well as clinical features of infection in pregnant women. The conclusions of different authors, despite the small number of cases, suggest that there is no vertical transmission in women diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the World Health Organization recently reported that pregnant patients do not have a higher risk of infection than the rest of the population, Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists and The Royal College of Midwives for COVID-19 infection in pregnancy published Guidelines for pregnant women with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.Considerations about patients with rheumatic diseases on the immunosuppressive treatment required European League Against Rheumatism, American College of Rheumatology, British Society for Rheumatology, and Australian Rheumatology Association to publish recommendations for patients with rheumatic diseases and COVID-19. These algorithms are very important to the medical society, but many concerns, absence of experience, and many questions are still unanswered and need time to be resolved and proceed successfully in this global pandemic situation.

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Access to abortion care has long been a global challenge, even in jurisdictions where abortion is legal. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated barriers to access, thereby preventing many women from terminating unwanted pregnancies for an extended period. In this paper, we outline existing and COVID-specific barriers to abortion care and consider potential solutions, including the use of telemedicine, to overcome barriers to access during the pandemic and beyond. We explore the responses of governments throughout the world to the challenge of abortion access during the pandemic, which are an eclectic mix of progressive, neutral, and regressive policies. Finally, we call on all governments to recognize abortion as essential healthcare and act to ensure that the law does not continue to interfere with providers' ability to adapt to circumstances and to guarantee safe and appropriate care not only during the pandemic, but permanently.

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Aims and objectives: To observe the psychological status of pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic, and to test a hypothetical model that estimates the influence of psychological response to COVID-19 and security sense on pregnancy stress.

Background: COVID-19 advanced rapidly and then spread worldwide. Pregnant women were more susceptible to the COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, it is not clear whether this infection will increase the risk of congenital monstrosity, foetal growth restriction, premature delivery or cause other long-term adverse effects.

Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey.

Methods: A total of 331 pregnant women participated in this study. And this research adhered to the STROBE guideline. The psychological questionnaire for emergent events of public health, pregnancy stress scale and security questionnaire were used to collect data. The hypothetical path model was tested using the SPSS version 25.0 software and AMOS version 26.0 software.

Results: Fear and depression were the most common psychological responses among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesis model of this study fitted the data well, and the results showed that psychological response positively affected pregnancy stress, while security sense negatively affected pregnancy stress; security sense mediated between psychological response and pregnancy stress.

Conclusion: Nurses and midwives can help reduce the stress in pregnant women by alleviating their psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic and by improving their security sense.

Relevance to clinical practice: : It is essential for the health staff to build trust with pregnant women and their families, and communicate accurate information to them. Nurses should promptly conduct a psychological response evaluation and psychological guidance for pregnant women to alleviate their fears and hypochondria related to COVID-19.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues to have a devastating impact on healthcare systems worldwide, and many questions remain unanswered. The effect of COVID-19 on the pregnant population is widely debated, and the unique risks in pregnancy have not yet been elucidated. What has been established, however, is the recommendation for healthcare workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) for both contact and airborne precautions to prevent transmission of the pathogen-adding another barrier to care for vulnerable populations. We report a case of a young woman from Haiti during her first pregnancy, who was admitted to the antepartum service at 22 weeks of gestation with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and remained admitted in isolation, though asymptomatic, for over six weeks due to persistent positive SARS-CoV-2 testing. Our case highlights the unique barriers to care that COVID-19 poses to antepartum patients, particularly in the setting of pregnant women with persistent positive testing.

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Background: The pandemic caused by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain threatening to women and children, while clinical evidences regarding women during pregnancy, puerperium and lactation periods are limited.

Objective: We aim to discuss clinical, immunological features and breast feeding advices among mother-infant pairs.

Study design: This observational analysis was conducted in a tertiary center located in Wuhan, China. Pregnant patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who delivered during hospitalization were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and serial specimens of the mother-infant pairs were examined, supplemented with follow-ups regarding recovery and breast feeding.

Results: 14 pregnant patients had live birth and achieved good recovery, four patients continued breast feeding with precautions, no neonatal infection was found. No infants observed developed COVID-19 during breastfeeding. Common maternal symptoms were fever (11/14, 78.1%) and cough (6/14, 42.9%), a pregnancy specific symptom was abnormal fetal movement, noticed in three (21.4%) patients. The mean viral shedding time was nine days (SD 6, range 1-22), SARS- CoV- 2 genome was non-detected in breast milk or maternal vaginal secretions. Immunological assay showed seroconversion of IgM on day eight of onset, IgG on day 28. Both IgM and IgM antibodies to SARS- CoV- 2 are detected in breast milk, cord blood and neonatal serum.

Conclusion: The study suggested passive acquisition of antibody against SARS- CoV- 2 through breast milk ingestion. Breast feeding role is low risk in transmission of SARS- CoV- 2 or cause maternal disease escalation, continue breast feeding with prudent precautions is encouraged.

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The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic disease worldwide. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing at a rapid speed. Till May 4, 2020, there have been 3,407,747 confirmed cases and 238,198 deaths globally. The common symptoms in pregnant women are fever, cough, and dyspnea. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has transient overexpression and increased activity during pregnancy, which is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. There is no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is no valid medication or vaccination. The immune suppression or modulation during pregnancy increases the risk of severe pneumonia. Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine is controversial in its effectiveness and safety to treat SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy. Chloroquine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The management strategy includes monitoring fetal heart rate and uterine contractions; early oxygenation if O2 saturation is less than 95%; empiric antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection; corticosteroid to treat maternal SARS-CoV-2 disease routinely is not suggested, only for fetal lung maturation in selected cases; and consideration of delivery is according to the obstetric indication, gestational age, and severity of the disease. During epidemics, delivery at 32-34 weeks is considered. The indication for the Cesarean section should be flexible to minimize the risk of infection during the delivery. The newborn should be in isolation ward immediately after birth; breastfeeding is not contraindicated but should avoid direct transmission infection.

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Key message: Laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant women. A trend of lower lymphocyte count was observed in the pregnant women group PURPOSE: Laboratory abnormalities, which characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified, nevertheless, data concerning laboratory characteristics of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the laboratory characteristics of pregnant compared to non-pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 who were examined at the obstetric emergency room in a tertiary medical center between March and April 2020. Patients were compared with non-pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 matched by age, who were examined at the general emergency room during the study period. All patients were confirmed for SARS-CoV-2 on admission. Clinical characteristics and laboratory results were compared between the groups.

Results: Study group included 11 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2, who were compared to 25 non-pregnant controls. Respiratory complaints were the most frequent reason for emergency room visit, and were reported in 54.5% and 80.0% of the pregnant and control groups, respectively (p = 0.12). White blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets, and liver enzymes counts were within the normal range in both groups. Lyphocytopenia was observed in 45.5% and 32% of the pregnant and control groups, respectively (p = 0.44). The relative lymphocyte count to WBC was significantly reduced in the pregnant group compared to the controls [13.6% (4.5-19.3) vs. 26.5% (15.7-29.9); p = 0.003]. C-reactive protein [20(5-41) vs. 14 (2-52) mg/dL; p = 0.81] levels were elevated in both groups but without significant difference between them.

Conclusion: Laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant women, although a trend of lower lymphocyte count was observed in the pregnant women group.

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Background: Limited data are available on the perinatal and postnatal transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended breastfeeding with necessary precautions to mothers with COVID-19. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old pregnant woman with no symptoms of COVID-19 presented to the hospital for delivery at 39 weeks of gestation. She was tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) because her father had been diagnosed with COVID-19. A nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR test was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the baby and the mother were cared for separately after delivery. Breast milk obtained after first lactation was tested by real-time RT-PCR and was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: In this article, we aimed to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk. Although further studies are needed, this situation may have an impact on breastfeeding recommendations.

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Aim: The objective of our study was to determine whether the SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers transmit the virus to their hand-expressed colostrum. Methods: This is an observational prospective study that included pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR test on a nasopharyngeal swab at the moment of childbirth and who wanted to breastfeed their newborns. A colostrum sample was obtained from the mothers by manual self-extraction. To collect the samples, the mothers wore surgical masks, washed their hands with an 85% alcohol-based gel, and washed their breast with gauze that was saturated with soap and water. Results: We obtained seven colostrum samples from different mothers in the first hours postdelivery. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the colostrum samples obtained in our study. Conclusion: In our study, breast milk was not a source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hand expression (assuring that a mask is used and that appropriate hygienic measures are used for the hands and the breast), when direct breastfeeding is not possible, appears to be a safe way of feeding newborns of mothers with COVID-19.

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Background: To date, although neonatal infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been described, none of these have been proven to be the result of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We describe the probable vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a neonate born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Results: Following cesarean section, the neonate was kept in strict isolation. Molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 on respiratory samples, blood, and meconium were initially negative, but positive on a nasopharyngeal aspirate on the third day of life. On day 5, the neonate developed fever and coryza, which spontaneously resolved. Viral genomic analysis from the mother and neonate showed identical sequences except for 1 nucleotide.

Conclusion: This report has important implications for infection control and clinical management of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns.

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Introduction: Following an exponential increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections, the city of Jena, Thuringia, was the first in Germany to introduce mandatory mouth and nose coverings. An estimation of the SARS-CoV-2 period prevalence was achieved by screening an unselected cohort of pregnant women. Of interest was the number of unreported cases.

Methods: Upon admission to hospital, patients were screened for SARS-CoV-2 by a specific real-time PCR and antibodies determined by a specific SARS-CoV-2 IgG in serum by ELISA. The SARS-CoV-2 period prevalence was estimated using the Clopper-Pearson exact method, the group comparison with Fischer's exact test.

Results: From 6 April to 13 May 2020, 234 pregnant women were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics. A total of 225 (96.2%) SARS-CoV-2 PCRs were carried out and all remained negative. Specific IgG antibodies were detected in one (0.6%) of 180 (76.9%) antibody tests performed. The interval estimate of the period prevalence thus results in a 95% confidence interval between 0-1.7%. For 96 households with children, the period prevalence is 0-3.8%, which does not differ from the 0-4.8% for 76 households without children (p=1.00).

Discussion: This is the first report on the SARS-CoV-2 period prevalence of an unselected sample of pregnant women in Germany. Antibody testing showed no evidence of the feared high number of unreported asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. The seroconversion rate was below 1% (0.6%).

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Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Although there is no vigorous evidence that pregnant women are in the high-risk groups in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is crucial to respond to the pandemic through providing required action plans for confirmed or suspected pregnant women cases while maintaining routine functions. Iran's response and preparedness measures to COVID-19 aimed to meet the essential needs required to protect pregnant women and their families. Establishing a national maternal health network, relying on mechanisms for timely reporting, monitoring, and following-up, preparing guidelines and protocols required for COVID-19 management in pregnant women though a multidisciplinary team working approach, and embedding the precautions of reducing transmission in maternity care were the main measures taken to cope with COVID-19 in pregnancy. Iran's experience in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 can guide other countries affected by COVID-19. However, it should be adapted to local health-care facilities, as well as in response to any further updates on COVID-19.

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Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is noninfectious chronic villitis thought to be associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. COVID-19 and the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause an increased risk in pregnant women for potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological mechanism. We report a 39-week-gestational-age infant delivered to a 37-year-old mother diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at 37 weeks gestation. The placental examination showed the morphological features of VUE. We showed immunohistochemically that macrophages and CD4-positive T cells predominated in the villous tissue, although elevated numbers of CD8-positive cells were also present. We hypothesize that VUE may represent a maternal anti-viral immune response, in this case to SARS-CoV-2.

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Background: The COVID-19 global pandemic has impacted the whole of society, requiring rapid implementation of individual-, population-, and system-level public health responses to contain and reduce the spread of infection. Women in the perinatal period (pregnant, birthing, and postpartum) have unique and timely needs for directives on health, safety, and risk aversion during periods of isolation and physical distancing for themselves, their child or children, and other family members. In addition, they are a vulnerable group at increased risk of psychological distress that may be exacerbated in the context of social support deprivation and a high-risk external environment.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the public discourse of a perinatal cohort to understand unmet health information and support needs, and the impacts on mothering identity and social dynamics in the context of COVID-19.

Methods: A leading Australian online support forum for women pre- through to postbirth was used to interrogate all posts related to COVID-19 from January 27 to May 12, 2020, inclusive. Key search terms included "COVID," "corona," and "pandemic." A three-phase analysis was conducted, including thematic analysis, sentiment analysis, and word frequency calculations.

Results: The search yielded 960 posts, of which 831 were included in our analysis. The qualitative thematic analysis demonstrated reasonable understanding, interpretation, and application of relevant restrictions in place, with five emerging themes identified. These were (1) heightened distress related to a high-risk external environment; (2) despair and anticipatory grief due to deprivation of social and family support, and bonding rituals; (3) altered family and support relationships; (4) guilt-tampered happiness; and (5) family future postponed. Sentiment analysis revealed that the content was predominantly negative (very negative: n=537 and moderately negative: n=443 compared to very positive: n=236 and moderately positive: n=340). Negative words were frequently used in the 831 posts with associated derivatives including "worried" (n=165, 19.9%), "risk" (n=143, 17.2%), "anxiety" (n=98, 11.8%), "concerns" (n=74, 8.8%), and "stress" (n=69, 8.3%).

Conclusions: Women in the perinatal period are uniquely impacted by the current pandemic. General information on COVID-19 safe behaviors did not meet the particular needs of this cohort. The lack of nuanced and timely information may exacerbate the risk of psychological and psychosocial distress in this vulnerable, high-risk group. State and federal public health departments need to provide a central repository of information that is targeted, consistent, accessible, timely, and reassuring. Compensatory social and emotional support should be considered, using alternative measures to mitigate the risk of mental health disorders in this cohort.

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The global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the early months of 2020 was rapid and exposed vulnerabilities in health systems throughout the world. Obstetric SARS-CoV-2 disease was discovered to be largely asymptomatic carriage but included a small rate of severe disease with rapid decompensation in otherwise healthy women. Higher rates of hospitalization, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and intubation, along with higher infection rates in minority and disadvantaged populations have been documented across regions. The operational gymnastics that occurred daily during the Covid-19 emergency needed to be translated to the obstetrics realm, both inpatient and ambulatory. Resources for adaptation to the public health crisis included workforce flexibility, frequent communication of operational and protocol changes for evaluation and management, and application of innovative ideas to meet the demand.

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Introduction: Despite historical exclusion, there has been recent recognition of the need to address the health of pregnant women in research on vaccines against emerging pathogens. However, pregnant women's views and decision-making processes about vaccine research participation during infectious disease outbreaks remain underexplored. This study aims to examine women's decision-making processes around vaccine research participation during infectious disease outbreaks.

Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews with pregnant and recently pregnant women (n = 13), eliciting their views on four hypothetical Zika Virus vaccine research scenarios and probing their decision-making processes around participation. After recorded interviews were transcribed, thematic analysis was conducted based on a priori and emergent themes.

Results: Most women interviewed were accepting of vaccine research scenarios. Three broad themes-evidence, risk, and trust-characterized women's decision-making processes. Women varied in how different types and levels of evidence impacted their considerations, which risks were most salient to their decision-making processes, and from whom they trusted recommendations about vaccine research participation. Exemplary quotes from each theme are presented, and lessons for vaccine development during the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks are discussed. Conclusion: Some pregnant women are accepting of participation in vaccine research during infectious disease outbreaks. Incorporating their priorities into trial design may facilitate their participation and generation of evidence for this important population.

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel type of highly contagious pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the COVID19 outbreak unfolds, more and more pregnant women are infected with SARS-CoV-2, concerns have been raised about its clinical manifestations in pregnancy and the potential risk of vertical transmission from mother to fetus in pregnant women. Hence, in this review, we summarize the latest research progress related to COVID-19 epidemiology and the reported data of pregnant women with COVID-19, and discuss the clinical manifestations, treatments, maternal and perinatal outcomes, and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of such virus. Reported data suggest that symptoms in pregnant women are similar to those in other populations, and that there is no evidence of vertical transmission from mother to child. In the meantime, considering the good prognosis of most of the infected mothers and infants and absence of serious obstetric complications in pregnant women with COVID-19, it is not recommended to give birth as soon as possible, and it is necessary to extend the gestational period reasonably.

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Background: Despite the large number of pregnant women with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is not enough analytical study to compare maternal and fetal consequences of COVID-19 infected with non-infected pregnancies. This cohort study aimed to compare maternal and fetal consequences of COVID-19 infected with non-infected pregnancies.

Methods: We included pregnant women with and without COVID-19 who were admitted to Arash Hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 1 to Sep 1, 2020. Clinical features, treatments, and maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed.

Result: One hundred and ninety-nine women enrolled, including 66 COVID-19 infected and 133 non-infected pregnant women prospectively. Caesarean Section (CS) was carried out in total 105 women (52.76%). A significant difference was found in term of delivery type between COVID-19 infected and non-infected pregnant women (aRR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.65, p = 0.024). No significant association was found between COVID-19 infection and preterm birth (PB) (aRR: 1.16, 95%CI: 0.54, 2.48, p = 0.689), low birth weight (LBW) (aRR: 1.13, 95%CI: 0.55, 2.31, p = 0.723), gestational diabetes (GDM) (aRR: 1.67, 95%CI: 0.81, 3.42, p = 0.160), preeclampsia (aRR: 2.02, 95%CI: 0.42, 6.78, p = 0.315), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (aRR: 0.16, 95%CI: 0.02, 1.86, p = 0.145), preterm rupture of membrane (PROM) (aRR: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.02, 2.20, p = 0.186), stillbirth (aRR: 1.41, 95%CI: 0.08, 18.37, p = 0.614), postpartum haemorrhage (aRR: 1.84, 95%CI: 0.39, 8.63, p = 0.185), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (aRR: 1.84, 95%CI: 0.77, 4.39, p = 0.168), neonatal sepsis (aRR: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.48, 1.48, p = 0.568). The percentage of patients (4/66, 6.06%) being admitted to the ICU was significantly higher than the control group (0%) (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Basically, although pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different, the need for ICU care for pregnant women with COVID-19 was significantly higher compared with those without COVID-19.

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Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women, in contrast to previous outbreaks, seem to be similar to those of nonpregnant women. During severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS influenza A, and Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreaks, an increased severity of disease among pregnant women was observed. In some pregnant women, respiratory failure can occur and progress quickly to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a rescue therapy. Despite a lack of current guidelines on the use of ECMO in pregnant or postpartum women, this support therapy is an effective salvage therapy for patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure, and is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Herein, the authors report a case of severe COVID-19 disease in a pregnant patient after urgent cesarean delivery, who was treated successfully with ECMO during the postpartum. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered early when conventional therapy is ineffective, and it is essential to refer to ECMO expert centers.

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Background: Coronavirus is challenging the global health care system from time to time. The pregnant state, with alterations in hormone levels and decreased lung volumes due to a gravid uterus and slightly immunocompromised state may predispose patients to a more rapidly deteriorating clinical course and can get a greater risk of harm for both the mother and fetus. Therefore, this systematic review was aimed to assess the effect of coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV) during pregnancy and its possibility of vertical maternal-fetal transmission.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library until the end of April. All authors independently extracted all necessary data using excel spreadsheet form. Only published articles with fully accessible data on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV, MARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 were included. Data on clinical manifestations, maternal and perinatal outcomes were extracted and analyzed.

Result: Out of 879 articles reviewed, 39 studies involving 1316 pregnant women were included. The most common clinical features were fever, cough, and myalgia with prevalence ranging from 30 to 97%, while lymphocytopenia and C-reactive protein were the most common abnormal laboratory findings (55-100%). Pneumonia was the most diagnosed clinical symptom of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 infection with prevalence ranged from 71 to 89%. Bilateral pneumonia (57.9%) and ground-glass opacity (65.8%) were the most common CT imaging reported. The most common treatment options used were hydroxychloroquine (79.7%), ribavirin (65.2%), and oxygen therapy (78.8%). Regarding maternal outcome, the rate of preterm birth < 37 weeks of gestation was 14.3%, preeclampsia (5.9%), miscarriage (14.5%, preterm premature rupture of membranes (9.2%) and fetal growth restriction (2.8%). From the total coronavirus infected pregnant women, 56.9% delivered by cesarean, 31.3% admitted to ICU, while 2.7% were died. Among the perinatal outcomes, fetal distress rated (26.5%), neonatal asphyxia rated (1.4%). Only, 1.2% of neonates had apgar score < 7 at 5 min. Neonate admitted to ICU was rated 11.3%, while the rate of perinatal death was 2.2%. In the current review, none of the studies reported transmission of CoV from the mother to the fetus in utero during the study period.

Conclusion: Coronavirus infection is more likely to affect pregnant women. Respiratory infectious diseases have demonstrated an increased risk of adverse maternal obstetrical complications than the general population due to physiological changes occurred during pregnancy. None of the studies reported transmission of CoV from the mother to the fetus in utero, which may be due to a very low expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 in early maternal-fetal interface cells.

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Background: It has been proposed that pregnant women and their fetuses may be particularly at risk for poor outcomes due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. From the few case series that are available in the literature, women with high risk pregnancies have been associated with higher morbidity. It has been suggested that pregnancy induced immune responses and cardio-vascular changes can exaggerate the course of the COVID-19 infection.

Case presentation: A 26-year old Somalian woman (G2P1) presented with a nine-day history of shortness of breath, dry cough, myalgia, nausea, abdominal pain and fever. A nasopharyngeal swab returned positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Her condition rapidly worsened leading to severe liver and coagulation impairment. An emergency Caesarean section was performed at gestational week 32 + 6 after which the patient made a rapid recovery. Severe COVID-19 promptly improved by the termination of the pregnancy or atypical HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count) exacerbated by concomitant COVID-19 infection could not be ruled out. There was no evidence of vertical transmission.

Conclusion: This case adds to the growing body of evidence which raises concerns about the possible negative maternal outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and advocates for pregnant women to be recognized as a vulnerable group during the current pandemic.

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Objectives With clinical experience from previous coronavirus infections, public health measures and fear of infection may have negative psychological effects on pregnant women. This study aimed to compare the level of anxiety and depression in the same pregnant women before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods The pregnant women continuing pregnancy who participated in the first study which was undertaken to clarify the factors associated with mental health of pregnant women before the COVID-19 pandemic, were included for the current study during the outbreak. Anxiety and depression symptoms of the same pregnant women were evaluated by using the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms II and Beck Anxiety Inventory twice before and during the pandemic. Results A total of 63 pregnant women completed questionnaires. The mean age of the women and the mean gestational age was 30.35±5.27 years and 32.5±7 weeks, respectively. The mean total IDAS II score was found to increase from 184.78±49.67 (min: 109, max: 308) to 202.57±52.90 (min: 104, max: 329) before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. According to the BAI scores the number of patients without anxiety (from 10 to 6) and with mild anxiety (from 31 to 24) decreased and patients with moderate (from 20 to 25) and severe anxiety (from 2 to 8) increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that obesity and relationship with her husband are the best predictors of IDAS II scores. Conclusions This study indicated that COVID-19 outbreak affects the mental health of pregnant women negatively which leads to adverse birth outcomes. The level of anxiety and depression symptoms of pregnant women during the COVID-19 infection significantly increased. Healthcare professionals should establish comprehensive treatment plans for pregnant women who are highly vulnerable population to prevent mental trauma during the infectious disease outbreaks.

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We aimed to evaluate the postpartum depression rates and maternal-infant bonding status among immediate postpartum women, whose last trimester overlapped with the lockdowns and who gave birth in a tertiary care center which had strong hospital restrictions due to serving also for COVID-19 patients, in the capital of Turkey. The low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI) within 48 h after birth. A total of 223 women were recruited. The median score obtained from the EPDS was 7 (7) and 33 (14.7%) of the women were determined to have a risk for postpartum depression. The median scores of the EPDS inventory of depressive women were 15 (3). The median MAI score of 223 women was 100 (26); and the MAI scores of women with depression were significantly lower than the controls [73 (39) vs. 101 (18) respectively, p < 0.001]. Evaluation of the factors that affect the psychological status of pregnant and postpartum women will lead the healthcare system to improve the implementations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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The pandemic caused by COVID-19 is affecting populations and healthcare systems worldwide. As we gain experience managing COVID-19, more data become available on disease severity, course, and treatment in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data in pregnancy remains limited. This narrative review of COVID-19 during pregnancy underscores key knowledge gaps in our understanding of the impact of this viral infection on reproductive health. Current data suggest that pregnant people have similar disease course and outcomes compared to nonpregnant people, with the majority experiencing mild disease, however pregnant people may have increased risk of hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Among patients who develop severe and critical disease, major maternal morbidity and mortality have been described including cardiomyopathy, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death. Many questions remain regarding maternal severity of disease in COVID-19. Further research is needed to better understand disease course in pregnancy. Additionally, the inclusion of pregnant patients in therapeutic trials will provide vital data on treatment options for patients. As we continue to treat more patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, multidisciplinary care and continued research are both needed to achieve optimal outcomes for mother and fetus.

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Purpose: To investigate the clinico-radiological findings and outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia compared to age-matched non-pregnant women.

Methods: A retrospective case-controlled study was conducted to review clinical and CT data of 21 pregnant and 19 age-matched non-pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. Four stages of CT images were analyzed and compared based on the time interval from symptom onset: stage 1 (0-6 days), stage 2 (7-9 days), stage 3 (10-16 days), and stage 4 (>16 days). The initial and follow-up data were analyzed and compared.

Results: Compared with age-matched non-pregnant women, initial absence of fever (13/21, 62%) and normal lymphocyte count (11/21, 52%) were more frequent in pregnant group. The predominant patterns of lung lesions were pure ground-glass opacity (GGO), GGO with consolidation or reticulation, and pure consolidation in both groups. Pure consolidation on chest CT was more common at presentation in pregnant cases. Pregnant women progressed with a higher consolidation frequency compared with non-pregnant group in stage 2 (95% vs 82%). Improvement was identified in stages 3 and 4 for both groups, but consolidation was still more frequent for pregnant women in stage 4. Most patients (38/40, 95%) were grouped as mild or common type. The length of hospitalization between the two groups was similar.

Conclusion: Pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia did not present typical clinical features, while developing a relatively more severe disease at imaging with a slower recovery course and experiencing similar outcomes compared with the non-pregnant women.

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The COVID-19 outbreak has spread across the globe at an alarming rate. As the pandemic escalates, experience of COVID-19 in pregnant women is accumulating. We present a case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a 28-week pregnant woman with a known low lying placenta. The patient had deranged liver function tests at presentation, along with elevated bile acids. We discuss the differential diagnosis of these findings, and the possible mechanisms of hepatic injury in COVID-19. The low lying placenta in this patient meant that we had to carefully consider the application of recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant COVID-19 patients. With supportive management, this patient improved enough to be discharged, and has gone on to deliver a healthy neonate at term.

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Objective: To evaluate the accessibility of pregnant women to prenatal screening and diagnostic tests during the COVID-19 pandemic process and analyze the effect of the pandemic process on acceptance-rejection rates of fetal diagnostic procedures for high risk pregnancies.

Materials and methods: As part of this cross-sectional study, during the pandemic, between the dates of 11 March 2020-30 June 2020 at Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Perinatology Clinic, fetal structural anomaly detected by ultrasonography or with increased risk in screening test in the first and second trimester of high risk pregnancies, who were therefore recommended a prenatal diagnosis test, were defined as the control group and retrospectively compared with high risk pregnancies of the same periods (11 March 2019-30 June 2019) in the previous year.

Results: A total of 267 cases were evaluated within the scope of the study. The rate of pregnant women undergoing the first and second trimester screening tests was 83% in the control group and 56% for pregnant women in the study group. When the total number of prenatal diagnostic procedures and the year each of the procedures performed are compared, a statistically significant difference was found between the study and control groups (p: .041 and p < .001, respectively). When evaluating the rates of performed prenatal diagnostic procedures during the first patient visit in comparison to years, a statistically significant difference was observed in the A/S group and in the total number of cases (p = .023, p < .001, respectively). Similarly, the rate of performed prenatal diagnostic procedure during the first patient visit and the patient's city of residence was similarly statistically significant from year to year (p < .05).

Conclusions: The decrease in number of prenatal diagnosis and screening tests during the COVID-19 pandemic draws attention. Prenatal care services are a serious issue that cannot be overcome by any deficiencies in both maternal and fetal care.

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Objective: To determine the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19).

Design: Living systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources: Medline, Embase, Cochrane database, WHO COVID-19 database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases from 1 December 2019 to 26 June 2020, along with preprint servers, social media, and reference lists. Study selection: Cohort studies reporting the rates, clinical manifestations (symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings), risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed covid-19.

Data extraction: At least two researchers independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, with estimates pooled as odds ratios and proportions with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be updated regularly.

Results: 77 studies were included. Overall, 10% (95% confidence interval 7% to14%; 28 studies, 11 432 women) of pregnant and recently pregnant women attending or admitted to hospital for any reason were diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19. The most common clinical manifestations of covid-19 in pregnancy were fever (40%) and cough (39%). Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.85; I2=74%; 5 studies; 80 521 women) and myalgia (0.48, 0.45 to 0.51; I2=0%; 3 studies; 80 409 women) and were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit (1.62, 1.33 to 1.96; I2=0%) and invasive ventilation (1.88, 1.36 to 2.60; I2=0%; 4 studies, 91 606 women). 73 pregnant women (0.1%, 26 studies, 11 580 women) with confirmed covid-19 died from any cause. Increased maternal age (1.78, 1.25 to 2.55; I2=9%; 4 studies; 1058 women), high body mass index (2.38, 1.67 to 3.39; I2=0%; 3 studies; 877 women), chronic hypertension (2.0, 1.14 to 3.48; I2=0%; 2 studies; 858 women), and pre-existing diabetes (2.51, 1.31 to 4.80; I2=12%; 2 studies; 858 women) were associated with severe covid-19 in pregnancy. Pre-existing maternal comorbidity was a risk factor for admission to an intensive care unit (4.21, 1.06 to 16.72; I2=0%; 2 studies; 320 women) and invasive ventilation (4.48, 1.40 to 14.37; I2=0%; 2 studies; 313 women). Spontaneous preterm birth rate was 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%; I2=55%; 10 studies; 870 women) in women with covid-19. The odds of any preterm birth (3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 7.85; I2=1%; 2 studies; 339 women) was high in pregnant women with covid-19 compared with those without the disease. A quarter of all neonates born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to the neonatal unit (25%) and were at increased risk of admission (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 4.78, I2=not estimable; 1 study, 1121 neonates) than those born to mothers without covid-19.

Conclusion: Pregnant and recently pregnant women are less likely to manifest covid-19 related symptoms of fever and myalgia than non-pregnant women of reproductive age and are potentially more likely to need intensive care treatment for covid-19. Pre-existing comorbidities, high maternal age, and high body mass index seem to be risk factors for severe covid-19. Preterm birth rates are high in pregnant women with covid-19 than in pregnant women without the disease.

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The consequences of COVID-19 infecting pregnant women and the potential risks of vertical transmission have become a major issue. Since little is currently known about COVID-19 in pregnancy, the understanding of COVID-19 in this particular group will be updated in time, and a comprehensive review will be useful to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Based on recently published literature and official documents, this review provides an introduction to the pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical features of COVID-19 and has focused on the current researches on clinical features, pregnancy outcomes and placental histopathological analysis from pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. These viruses trigger a cytokine storm in the body, produce a series of immune responses, and cause changes in peripheral leukocytes and immune system cells leading to pregnancy complications that may be associated with viral infections. The expression of ACE2 receptors in the vascular endothelium may explain the histological changes of placentas from pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia show similar clinical characteristics compared with non-pregnant counterparts. Although there is no unequivocal evidence to support the fetal infection by intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2 so far, more and more articles began to report maternal deaths due to COVID-19. In particular, from February 26, 2020 (date of the first COVID-19 case reported in Brazil) until June 18, 2020, Brazil reported 124 maternal deaths. Therefore, pregnant women and neonates require special attention regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of COVID-19.

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The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected more than 19.7 million persons worldwide with 7,28,013 deaths till 10th August 2020. It has put an unprecedented workload on health care systems with special reference to labor rooms and obstetrics as deliveries can't be stopped or postponed. Preparing their facilities using triage (COVID positive patients, COVID suspect patients and COVID negative patients) can help to better utilize the limited resources and helps in prevention of spread of disease and improve maternal and perinatal outcome. There is need for proper training of healthcare providers for judicious use of personal protective equipment(PPEs) for optimum outcome. Fortunately, the available literature suggests that there is no substantial increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 in pregnancy or its increased virulence in pregnancy and labor and there is no adverse effects on fetus and neonate with negligible fetal transmission rate. Nevertheless, utmost care is needed to manage such pregnancies, their prenatal care and labor. This review aimed to highlight the main recommendations applied in Indians maternities for better management of pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Objective: The study sought to examine the psychological distress of Israeli pregnant women during the worldwide spread of COVID-19. As Israel has a diverse cultural-religious population, the sample included both Jewish and Arab women, allowing us to explore the differences between them. Furthermore, we examined the contribution of personal resources, both internal (self-mastery and resilience) and external (perceived social support), as well as the level of infection-related anxiety to the women's psychological distress.

Method: A convenience sample of 403 Israeli women (233 Jewish and 170 Arab) was recruited through social media.

Results: Arab women reported significantly higher infection-related anxiety and psychological distress than Jewish women. In addition, Jewish women reported significantly higher self-mastery than Arab pregnant women. Finally, poorer health, being an Arab woman, and lower levels of self-mastery, resilience, and perceived social support, as well as a higher level of infection-related anxiety, contributed significantly to greater psychological distress.

Conclusions: The findings show that pregnant women in general may be at risk of psychological distress in times of crisis, and that minority populations in particular may be at greater risk than others. Moreover, the results highlight the contribution of women's personal and environmental resources in the face of crisis, an understanding that may be used in targeted interventions to reduce distress in vulnerable populations.

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Introduction: While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant global health impact, rates of maternal to infant vertical transmission remain low (<5%). Parenchymal changes of placentas from COVID-19 infected mothers have been reported by several groups, but the localization and relative abundance of SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and cellular entry machinery has not been fully characterized within larger placental tissue cohorts.

Methods: An extended placental tissue cohort including samples from 15 COVID-19 positive maternal-fetal dyads (with n = 5 cases with evidence of fetal transmission) in comparison with 10 contemporary COVID-19 negative controls. Using comparative immunofluorescence, we examined the localization and relative tissue abundance of SARS-CoV2 spike glycoprotein (CoV2 SP) along with the co-localization of two SARS-CoV2 viral entry proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2).

Results/conclusions: CoV2 SP was present within the villous placenta in COVID-19 positive pregnancies with and without evidence of fetal transmission. We further identified the predominance of ACE2 expression in comparison with TMPRSS2. Importantly, both CoV2 SP and ACE2 expression consistently localized primarily within the outer syncytiotrophoblast layer placental villi, a key physiologic interface between mother and fetus. Overall this study provides an important basis for the ongoing evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 physiology in pregnancy and highlights the importance of the placenta as a key source of primary human tissue for ongoing diagnostic and therapeutic research efforts to reduce the global burden of COVID-19.

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COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The effects of this infection on fetal development and whether there is vertical transmission are currently unknown. We present two cases of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection during the first and second trimester of gestation in which a PCR study of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid extracted by amniocentesis is performed to try to determine if there is vertical transmission. In both cases, the PCR result was negative. This fact could support the absence of vertical transmission when the infection occurs in these quarters. It would be advisable to carry out more extensive studies to be able to make this statement safely.

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This study report focuses on facts on a pregnant woman of COVID-19 who admitted to Al Ahsa Maternity and Children Hospital on March 2020, with suspicion of COVID-19 infection. The patient was complaining of labor pain prior to presentation. The objective of this study is to report the case and to describe the challenges that are faced while dealing with a case of COVID-19 pregnant patient, during labor, delivery, and surgical intervention. This case reports a patient in labor pain with suspicion of COVID-19 infection due to contact with a positive COVID-19 family member. With no clinical signs or symptoms consistent with the disease, and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outcome for COVID-19 later on, the hospital main departments conducted an active contact tracing and reviewed the preparation and infection prevention control precautions. The most common problem with COVID-19 is the low level of awareness between healthcare workers related to infection prevention and transmission of the COVID-19 virus. The illness can be better handled and the medical team can be more secure by enhancing the education, case triage, proper guideline and protocols to be implemented appropriately.

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Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has recently emerged as a major threat to human health. Infections range from asymptomatic to severe (increased respiratory rate, hypoxia, significant lung involvement on imaging) or critical (multi-organ failure or dysfunction or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal canula). Current evidence suggests that pregnancy women are at increased risk of severe disease, specifically the need for hospitalization, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, and the already complex management of infection with an emerging pathogen may be further complicated by pregnancy. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the clinical course of COVID-19 in pregnancy, drawing on 1) experience with other coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, 2) knowledge of immunologic and physiologic changes in pregnancy and how these might impact infection with SARS-CoV-2 and 3) the current literature reporting outcomes in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2. We also briefly summarize considerations in management of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy.

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Background: While there is some evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can invade the human placenta, limited data exist on the gestational-age dependent expression profile of the SARS-CoV-2 cell entry mediators, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the human maternal-fetal interface. There is also no information as to whether the expression of these mediators is altered in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE) or preterm birth (PTB). This is important since the expression of decidual and placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 across gestation may impact susceptibility of pregnancies to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Objectives: To investigate the expression pattern of specific SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in the placenta across human pregnancy and in paired samples of decidua and placenta in pregnancies complicated by PTB or PE compared to term, uncomplicated pregnancies.

Study design: Two separate cohorts of patients, totalling 87 pregnancies were included. The first cohort comprised of placentae from first (7-9 weeks), second (16-18 weeks), third-trimester preterm (26-31 weeks) and third-trimester term (38-41 weeks) pregnancies (n=5/group), whereas, the second independent cohort, included matched decidua and placentae from pregnancies from term, uncomplicated pregnancies (37-41 weeks; n=14) as well as pregnancies complicated by PTB (26-37 weeks, n=11) or PE (25-37 weeks n=42). Samples were subjected to qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS)/RNAseq for ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA expression quantification, respectively.

Results: In the first cohort, the SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes ACE2 and TMPRSS2 exhibited a gestational-age dependent expression profile, i.e. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA was higher (p<0.05) in the first trimester compared to second trimester, PTB and term placentae (p<0.05) and exhibited a negative correlation with gestational age (p<0.05). In the second cohort, RNAseq demonstrated very low/undetectable expression levels of ACE2 in PTB, PE and term decidua and in placentae from late gestation. In contrast, TMPRSS2 was expressed in both decidual and placental samples but did not change in pregnancies complicated by either PTB or PE.

Conclusions: The increased expression of these SARS-CoV-2 cell entry associated genes in the placenta during the first trimester compared to later stages of pregnancy suggest the possibility of differential susceptibility to placental entry to SARS-CoV-2 across pregnancy. Even though there is some evidence of increased rates of PTB associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found no increase in mRNA expression of ACE2 or TMPRSS2 at the maternal-fetal interface.

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Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically synthesize the currently available literature on various modes of transmission (congenital, intrapartum, and postpartum), clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science until 9 June 2020. A combination of keywords and MeSH terms, such as COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, neonates, newborn, infant, pregnancy, obstetrics, vertical transmission, maternal-foetal transmission and intrauterine transmission, were used in the search strategy. We included studies reporting neonatal outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 proven pregnancies or neonatal cases diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Results: Eighty-six publications (45 case series and 41 case reports) were included in this review. Forty-five case series reported 1992 pregnant women, of which 1125 (56.5%) gave birth to 1141 neonates. A total of 281 (25%) neonates were preterm, and caesarean section (66%) was the preferred mode of delivery. Forty-one case reports describe 43 mother-baby dyads of which 16 were preterm, 9 were low birth weight and 27 were born by caesarean section. Overall, 58 neonates were reported with SARS-CoV-2 infection (4 had a congenital infection), of which 29 (50%) were symptomatic (23 required ICU) with respiratory symptoms being the predominant manifestation (70%). No mortality was reported in SARS-CoV-2-positive neonates.

Conclusion: The limited low-quality evidence suggests that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections in neonates is extremely low. Unlike children, most COVID-positive neonates were symptomatic and required intensive care. Postpartum acquisition was the commonest mode of infection in neonates, although a few cases of congenital infection have also been reported.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic diseases, nearly 400,000 people died at now. The data of status of pregnant women and neonates after infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) is limited. We report a case of pregnant woman in her third trimester with critical COVID-19, and amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, placenta, and neonatal gastric fluid were retained during cesarean section. The SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid test results of these specimens were negative. There is no evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission during delivery in the third trimester, but the data are limited and need to be further explored.

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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel very contagious infection which was designated a pandemic in all countries of the world in April 2020. Its presentation varies from mild to severe infection, but the majority of infected patients have mild manifestations. Many therapeutic choices have been suggested to treat the infection, but none are fully effective.

Case summary: Herein we present a 26-year-old woman with a twin pregnancy at 36 wk and one day gestation with confirmed COVID-19 who responded dramatically to convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) and Favipiravir.

Conclusion: Although this case report shows the efficacy of CPT in addition to usual medications used for COVID-19, there are many questions that need to be answered regarding dosage, para-clinical efficacy, side effects and combination therapy.

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Background: Evans syndrome (ES) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia along with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Few case reports of ES in pregnancy have been published, and ES may be difficult to distinguish from other diagnoses more common in pregnancy. Guidelines for treatment of ES are not well-defined.

Case: A 23-year-old multigravid woman in active labor was found to have severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with ES and started on immunosuppressive treatments for persistent immune thrombocytopenic purpura. In the postpartum period, she was found to have coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and acute pulmonary embolism.

Conclusion: Evans syndrome is a challenge to diagnose in pregnancy and poses important considerations for intrapartum and postpartum management.

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is highly infectious and its ongoing outbreak has been declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Pregnant women are susceptible to respiratory pathogens and the development of severe pneumonia, suggesting the urgent need to assess the potential maternal and infant outcome of pregnancy with COVID-19. The intrauterine vertical transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 also remains controversial. Herein, we discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on maternal and infant outcomes based on current studies, including those published in Chinese, in a total of 80 mothers with COVID-19 and 80 infants. We also comprehensively explored the mother-to-child transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2, in particular the route of intrauterine vertical transmission. Given SARS-CoV-2 is a sister to SARS-CoV, of the SARS-related coronavirus species, we made a comprehensive comparison between them to learn from experiences with SARS. Although there is no evidence supporting the intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, our comprehensive analysis suggests that the adverse maternal and infant outcomes caused by COVID-19 cannot be underestimated. Further, we speculated that the inconsistency between nucleic acids and serological characteristics IgM to SARS-CoV-2 of infants' specimens may be caused by the disruption of the amniotic barrier by the inflammatory factors induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our review is beneficial to understand the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on maternal and infant outcomes.

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Aim: To evaluate the beliefs held by the public regarding sexual health, pregnancy, and breastfeeding during COVID-19 era.

Methods: It was an online cross-sectional survey conducted through the Survey Monkey® platform and after proper ethical approval a self-designed questionnaire was circulated by the snowballing sampling technique through the Whatsapp platform.

Results: 1636 people respondent to the survey questionnaire. 63% of the participants mentioned that kissing could spread nCoV-SARS. Unprotected sexual intercourse with the spouse can cause infection spread, was reported by about one-third (35.9%). Nearly one-fifth (22%) thought that unprotected sexual intercourse with unknown partners/persons could not spread the infection. About half (49.7%) of the participants reported COVID-19 infection can be transmitted from mother to the child/fetus during the process of birth or during pregnancy and one-fifth (21.3%) of the participants reported going ahead with the Cesarean section if the mother is suspected of having or is confirmed to have COVID-19 infection. About one-fifth feared for risk of birth defects and abortion in case the mother is infected with COVID-19. 28% of the participants reported COVID-19 infection can be transmitted to newborn by breastfeeding.

Conclusions:The present study suggests that a significant proportion of people have misinformation about sexual intimacy, pregnancy, and breastfeeding in the ongoing pandemic which needs to be addressed.

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Background: Our understanding of the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pregnancies and perinatal outcomes is limited. The clinical course of neonates born to women who acquired coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their pregnancy has been previously described. However, the course of neonates born with complex congenital malformations during the COVID-19 pandemic is not known.

Methods: We report a case series of seven neonates with congenital heart and lung malformations born to women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during their pregnancy at a single academic medical center in New York City.

Results: Six infants had congenital heart disease and one was diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In all seven infants, the clinical course was as expected for the congenital lesion. None of the seven exhibited symptoms generally associated with COVID-19. None of the infants in our case series tested positive by nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2 at 24 hours of life and at multiple points during their hospital course.

Conclusions: In this case series, maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy did not result in adverse outcomes in neonates with complex heart or lung malformations. Neither vertical nor horizontal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was noted.

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A case of a pregnant woman suffering from COVID-19 is presented, who developed coagulopathy in the absence of severe clinical symptoms. The PCR test of the vaginal swab was positive on SARS-CoV-2 RNA, suggesting a possibility of perinatal transmission. A cesarean delivery was done because of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate; the placenta showed increased perivillous fibrin deposition and intervillositis. Moreover, placental infection with SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated by placental immunostaining. We suggest a relation between placental fibrin deposition and both chronic and acute intervillositis, non-reassuring fetal heart rate and coagulopathy in pregnant women with COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Background: Collection of biospecimens is a critical first step to understanding the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and newborns - vulnerable populations that are challenging to enroll and at risk of exclusion from research. We describe the establishment of a COVID-19 perinatal biorepository, the unique challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and strategies used to overcome them.

Methods: A transdisciplinary approach was developed to maximize the enrollment of pregnant women and their newborns into a COVID-19 prospective cohort and tissue biorepository, established on March 19, 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The first SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant woman was enrolled on April 2, and enrollment was expanded to SARS-CoV-2 negative controls on April 20. A unified enrollment strategy with a single consent process for pregnant women and newborns was implemented on May 4. SARS-CoV-2 status was determined by viral detection on RT-PCR of a nasopharyngeal swab. Wide-ranging and pregnancy-specific samples were collected from maternal participants during pregnancy and postpartum. Newborn samples were collected during the initial hospitalization.

Results: Between April 2 and June 9, 100 women and 78 newborns were enrolled in the MGH COVID-19 biorepository. The rate of dyad enrollment and number of samples collected per woman significantly increased after changes to enrollment strategy (from 5 to over 8 dyads/week, P < 0.0001, and from 7 to 9 samples, P < 0.01). The number of samples collected per woman was higher in SARS-CoV-2 negative than positive women (9 vs 7 samples, P = 0.0007). The highest sample yield was for placenta (96%), umbilical cord blood (93%), urine (99%), and maternal blood (91%). The lowest-yield sample types were maternal stool (30%) and breastmilk (22%). Of the 61 delivered women who also enrolled their newborns, fewer women agreed to neonatal blood compared to cord blood (39 vs 58, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Establishing a COVID-19 perinatal biorepository required patient advocacy, transdisciplinary collaboration and creative solutions to unique challenges. This biorepository is unique in its comprehensive sample collection and the inclusion of a control population. It serves as an important resource for research into the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and newborns and provides lessons for future biorepository efforts.

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To explore the mental health consequences of COVID-19-related social restrictions on pregnant women living in low socioeconomic status. Prenatal women appearing at the Mount Sinai Hospital Ambulatory Practice were screened for mood symptomatology from February 2, 2020, through June 12, 2020. An improvement in prenatal mood was observed following social restrictions compared to before the pandemic. The impact of COVID-19 remains largely unknown and may be useful towards understanding the needs of pregnant women living in poverty.

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Objectives To report our experience with early postpartum discharge to decrease hospital length of stay among low-risk puerperium patients in a large obstetrical service during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York. Methods Retrospective analysis of all uncomplicated postpartum women in seven obstetrical units within a large health system between December 8th, 2019 and June 20th, 2020. Women were stratified into two groups based on date of delivery in relation to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York (Mid-March 2020); those delivering before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared hospital length of stay, defined as time interval from delivery to discharge in hours, between the two groups and correlated it with the number of COVID-19 admissions to our hospitals. Statistical analysis included use of Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi-squared test with significance defined as p-value<0.05. Results Of the 11,770 patients included, 5,893 (50.1%) delivered prior to and 5,877 (49.9%) delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. We detected substantial shortening in postpartum hospital length of stay after vaginal delivery (34 vs. 48 h, p≤0.0001) and cesarean delivery (51 vs. 74 h, p≤0.0001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions We report successful implementation of early postpartum discharge for low-risk patients resulting in a significantly shorter hospital stay during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York. The impact of this strategy on resource utilization, patient satisfaction and adverse outcomes requires further study.

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Background: Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, has thus far affected over 15 million individuals, resulting in over 600,000 deaths worldwide, and the number continues to rise. In a large systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature including 2,567 pregnant women, 7% required intensive care admission, with a maternal mortality ~1% and perinatal mortality below 1%. There has been a rapid increase in publications on COVID-19 associated coagulopathy, including disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and VTE, in the non-pregnant population, but very few reports of COVID-19 coagulopathy during pregnancy; leaving us with no guidance for care of this specific population.

Methods: This is a collaborative effort conducted by a group of experts which was reviewed, critiqued and approved by the ISTH Subcommittee for Women's Health Issues in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. A structured literature search was conducted, and the quality of current and emerging evidence was evaluated. Based on the published studies in the non-pregnant and pregnant population with a moderate to high risk of bias as assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa scale and acknowledging the absence of data from randomized clinical trials for management of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, a consensus in support of a guidance document for COVID-19 coagulopathy in pregnancy was identified.

Results and conclusions: Specific haemostatic issues during pregnancy were highlighted, preliminary recommendations to assist in the care of COVID-19-affected pregnant women with coagulopathy or thrombotic complications were developed. An international registry to gather data to support the management of COVID-19 and associated coagulopathy in pregnancy was established.

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Purpose: Pregnant women are facing numerous COVID-19 related burdens including social isolation, financial insecurity, uncertainty about the impact of the virus on fetal development, and prenatal care restrictions. We tested the psychometric properties of a new instrument designed to assess the extent and types of pandemic-related stress experienced by pregnant women.

Materials and methods: 4,451 pregnant women from across the U.S. were recruited via social media and completed an online questionnaire in April-May 2020. The questionnaire included measures of psychological, sociodemographic, and obstetric factors and the new Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS).

Results: Confirmatory factor analyses of the PREPS showed excellent model fit. Three factors - Perinatal Infection Stress (5 items), Preparedness Stress (7 items), and Positive Appraisal (3 items) - converged and diverged with expected psychological factors, and scales created from these factors demonstrated acceptable to good reliability (α's 0.68-0.86). In addition, mean PREPS scores were associated with perceived risk of infection, and with financial and vocational COVID-19 related burdens.

Conclusion: The PREPS is a robust instrument to assess multidimensional COVID-19 pandemic prenatal stress. It is a valuable tool for future research to examine vulnerability to pandemic stress and how this stress may affect women and their offspring.

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Background: The world's understanding of COVID-19 continues to evolve as the scientific community discovers unique presentations of this disease. This case report depicts an unexpected intraoperative coagulopathy during a cesarean section in an otherwise asymptomatic patient who was later found to have COVID-19. This case suggests that there may be a higher risk for intrapartum bleeding in the pregnant, largely asymptomatic COVID-positive patient with more abnormal COVID laboratory values.

Case: The case patient displayed D-Dimer elevations beyond what is typically observed among this hospital's COVID-positive peripartum population and displayed significantly more oozing than expected intraoperatively, despite normal prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, and platelets.

Conclusion: There is little published evidence on the association between D-Dimer and coagulopathy among the pregnant population infected with SARS-CoV-2. This case report contributes to the growing body of evidence on the effects of COVID-19 in pregnancy. A clinical picture concerning for intraoperative coagulopathy may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during cesarean sections, and abnormal COVID laboratory tests, particularly D-Dimer, may help identify the patients in which this presentation occurs.

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Objectives: To cope with the changing healthcare services in the era of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; we share the institutional framework for the management of anomalous fetuses requiring fetal intervention at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. To assess the success of our program during this time, we compare intraoperative outcomes of fetal interventions performed during the pandemic, with the previous year.

Patients: We implemented our testing protocol on patients undergoing fetal intervention at our institution between March 1st and May 15th 2020 and we compared to same period a year before. A total of 17 pregnant patients with anomalous fetuses who met criteria for fetal intervention were included; 8 from 2019 and 9 from 2020.

Methods: Our testing protocol was designed based on our institutional perinatal guidelines, surgical requirements from Infection prevention and control (IPAC) committee and input from our fetal surgery team; with focus on urgency of procedure and maternal SARS-CoV-2 screening status. We compared the indications, types of procedures, maternal age, gestational age at procedure, type of anesthesia used and duration of procedure for cases performed at our institution between March 1st, 2020 to May 15th, 2020 and the same period in 2019.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the number of cases, indications, types of procedures, maternal age, gestational age, types of anesthesia and duration of procedures (p values were all > 0.05) between pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019 and SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020.

Conclusion: Adoption of new institutional protocols during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with appropriate screening and case selection, allows provision of necessary fetal intervention with maximum benefit to mother, fetus and health care provider.

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Background: From the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women have been considered at greater risk of severe morbidity and mortality. However, data on hospitalized pregnant women show that the symptom profile and risk factors for severe disease are similar to those among women who are not pregnant, although preterm birth, Cesarean delivery, and stillbirth may be more frequent and vertical transmission is possible. Limited data are available for the cohort of pregnant women that gave rise to these hospitalized cases, hindering our ability to quantify risk of COVID-19 sequelae for pregnant women in the community.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that pregnant women in community differ in their COVID-19 symptoms profile and disease severity compared to non-pregnant women. This was assessed in two community-based cohorts of women aged 18-44 years in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the United States of America.

Study design: This observational study used prospectively collected longitudinal (smartphone application interface) and cross-sectional (web-based survey) data. Participants in the discovery cohort were drawn from 400,750 UK, Sweden and US women (79 pregnant who tested positive) who self-reported symptoms and events longitudinally via their smartphone, and a replication cohort drawn from 1,344,966 USA women (162 pregnant who tested positive) cross-sectional self-reports samples from the social media active user base. The study compared frequencies of symptoms and events, including self-reported SARS-CoV-2 testing and differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women who were hospitalized and those who recovered in the community. Multivariable regression was used to investigate disease severity and comorbidity effects.

Results: Pregnant and non-pregnant women positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection drawn from these community cohorts were not different with respect to COVID-19-related severity. Pregnant women were more likely to have received SARS-CoV-2 testing than non-pregnant, despite reporting fewer clinical symptoms. Pre-existing lung disease was most closely associated with the severity of symptoms in pregnant hospitalized women. Heart and kidney diseases and diabetes were additional factors of increased risk. The most frequent symptoms among all non-hospitalized women were anosmia [63% in pregnant, 92% in non-pregnant] and headache [72%, 62%]. Cardiopulmonary symptoms, including persistent cough [80%] and chest pain [73%], were more frequent among pregnant women who were hospitalized. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea and vomiting, were different among pregnant and non-pregnant women who developed severe outcomes.

Conclusions: Although pregnancy is widely considered a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes, and was associated with higher propensity for testing, the profile of symptom characteristics and severity in our community-based cohorts were comparable to those observed among non-pregnant women, except for the gastrointestinal symptoms. Consistent with observations in non-pregnant populations, comorbidities such as lung disease and diabetes were associated with an increased risk of more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Pregnant women with pre-existing conditions require careful monitoring for the evolution of their symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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This paper from India describes anxieties that pregnant and postpartum women reported to obstetricians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 118 obstetricians who responded to an online survey, most had been contacted for concerns about hospital visits (72.65%), methods of protection (60.17%), the safety of the infant (52.14%), anxieties related to social media messages (40.68%) and contracting the infection (39.83%). Obstetricians felt the need for resources such as videos, websites and counselling skills to handle COVID-related anxiety among perinatal women.

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Data from both New York and London report a high prevalence of the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant patients admitted for delivery, raising questions on the possible correlated dangers (i.e. contacts with healthcare workers; the possible creation of an intra-hospital outbreak at birth; conflicting evidences on vertical transmission). For this study, results from SARS-CoV-2 screening via nasopharyngeal swab from maternity wards of the four hospitals of Genoa, Italy were collected during a month of complete lockdown, from April 1 to April 30, 2020. Out of 333 tested women, only nine were symptomatic. Only one symptomatic patient (0.3%) and six asymptomatic ones (1.8%) tested positive. Out of the six positive asymptomatic patients, five were from the most disadvantaged neighbourhood of the city (assessed by postal code). In conclusion, even if Italy was badly affected by COVID19 in the studied month, the reported prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in asymptomatic pregnant patients at term was lower than the ones reported in literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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With begin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the german obstetric, peri-/neonatological and pediatric professional societies published recommendations for care of pregnant and newborn, as well as for necessary staff protection in March 2020 [1-3].Because of the rapid emerging increase of knowledge an update is required. This work therefore perceives as prosecution of the existing recommendations [1-3].Worldwide national recommendations were recently compared and published in aconsensual review [4]. In methodological dependence this update of recommendations comments on key questions of pre-, peri- and postnatal care at SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, based on publications up to 30.05.2020. Statements represent a carefully concerned expert consensus and can change contemporary as new knowledge appears.The responsibility for concrete management remains at thelocal medical team, decisions should be supported by these recommendations.

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The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has developed into a pandemic, yet still has many unknowns. The modalities of transmission, different symptoms and manifestations as well as concomitant circumstances of the disease are insufficiently characterized. Especially patient groups in special situations like pregnant women and newborns have to be considered separately. The current knowledge about pregnancy, labor and the first days of life is characterized by particular uncertainty due to the scarce data available. However, there is currently no evidence of significant unfavorable maternal and perinatal outcome. Many pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain asymptomatic. The possibility ofvertical transmission to the child cannot be excluded with certainty. However, indications of vertical transmission were detected only in individual cases. Newborn infections are also rather rare, unspecific and usually mild, with respiratory symptoms dominating. In this article, the data available to date are examined in order to provide better information, advice and treatment for pregnant women and newborns with SARS-CoV-2 and to provide suggestions for future research

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Background:The impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on placental histopathology is not well known.

Objective: To determine if significant placental histopathological changes occur after diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and whether these changes are correlated with the presence or absence of symptoms associated with infection.

Study design: Retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection who delivered at a single center from April 9th to April 27th, 2020, and hadplacental specimens reviewed by pathology. Women with singleton gestations and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion. Historical controls selected from a cohort of women who delivered 6 months prior to the studyperiod were matched in a 1:1 fashion by week of gestation at delivery. Histopathological characteristics were evaluated in each placenta and the incidenceof these findings were compared between placentas after diagnosis of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and historical controls, as well as between placentas from patients with or without typical symptoms related to infection. Statistical analysis included use of Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher's exact test for comparison of categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was defined as P value < 0.05.

Results: A total of 50 placentas after diagnosis of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and 50 historical controls were analyzed. Among placentas from patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3 (6%) were preterm (33 3/7, 34 6/7 and 36 6/7 weeks ofgestation), 16 (32%) were from patients with typical symptoms related to infection and 34 (68%) were from patients without typical symptoms related to the infection. All patients had diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the third trimester. Decidual vasculopathy was not visualized in any of the placentas from patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There was no statistically significant difference in placental histopathological characteristics between the groups. SARS-CoV-2 testing for all neonates at 24 hours of life was negative.

Conclusion: Based on our data, there are no significant placental histopathological changes that occur after diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the third trimester of pregnancy compared to a gestational age-matched historical control group. Similar incidences of histopathological findings were also discovered when comparing placentas from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with or without the presence of symptoms typically related to infection.

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Epidemiological data available so far suggest that individuals with diabetes, especially when not well controlled, are at greater risk than the general population for SARS-CoV-2 morbidity such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, and mortality. Given the significance between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus and the lack of pregnancy specific recommendations, we aim to provide some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in pregnant women during the pandemic, especially for general obstetricians-gynecologists and non-obstetrician taking care of these patients.

Article here.

Background:Risk factors for SARS-CoV2 infection in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Understanding populations at heightened risk of acquisition is essentialto more effectively target outreach and prevention efforts.

Objective: To compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women with and without SARS-CoV2 infection and, among those with SARS-CoV2, tocompare characteristics of those who reported COVID-19 symptoms and those who were asymptomatic at diagnosis.

Study design: This retrospective cohort study includes pregnant women who delivered or intended to deliver at Northwestern Memorial Hospital after initiation ofa universal testing protocol on admission (April 8, 2020 - May 31, 2020). Women were dichotomized by whether they tested positive for SARS-CoV2. Among women who tested positive, women were further dichotomized by whether they endorsed symptoms of COVID-19. Bivariable analysis, and non-parametric tests of trend were used for analyses. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders as well as to examine effect modification between race and ethnicity and any other identified risk factors.

Results: During the study period, 1,418 women met inclusion criteria, of whom 101 (7.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV2. Of the 101 women who tested positive, 77 (76.2%) were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Compared to women who tested negative for SARS-CoV2, women who tested positive were younger and were more likely to have public insurance, to identify as Black/African-American or Latina,to be unmarried, to be obese, have pre-existing pulmonary disease, and have living children. An increasing number of living children was associated with an increasing risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and this finding persisted after controlling for potential confounders. There was no effect modification between race or ethnicity and havingliving children with regard to the risk of infection. There were no significant differences identified between women who were symptomatic and asymptomatic.

Conclusion: Many risk factors for SARS-CoV2 infection in pregnancy are similar to the social and structural determinants of health that have been reported in the general population. The observed association between SARS-CoV2 infection and having children raises the possibility of children themselves as vectors of viral spread or behavior patterns of parents as mediators of acquisition.

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Objective:Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 is mostly symptomatic, but a widerange of medications are under investigation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials,they will inevitably receive therapies whenever they seem effective in nonpregnant patients and even under compassionate use.

Methods: We conducted a review of the literature on placental transfer and pregnancy safety data of drugs under current investigation for coronavirus disease 2019.

Results: Regarding remdesivir, there are no data in pregnant women. Several other candidates already have safety data in pregnant women, because they are repurposed drugs already used for their established indications. Thus, they may be used in pregnancy, although their safety in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 may differ from conventional use. These include HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir/ritonavir that have low placental transfer, interferon that does not cross the placental barrier, and hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine that has high placentaltransfer. There are also pregnancy safety and placental transfer data for colchicine, steroids, oseltamivir, azithromycin, and some monoclonal antibodies. However, some drugs are strictly prohibited in pregnancy because of known teratogenicity (thalidomide) or fetal toxicities (renin-angiotensin system blockers). Other candidates including tocilizumab, other interleukin 6 inhibitors, umifenovir, and favipiravir have insufficient data on pregnancy outcomes.

Conclusion: In life-threatening cases of coronavirus disease 2019, the potential risksof therapy to the fetus may be more than offset by the benefit of curing the mother.Although preclinical and placental transfer studies are required for a number of potential anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 drugs, several medications can already be used in pregnant women.

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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has become a pandemic. It has quickly swept across the globe, leaving many clinicians to care for infected patients with limited information about the disease and best practices for care. Our goal is to share our experiences of caring for pregnant and postpartum women with novel coronavirus disease 2019 in New York, which is the coronavirus disease 2019 epicenter in the United States, and review current guidelines. We offer a guide, focusing on inpatient management,including testing policies, admission criteria, medical management, care for the decompensating patient, and practical tips for inpatient antepartum service management.

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Background:Perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pregnancy.

Methods: Databases (Medline, Embase, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Library) were searched electronically on 6th April and updated regularly until 8th June 2020. Reports of pregnant women with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 were included. Meta-analytical proportion summaries and meta-regression analyses for key clinical outcomes are provided.

Findings: 86 studies were included, 17 studies (2567 pregnancies) in the quantitative synthesis; other small case series and case reports were used to extract rarely-reported events and outcome. Most women (73.9%) were in the third trimester; 52.4% have delivered, half by caesarean section (48.3%). The proportion of Black, Asian or minority ethnic group membership (50.8%); obesity (38.2%), and chronic co-morbidities (32.5%) were high. The most commonly reported clinical symptoms were fever (63.3%), cough (71.4%) and dyspnoea (34.4%). The commonest laboratory abnormalities were raised CRP or procalcitonin (54.0%), lymphopenia (34.2%) and elevated transaminases (16.0%). Preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was common (21.8%), usually medically-indicated (18.4%). Maternal intensive care unit admission was required in 7.0%, with intubation in 3.4%. Maternal mortality was uncommon (~1%). Maternal intensive care admission was higher in cohorts with higher rates of co-morbidities (beta=0.007, p<0.05) and maternal age over 35 years (beta=0.007, p<0.01). Maternal mortality was higher in cohorts with higher rates of antiviral drug use (beta=0.03, p<0.001), likely due to residual confounding. Neonatal nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR was positive in 1.4%

Interpretation: The risk of iatrogenic preterm birth and caesarean delivery was increased. The available evidence is reassuring, suggesting that maternal morbidity is similar to that of women of reproductive age. Vertical transmission of the virus probably occurs, albeit in a small proportion of cases.

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The entire world is reeling under the effects of the novel corona virus pandemic. As it is a new infection, our knowledge is evolving constantly. There is limited information about impact of corona virus on neonatal care in relation to newborns with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. In this article, we summarize the current approach to this infection in relation to newborn babies. We discuss the basic aspects of the infection, the approach of care to novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in positive pregnant women, the likely presentation in newborns (as per current knowledge), and the approach to the management of neonates with infection or at risk of the infection. Children are less susceptible to COVID-19 infection and generally have a mild course. There is a lower risk of severe disease among pregnant women and neonates. It was recommended to follow the current protocols for management of symptomatic newborn with isolation precautions, antibiotics, and respiratory support.

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Maternal sepsis is "a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, childbirth, post-abortion, or postpartum period." (World Health Organisation, 2017). Serious infection during, or immediately after, pregnancy may go initially unrecognized in an otherwise young and healthy group, who nevertheless do have a compromized immune system. Secondly, whilst malaise, flushes, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are common in pregnancy, each can herald sepsis with rapid demise for mother and baby. The MBRRACE-UK report in 20171 found an overall sepsis-related maternal mortality rate of 0.56 per 100,000 maternities with a mortality rate from genital tract sepsis of 0.28 per 100,000 maternities. This review will focus on the major causes, recognition, differentiation and microbiological management of sepsis in pregnancy, using two detailed cases to illustrate.

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The present cross-sectional study examined the actor-partner interdependence effect of fear of COVID-19 among Iranian pregnant women and their husbands and its association with their mental health and preventive behaviours during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. A total of 290 pregnant women and their husbands (N = 580) were randomly selected from a list of pregnant women in the Iranian Integrated Health System and were invited to respond to psychometric scales assessing fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. The findings demonstrated significant dyadic relationships between husbands and their pregnant wives' fear of COVID-19, mental health, and preventive behaviours. Pregnant wives' actor effect offear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours but not anxiety. Moreover, a husband actor effect of fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Additionally, there were significant partner effects observed for both the pregnant wives and their husbands concerning all outcomes. The present study used a cross-sectional design and so is unable to determine the mechanism or causal ordering of the effects. Also, the data are mainly based on self-reported measures which have some limitations due to its potential for social desirability and recall biases. Based on the findings, couples may benefit from psychoeducation that focuses on the effect of mental health problems on pregnant women and the fetus.

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Pregnant women and parturients have also been concerned by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are not especially at risk for severe forms of the disease prone to induce prematurity but without transmission to the fœtus. Obstetrical management of parturients have changed with an extensive use of teleconsultation and a limitation of relatives in the delivery room and in the ward. The choice of the mode of delivery remains determined by obstetrical reasons, and use of regional anaesthesia remains recommended for labour and caesarean section provided thereis not haemostasis disorders. The pandemic issue has not change management of fever and hypertension. The post-partum period is more impacted due to an increased risk of thromboembolic events justifying an extended use of anticoagulants. On the other hand, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsis restricted. The key point was cooperation between obstetricians, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and pediatrician.

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The World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, a pandemic in March 2020. Given the severity of COVID-19, appropriate use criteria have been implemented for fetal echocardiography. Screening low risk pregnancies for critical congenital heart disease has typically been a shared responsibility by pediatric cardiologists, obstetricians, and maternal fetal medicine (MFM). Currently, many of the fetal echocardiograms for low risk pregnancies for critical congenital heart disease have been deferred or cancelled with the emphasis on suspected abnormalities by MFMs and obstetricians. In this review, we discuss the literature that has been the basis of screening of low risk pregnancies by pediatric cardiologists. A new approach to more widespread usage of fetal tele-echocardiography may play a large part during COVID-19 and may continue after the pandemic.

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The perinatal period involves major developmental transitions which can be conceptualized through a biopsychosocial (BPS; Engel in Science 196:129-136, 1977, 10.1126/science.847460, in The American Journal of Psychiatry 137:535-544, 1980, 10.1176/ajp.137.5.535), systemic (von Bertalanffy, General system theory: Foundations, development, applications, George Braziller, New York, 1968) framework. Thus, no one domain of health in the perinatal period can be understoodwithout exploring how the other domains are both impacted by and impacting the others. As a result of COVID-19, popular media is paying special attention to the biomedical domain of women in the perinatal period as it relates to health outcomesand changes in perinatal healthcare policies; however, considerably less attention isbeing paid to the other BPS health domains and systemic impacts. This paper will outline U.S. changes in healthcare as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic for individuals, couples, and families within the perinatal period (i.e., family planning and conception, prenatal, labor and delivery, and postpartum) and explore the unique psychosocial, systemic impacts. Recommendations for care, including telehealth and virtual support options, and future directions for research will be provided.

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During a pandemic, the three basic principles are. to prioritize medical resources, ensure patients' lockdown in order to avoid community transmission and prevent healthcare collapse, and keep the number of visits to an absolute minimum to avoidpatient exposure and safeguard healthcare workers. Antenatal care must be maintained during a health crisis, regardless of the COVID-19 state of alert. Routine and specialist obstetric ultrasound scans are essential for clinical decision-making during pregnancy, as it has a direct impact on the management of mothers and fetuses and on the perinatal outcome. In an attempt to minimize in-person visits, these will be organized according to the established ultrasound schedule. Based on scientific evidence, and on existing main national and international guidelines, this document has been prepared, in which proposals and options are provided for managing pregnant women in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It includes how a Fetal Medicine Unit facing this health crisis should be restructured, what safety measures should be followed in the performance of obstetric scans and invasive procedures, and how ultrasound rooms, equipment and transducers should be cleaned and disinfected. These recommendations should be adapted to different units based on their resources and infrastructure.

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has caused a large global outbreak and has had a major impact on health systems and societies worldwide. The generation of knowledge about the disease has occurred almost as fast as its global expansion. Very few studies have reported on the effects of the infection on maternal health, since its onset. The mother and foetus do not seem to be at particularly high risk. Nevertheless, obstetrics and maternal-foetal medicine practice have made profound changes in order to adapt tothe pandemic. In addition, there are aspects specific to COVID-19 and gestation thatshould be known by specialists. In this review an evidenced-based protocol is presented for the management of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

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As the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) escalates globally, and no end in sight, we describe an approach for adapting swiftly to the increasing number of COVID-19 parturients admitted into labor and delivery unit. The adaptability includes physical layout, triaging, quick testing, isolating confirmed parturients, access to designated intensive care units, facilitating emergent cesarean deliveries, and educating health care personnel. It is vital that other healthy parturi-ents and healthcare providers must be protected from COVID-19. It is encouraged that institutions exchange and dis-seminate information to succeed in the global fight against this dreaded pandemic.

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Introduction: The article presents a protocol of a cross-sectional study of mental health of pregnant women in relation to the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary aim is to compare differences in anxiety and depression scores of pregnant women between countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary aim is to assess demographic, economic, and social aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores among pregnant women worldwide in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we will be able to compare differences in perception of the different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic (social distancing, restrictions related to delivery) between countries and according to the epidemic status (number of infected patients, number of reported deaths). The comparisons will also be done according to the COVID-19 status of the participants.

Methods and analysis: It is a web-based anonymous survey of pregnant women living in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey is comprised of 3 sections:Web-based recruitment for health research has proven to be cost-effective and efficient. At current times with the COVID-19 pandemic, limited resources and social distancing restrictions, performing a mental health study involving pregnant women on a large international scale cannot be safely conducted without involving social-media.The fears of pregnant women fall into 3 categories: the medical condition, the economic status and the organization of daily activity.The study has received approval of the medical ethics committee and has been registered on Clinicaltrials.gov. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made public through all available media.

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Background: Since December 2019, an outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly in Wuhan and worldwide. However, previous studies on pregnant patients were limited.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19.

Methods: This study retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, imaging, management, and outcome data of 43 childbearing-age women patients (including 17 pregnant and 26 nonpregnant patients) who presented with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from January 19 to March 2, 2020. Clinical outcomes were followed up to March 28, 2020.

Results: Of the 43 childbearing-age women in this study, none developed a severe adverse illness or died. The median ages of pregnant and nonpregnant women were33.0 and 33.5 years, respectively. Pregnant women had a markedly higher proportion of history exposure to hospitals within 2 weeks before onset compared tononpregnant women (9/17, 53% vs 5/26, 19%, P=.02) and a lower proportion of other family members affected (4/17, 24% vs 19/26, 73%, P=.004). Fever (8/17, 47% vs 18/26, 69%) and cough (9/17, 53% vs 12/26, 46%) were common onsets of symptoms for the two groups. Abdominal pain (n=4, 24%), vaginal bleeding (n=1, 6%), reduced fetal movement (n=1, 6%), and increased fetal movement (n=2, 13%)were observed at onset in the 17 pregnant patients. Higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte percent were observed in the pregnant group compared to the nonpregnant group (79% vs 56%, P<.001; 15% vs 33%, P<.001, respectively). In both groups, we observed an elevated concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and D-dimer in the pregnant group were significantly higher than those of the nonpregnant group (119.0 vs 48.0 U/L, P<.001; 2.1 vs 0.3μg/mL, P<.001, respectively). Both pregnant (4/10, 40%) and nonpregnant (8/15, 53%) women tested positive for influenza A virus. A majority of pregnant and nonpregnant groups received antiviral (13/17, 76%vs 25/26, 96%) and antibiotic (13/17, 76% vs 23/26, 88%) therapy. Additionally, both pregnant (2/11, 18%) and nonpregnant (2/19, 11%) recovered women redetected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge.Conclusions: The epidemiology and clinical and laboratory features of pregnant women with COVID-19 were diverse and atypical, which increased the difficulty of diagnosis. Most pregnant women with COVID-19 were mild and moderate, and rarely developed severe pneumonia or severe adverse outcomes.

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Background: This study aimed to analyze the impact of the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemics on the eating, exercise, and quality-of-life habits of pregnant women.

Methods: This was an internet-based cross-sectional survey which collected information about adherence to the Mediterranean diet, physical exercise, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and perceived obstacles (in terms of exercise, preparation for delivery, and medical appointments) of pregnant women before and after the confinement. The survey was conducted in 18-31 May 2020.

Results: A total of 90 pregnant women participated in this study. There was a significant decrease in the levels of physical activity (p < 0.01) as well as in HRQoL (p < 0.005). The number of hours spent sitting increased by 50% (p < 0.001), 52.2% were unable to attend delivery preparation sessions because these had been cancelled. However, there were no significant differences in the eating pattern of these women (p = 0.672)

Conclusions: These results suggest the need to implement specific online programs to promote exercise and reduce stress, thus improving the HRQoL in this population, should similar confinements need to occur again for any reason in the future.

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After the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, the infection quickly spread to the rest of China and then to the wider world. The available information on pregnant women infected with COVID-19 is now significantly greater. There are now several case series and systematic reviews of cohorts, some of which include more than 100 cases. This review evaluates the scientific literature available until May 1, 2020 and discusses common questions about COVID-19 in the context of pregnancy and the postpartum period.

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Background: Pregnant women represent a potentially high-risk population in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To summarize clinical characteristics and outcomes among pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19.

Search strategy: Relevant databases were searched up until May 29, 2020.

Selection criteria: Case series/reports of hospitalized pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.

Data collection and analysis: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Methodologic quality was assessed via NIH assessment tools.

Main results: Overall, 63 observational studies of 637 women (84.6% in third trimester) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Most (76.5%) women experienced mild disease. Maternal fatality, stillbirth, and neonatal fatality rates were 1.6%, 1.4%, and 1.0%, respectively. Older age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and raised serum D-dimer and interleukin-6 were predictive of poor outcomes. Overall, 33.7% of live births were preterm, of which half were iatrogenic among women with mild COVID-19 and no complications. Most women underwent cesarean despite lacking a clear indication. Eight (2.0%) neonates had positive nasopharyngeal swabs after delivery and developed chest infection within 48 hours.

Conclusions: Advanced gestation, maternal age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and a combination of elevated D-dimer and interleukin-6 levels are predictive of poor pregnancy outcomes in COVID-19. The rate of iatrogenic preterm birth and cesarean delivery is high; vertical transmission may be possible but has not been proved.

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Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a profound impact on health and well-being of populations. However, there are limited studies that have investigated the psychological aspects of vulnerable groups including pregnant women amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we aimed to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese pregnant women from February 2020 until March 2020.

Methods: Our study was conducted using a modified validated online questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic, the Impact of Event Scale (IES), attitude and mental health-related questions towards COVID-19.

Results: A total of 560 women were included. The overall mean age and IES of women was 25.8 ± 2.7 years and 31.4 ± 13.7. Moreover, 67.1% of them had IES ⩾26. Psychological impact seemed to be more severe in women in second trimester of pregnancy (the highest IES) (p = .016). There was a significant association between trimesters of pregnancy and some indicators of negative health impacts (including increased stress from work, increased stress from home, feeling apprehensive and helpless during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic) (all p < .05).

Conclusions: Our results reported moderate-to-severe stressful impact among Chinese pregnant women. We recommend that appropriate measures should be taken to address the maternal mental health issues.

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Several states attempted to deem abortions nonessential during the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving some women with difficult choices.

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COVID-19 infection also affects obstetric patients. Regular obstetric care has continued despite the pandemic. Case series of obstetric patients have been published. Neuroaxial techniques appear to be safe and it is important to obtain the highest possible rate of success of the blocks before a cesarean section. For this reason, it is recommended that the blocks be carried out by senior anesthesiologists. The protection and safety of professionals is a key point and in case of general anesthesia, so it is also recommended to call to the most expert anesthesiologist. Seriously ill patients should be recognized quickly and early, in order to provide them with the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. Susceptibility to thrombosis makes prophylactic anticoagulation a priority.

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Purpose: The purpose of this article is to illustrate and discuss the impact the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the delivery of obstetric care, including a discussion on the preexisting barriers, prenatal framework and need for transition to telehealth.

Description: The COVID-19 was first detected in China in December of 2019 and by March 2020 spread to the United States. As this virus has been associated with severe illness, it poses a threat to vulnerable populations-including pregnant women. The obstetric population already faces multiple barriers to receiving quality healthcare due to personal, environmental and economic barriers, now challenged with the additional risks of COVID-19 exposure and limited care in times much defined by social distancing.

Assessment: The current prenatal care framework requires patients to attend multiple in-office prenatal visits that can exponentially multiply depending on maternal and fetal comorbidities. To decrease the rate of transmission of the COVID-19 and limit exposure to patients, providers in Hillsborough County, Florida (and nationwide) are rapidly transitioning to telehealth. The use of a virtual care model allows providers to reduce in-person visits and incorporate virtual visits into the schedule of prenatal care.

Conclusion: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of telehealth and telehealth have become crucial to ensure the safe and effective delivery of obstetric care. This implementation is one that will continue to require attention to planning, procedures and processes, and thoughtful evaluation to ensure the sustainability of telehealth and telehealth post COVID-19 pandemic.

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The global COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with high rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, morbidity and mortality in the general population. Evidence-based guidance on caring for babies born to mothers with COVID-19 is needed. There is currently insufficient evidence to suggest vertical transmission between mothers and their newborn infants. However, transmission can happen after birth from mothers or other carers. Based on the currently available data, prolonged skin-to-skin contact and early and exclusive breastfeeding remain the best strategies to reduce the risks of morbidity and mortality for both the mother with COVID-19 and her baby.

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Background: Rapid changes to how maternity health care is delivered has occurred in many countries across the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Maternity care provisions have been challenged attempting to balance the needs and safety of pregnant women and their care providers. Women experiencing a pregnancy after loss (PAL) during these times face particularly difficult circumstances.

Aim: In this paper we highlight the situation in three high income countries (Australia, Ireland and USA) and point to the need to remember the unique and challenging circumstances of these PAL families. We suggest new practices may be deviating from established evidence-based guidelines and outline the potential ramifications of these changes.

Findings: Recommendations for health care providers are suggested to bridge the gap between the necessary safety requirements due to the pandemic, the role of the health care provider, and the needs of families experiencing a pregnancy after loss.

Discussion: Changes to practices i.e. limiting the number of antenatal appointments and access to a support person may have detrimental effects on both mother, baby, and their family. However, new guidelines in maternity care practices developed to account for the pandemic have not necessarily considered women experiencing pregnancy after loss.

Conclusion: Bereaved mothers and their families experiencing a pregnancy after loss should continue to be supported during the COVID-19 pandemic to limit unintended consequences.

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Because of the COVID-19 Pandemic many problems have emerged in the organization of the National Health Systems. In Italy, a very serious problem is emerging which needs a rapid solution. Italian women are finding increasingly difficult to access abortion. These difficulties are related to the organizational changes that have occurred in many hospitals due to the emergency COVID-19. A possible solution would be to resort to the procedure of pharmacological abortion which, however, in Italy, is characterized by many limitations imposed by law. To protect the right to health of all women will need a reorganization of abortion procedures in Italy with implementation of telehealth services.

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Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease that quickly reached pandemic levels. Over 5 million COVID-19 cases and approximately 330,000 deaths have been recorded worldwide. Transmission is primarily spread through direct, indirect (through contaminated objects or surfaces), or close contact with infected people via respiratory droplets, the mouth, and/or nose secretions. Health care professionals (HCPs), including dental HCPs, are recognized to be at considerably high risk for infection due to the close proximity to patients and aerosol-generating procedures. During pregnancy, HCPs may be at even higher risk since pregnancy substantially increases the susceptibility to infectious diseases.

Objectives: Here, we present the posed risks and potential effects of COVID-19 on maternal and fetal health. Current prevention and management strategies for COVID-19 on pregnant dental and HCPs are also discussed.

Results: Significant progress is being made in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of COVID-19. Pregnant women are affected more adversely with viral illnesses, although evidence of vertical transmission of COVID-19 is controversial. Based on the presence of atypical symptoms, the significant numbers of asymptomatic individuals who are COVID-19 positive, and the high susceptibility to viral diseases observed in pregnant women, recommendations have been put forth to limit the exposure of COVID-19-positive or even suspected cases to pregnant HCPs, and these are likely to evolve as new information becomes available.

Conclusion: Pregnant HCPs require extra caution: not only are they considered a high-risk population, but their work at the frontline in a pandemic may expose them to additional risks. Complete awareness of the effects of COVID-19 on maternal and fetal/infant health, as well as prevention and management guidelines for pregnant HCPs, will allow for a safer work environment. Health care institutional policies aimed at protecting pregnant HCPs should consider avoiding their assignment as first responders, especially if equally trained staff are available.

Knowledge transfer statement: Dental and health care professionals can use the information in this review to improve their awareness of COVID-19 risks, signs, and symptoms and the associated effects on the health of pregnant health care professionals and their unborn/newborn children.

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At the outset of reorganization, pregnant women with scheduled appointments were contacted and reassured. They were screened telephonically for symptoms before calling them to the facility for counseling and testing. Part of the genetic counseling was also done telephonically and appointments rescheduled accordingly.

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SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 16 million people worldwide. Related complications and death from COVID-19 disease and their underlying pathophysiology are intensely investigated. Pregnant women are among the affected. Although the severity of disease in pregnancy does not appear to be increased, the effects of infection on pregnancy should not escape careful examination. The currently known receptor for the virus, ACE2, regulates the renin-angiotensin system and is increased during pregnancy. Virus-receptor interactions may have significant effects on placental function, fetal development, and maternal immunity. The manifestation of cardiovascular complications of infection produces the hypothesis that a significant effect of the virus may be its influence on the maternal vascular system. Interference with the vascular adaptations to pregnancy and the post-partum may have implications for concurrent and future pregnancies as well as for long-term cardiovascular health. We should not miss the opportunity to learn from this virus about the physiology of pregnancy.

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Aim: This study evaluated the level of fear and anxiety related to the COVID-19 outbreak, in infertile women whose ART cycles were delayed due to the pandemic.

Materials and methods: An online survey was sent to women whose ART cycles were postponed due to the COVID-19 outbreak between April and May 2020. The study population were 101 participants. The main outcome measure is to determine the levels of fear and anxiety in infertile women by using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T and STAI-S) and Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S). The relationship of the COVID-19 outbreak with the willingness to go ahead with the desire for pregnancy was also assessed.

Results: The state-anxiety levels were significantly higher in women above 35 years (45.0 ± 5.2 vs. 42.2 ± 4.5, p = 0.006). Women with diminished ovarian reserve had a higher state-anxiety compared to other causes, but were not found to be significant (44.7 ± 5.2 vs. 42.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.173). Women who thought that the possibility of not being able to get pregnant was more important than being infected with the COVID-19 had higher anxiety levels than women who thought just the opposite. The diminished ovarian reserve and high duration of infertility were found to be significantly associated with higher anxiety levels (OR = 2.5, p < 0.05). The diminished ovarian reserve and previous ART failure significantly predicted the presence of clinical state-anxiety.

Conclusion: The state-anxiety was found to be higher in women whose cycles were postponed due to the outbreak and the presence of diminished ovarian reserve also significantly affected anxiety levels. Further research is needed to assess whether COVID-19 will have any impact on ART treatments in the next few years.

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Objective: This is the first comprehensive review to focus on currently available evidence regarding maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality cases associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, up to July 2020.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases to identify any reported cases of maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality associated with COVID-19 infection. The references of relevant studies were also hand-searched.

Results: Of 2815 studies screened, 10 studies reporting 37 maternal and 12 perinatal mortality cases (7 fetal demise and 5 neonatal death) were finally eligible for inclusion to this review. All maternal deaths were seen in women with previous co-morbidities, of which the most common were obesity, diabetes, asthma and advanced maternal age. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severity of pneumonia were considered as the leading causes of all maternal mortalities, except for one case who died of thromboembolism during postpartum period. Fetal and neonatal mortalities were suggested to be a result of the severity of maternal infection or the prematurity, respectively. Interestingly, there was no evidence of vertical transmission or positive COVID-19 test result among expired neonates.

Conclusion: Current available evidence suggested that maternal mortality mostly happened among women with previous co-morbidities and neonatal mortality seems to be a result of prematurity rather than infection. However, further reports are needed so that the magnitude of the maternal and perinatal mortality could be determined more precisely.

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Objective: To describe clinical characteristics of pregnant and postpartum women with severe COVID-19 in Brazil and to examine risk factors for mortality DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on secondary surveillance database analysis SETTING: Nationwide Brazil POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 978 Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women notified as COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) cases with complete outcome (death or cure) until June 18, 2020 METHODS: Data was abstracted from the Brazilian ARDS Surveillance System (ARDS-SS) database. All eligible cases were included. Data on demographics, clinical characteristics, intensive care resources use and outcomes were collected. Risk factors for mortality were examined by multivariate logistic regression.

Main outcome measures: Case fatality rate RESULTS: We identified 124 maternal deaths, corresponding to a case fatality rate among COVID-19 ARDS cases in the obstetric population of 12.7%. At least one comorbidity was present in 48.4% of fatal cases compared to 24.9% in survival cases. Among women who died, 58.9% were admitted to ICU, 53.2% had invasive ventilation and 29.0% had no respiratory support. The multivariate logistic regression showed that the main risk factors for maternal death by COVID-19 were postpartum at onset of ARDS, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, while white ethnicity had a protective effect.

Conclusion: Negative outcomes of COVID-19 in this population are affected by clinical characteristics, but social determinants of health also seem to play a role. It is urgent to reinforce containment measures targeting obstetric population and ensure high quality care throughout pregnancy and postpartum period.

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Objective: To assess clinical impact, psychological effects, and knowledge of pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak in seven cities in Colombia. Currently, there are uncertainty and concerns about the maternal and fetal consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.

Methods: A cross-sectional web survey was carried out including pregnant women in seven cities in Colombia. Women were evaluated during the mitigation phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic between April 13 and May 18, 2020. The questions evaluated demographic, knowledge, psychological symptoms, and attitudes data regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: A total of 1021 patients were invited to participate, obtaining 946 valid surveys for analysis. The rate of psychological consequences of the pandemic was much larger than the number of patients clinically affected by the virus, with 50.4% of the entire cohort reporting symptoms of anxiety, 49.1% insomnia, and 25% reporting depressive symptoms. Poorly informed women were more likely to be younger, affiliated to the subsidized regime, and with lower levels of education.

Conclusion: The knowledge of pregnant women about SARS-CoV-2 infection is far from reality and this seems to be associated with an indirect effect on the concern and psychological stress of pregnant women in Colombia.

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Infection with SARS-CoV2 does not spare pregnant women and the possibility of vertical transmission which might lead to fetal damages is pending.

Objective: We hypothesized that the observed low incidence of perinatal infection could be related to a low expression of the membrane receptor for SARS-CoV2, ACE2, in the fetal-placental unit. We evaluated protein expression of ACE2 both in placentas and fetal organs from non-infected pregnancies across gestation.

Methods: Discovery study. Immunocytochemistry analysis for ACE2 in organs and placentas were performed in May 2020, in samples from a registered biobank. Five cases of medical termination of pregnancy performed at between 15 and 38 weeks' in healthy women. Paraffin-embedded tissues (kidneys, brain, lungs, intestinal tract, heart). Matching tissues from 8-year-old children (N=4) were tested as controls. Seven placentas including those of the 5 cases, 1 of a 7-week miscarriage and 1 of a symptomatic SARS-COV2 pregnancy at 34 weeks. Tissues' sections were incubated with rabbit monoclonal anti-ACE2. Protein expression of ACE2 was detected by immunochemistry.

Results: ACE2 expression was detected in fetal kidneys, rectum and ileum across gestation and similarly in the pediatric control. It was barely detectable in lungs at 15 weeks' and not found thereafter. In the pediatric control, ACE2 was only detectable in type 2 pneumocytes. No ACE2 expression was found in the cerebral ependymal, parenchyma nor in cardiac tissues ACE2 was expressed in syncitiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast from 7th weeks' onwards and across gestation but not in the amnion. Similar intensity and distribution of ACE2 staining were identified in the mother's SARS-CoV2 placenta.

Conclusions: Marked placental expression of ACE2 provides a rationale for vertical transmission at cellular level. Absence of ACE2 expression in the fetal brain and heart is reassuring on the risk of congenital malformation. Clinical follow-up of infected pregnant women and their children are needed to validate these observations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Background: Rapid changes to how maternity health care is delivered has occurred in many countries across the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Maternity care provisions have been challenged attempting to balance the needs and safety of pregnant women and their care providers. Women experiencing a pregnancy after loss (PAL) during these times face particularly difficult circumstances.

Aim: In this paper we highlight the situation in three high income countries (Australia, Ireland and USA) and point to the need to remember the unique and challenging circumstances of these PAL families. We suggest new practices may be deviating from established evidence-based guidelines and outline the potential ramifications of these changes.

Findings: Recommendations for health care providers are suggested to bridge the gap between the necessary safety requirements due to the pandemic, the role of the health care provider, and the needs of families experiencing a pregnancy after loss.

Discussion: Changes to practices i.e. limiting the number of antenatal appointments and access to a support person may have detrimental effects on both mother, baby, and their family. However, new guidelines in maternity care practices developed to account for the pandemic have not necessarily considered women experiencing pregnancy after loss.

Conclusion: Bereaved mothers and their families experiencing a pregnancy after loss should continue to be supported during the COVID-19 pandemic to limit unintended consequences.

Article here.

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. We estimated the adverse maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes among COVID-19 infected women and determined heterogeneity in the estimates and associated factors.

Study designs: PubMed search was performed of confirmed COVID-19 pregnant cases and related outcomes were ascertained prior to July 8, 2020, in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies reporting premature birth, low birth weight, COVID-19 infection in neonates, or mode of delivery status were included in the study. Two investigators independently performed searches, assessed quality of eligible studies as per the Cochrane handbook recommendations, extracted and reported data according to PRISMA guidelines. Pooled proportions of maternal and neonatal outcomes were estimated using meta-analyses for studies with varying sample sizes while a systematic review with descriptive data analysis was performed for case report studies. Maternal and neonatal outcomes included C-section, premature birth, low birth weight, adverse pregnancy events and COVID transmission in neonates.

Results: A total of 790 COVID-19 positive females and 548 neonates from 61 studies were analyzed. The rates of C-section, premature birth, low birth weight, and adverse pregnancy events were estimated as 72 %, 23 %, 7 %, and 27 % respectively. In the heterogeneity analysis, the rate of C-section was substantially higher in Chinese studies (91 %) compared to the US (40 %) or European (38 %) studies. The rates of preterm birth and adverse pregnancy events were also lowest in the US studies (12 %, 15 %) compared to Chinese (17 %, 21 %), and European studies (19 %, 19 %). In case reports, the rates of C-section, preterm birth, and low birth weight were estimated as 69 %, 56 %, and 35 %, respectively. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with infection acquired at early gestational ages, more symptomatic presentation, myalgia symptom at presentation, and use of oxygen support therapy.

Conclusions: Adverse pregnancy outcomes were prevalent in COVID-19 infected females and varied by location, type, and size of the studies. Regular screening and early detection of COVID-19 in pregnant women may provide more favorable outcomes.

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Introduction: Data regarding transplacental passage of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibodies and potential immunity in the newborn is limited.

Case report: We present a 25-year-old multigravida with known red blood cell isoimmunization, who was found to be COVID-19 positive at 27 weeks of gestation while undergoing serial periumbilical blood sampling and intrauterine transfusions. Maternal COVID-19 antibody was detected 2 weeks after positive molecular testing. Antibodies were never detected on cord blood samples from two intrauterine fetal cord blood samples as well as neonatal cord blood at the time of delivery.

Conclusion: This case demonstrates a lack of passive immunity of COVID-19 antibodies from a positive pregnant woman to her fetus, neither in utero nor at the time of birth. Further studies are needed to understand if passage of antibodies can occur and if that can confer passive immunity in the newborn.

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Rationale: Since the end of December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has occurred and spread rapidly throughout China. At present, China's epidemic situation has been basically controlled, but the number of cases worldwide is increasing day by day. On March 11, the WHO officially announced that the COVID-19 had become a global pandemic. However, there are currently limited data on pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia and their infants. In this paper, a case of a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 pneumonia is reported.

Patient concerns: We report a clinically confirmed COVID-19 pregnant woman. The patient was tested negative 4 times in nucleic acid test, but immunoglobulin G was positive and immunoglobulin M was negative before delivery, suggesting a previous infection.

Diagnoses: The pregnant woman underwent a computed tomography scan of both lungs at 29 + 2 weeks of pregnancy, and scattered stiffness and frosted glass shadows of both lungs were observed. According to the diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia in the "New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Plan Fifth Edition" of the National Health Commission of China, she was diagnosed as a clinically confirmed case.

Interventions: The pregnant women received nebulized inhalation and oral cephalosporin treatment in a community hospital and was discharged after the symptoms disappeared. After that, she was isolated at home.

Outcomes: The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby after being cured from COVID-19 infection. The nucleic acid test of the neonatal pharyngeal swab was negative, and the neonatal serum test showed positive for immunoglobulin G and negative for immunoglobulin M.

Lessons subsections: The findings of this case report are useful for understanding the possible clinical features of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, the duration of the antibody, and passive immunity of the fetus.

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The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses unique challenges to the medical community as the optimal treatment has not been determined and is often at the discretion of institutional guidelines. Pregnancy has previously been described as a high-risk state in the context of infectious diseases, given a particular susceptibility to pathogens and adverse outcomes. Although ongoing studies have provided insight on the course of this disease in the adult population, the implications of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains an understudied area. The objective of this study is to review the literature and describe clinical presentations among pregnant women afflicted with COVID-19.

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In the spring of 2020, expeditious changes to obstetric care were required in New York as cases of COVID-19 increased and pandemic panic ensued. A reduction of in-person office visits was planned with provider appointments scheduled to coincide with routine maternal blood tests and obstetric ultrasounds. Dating scans were combined with nuchal translucency assessments to reduce outpatient ultrasound visits. Telehealth was quickly adopted for selected prenatal visits and consultations when deemed appropriate. The more sensitive cell-free fetal DNA test was commonly used to screen for aneuploidy in an effort to decrease return visits for diagnostic genetic procedures. Antenatal testing guidelines were modified with a focus on providing evidence-based testing for maternal and fetal conditions. For complex pregnancies, fetal interventions were undertaken earlier to avoid serial surveillance and repeated in-person hospital visits. These rapid adaptations to traditional prenatal care were designed to decrease the risk of coronavirus exposure of patients, staff, and physicians while continuing to provide safe and comprehensive obstetric care.

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Background: There have been few cohorts of neonates with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) reported. As a result, there remains much to be learned about mechanisms of neonatal infection including potential vertical transmission, best methods of testing, and the spectrum of clinical findings. This communication describes the epidemiology, diagnostic test results and clinical findings of neonatal COVID-19 during the pandemic in Iran.

Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 19 neonates infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from 10 hospitals throughout Iran. We analyzed obstetrical information, familial COVID-19 status, neonatal medical findings, perinatal complications, hospital readmissions, patterns of repeated testing, and clinical outcomes.

Results: Eleven neonates had family members infected. Five mothers were negative for COVID-19 and four neonates had no identifiable family source of infection. The neonatal mortality rate from COVID-19 was 10%. Seven newborns (37%) were discharged from the hospital as healthy but required readmission for symptoms of COVID-19. There were 2 multifetal gestations - one set each of twins and triplets, each with disparate testing and clinical outcomes. Premature delivery was common, occurring in 12 of 19 infants (63%). Initial testing for COVID-19 was negative in 4 of the 19 neonates (21%) who subsequently became positive. In 2 cases, neonates tested positive at 1 and 2 h after birth which was suspicious for vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusions: These cases have notable variation in the epidemiology, clinical features, results of testing and clinical outcomes among the infected newborns. Neonates initially testing negative for COVID-19 may require readmission due to infection. Two neonates were highly suspicious for intrauterine vertical transmission. Repeat testing of neonates who initially test negative for COVID-19 is recommended, without which 21% of neonatal infections would have been undiagnosed.

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Acute facial nerve disease leading to peripheral facial paralysis is commonly associated with viral infections. COVID-19 may be a potential cause of peripheral facial paralysis and neurological symptoms could be the first and only manifestation of the disease. We report a case of a term pregnancy diagnosed with COVID-19 after presenting with isolated peripheral facial palsy.

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has presented many diagnostic challenges and uncertainties. Little is known about common pathologies complicating pregnancy and how their behaviour is modified by the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Pregnancy itself can alter the body's response to viral infection, which can cause more severe symptoms. We report the first case of a patient affected with sudden-onset severe pre-eclampsia complicated by acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome and acute kidney injury following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although an initial diagnostic dilemma, a multidisciplinary team approach was required to ensure a favourable outcome for both the mother and the baby. Our case report highlights the need for health professionals caring for pregnant women to be aware of the complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

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Objective to map the current knowledge on recommendations for labor, childbirth, and newborn (NB) care in the context of the novel coronavirus. Method scoping review of papers identified in databases, repositories, and reference lists of papers included in the study. Two researchers independently read the papers' full texts, extracted and analyzed data, and synthesized content. Results 19 papers were included, the content of which was synthesized and organized into two conceptual categories: 1) Recommendations concerning childbirth with three subcategories - Indications to anticipate delivery, Route of delivery, and Preparation of the staff and birth room, and 2) Recommendations concerning postpartum care with four categories - Breastfeeding, NB care, Hospital discharge, and Care provided to NB at home. Conclusion prevent the transmission of the virus in the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, assess whether there is a need to interrupt pregnancies, decrease the circulation of people, avoid skin-to-skin contact and water births, prefer epidural over general anesthesia, keep mothers who tested positive or are symptomatic isolated from NB, and encourage breastfeeding. Future studies are needed to address directed pushing, instrumental delivery, delayed umbilical cord clamping, and bathing NB immediately after birth.

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A 33-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalised with fever, cough, myalgia and dyspnoea at 23.5 weeks of gestation (WG). Development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mandated invasive mechanical ventilation. A nasopharyngeal swab proved positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by reverse transcription-PCR. The patient developed hypertension and biological disorders suggesting pre-eclampsia and HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels and low platelet levels) syndrome. Pre-eclampsia was subsequently ruled out by a low ratio of serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor. Given the severity of ARDS, delivery by caesarean section was contemplated. Because the ratio was normal and the patient's respiratory condition stabilised, delivery was postponed. She recovered after 10 days of mechanical ventilation. She spontaneously delivered a healthy boy at 33.4 WG. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of COVID-19 infection can mimic HELLP syndrome. Fetal extraction should not be systematic in the absence of fetal distress or intractable maternal disease. Successful evolution was the result of a multidisciplinary teamwork.

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Male infertility is linked to some viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). Almost nothing is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effect on fertility. The possible risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fertility comes from the abundance of angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), receptor entry of the virus, on testes, a reduction in important sex hormone ratios and COVID-19-associated fever. Recent studies have shown a gender difference for COVID-19 rates and comorbidity. In this review, we will discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on male fertility and talk about what needs to be done by the scientific community to tackle our limited understanding of the disease. On the other side, we will focus on what is known so far about the risk of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and the vertical transfer of the virus between mothers and their neonates. Finally, because reproduction is a human right and infertility is considered a health disease, we will discuss how assisted reproductive clinics can cope with the pandemic and what guidelines they should follow to minimise the risk of viral transmission.

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Objective: To prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19, the Chinese government implemented a strict lockdown in Wuhan starting on 23 January, 2020, which inevitably led to the changes in indications for the mode of delivery. In this retrospective study, we present the changes in the indications for cesarean delivery (CD) and the birth weights of newborns after the lockdown in Wuhan.

Methods: A total of 3,432 pregnant women in the third trimester of their pregnancies who gave birth in our hospital from 23 January 2019 to 24 March 2020 were selected as the observation group, while 7,159 pregnant women who gave birth from 1 January 2019 to 22 January 2020 were selected as the control group; control group was matched using propensity score matching (PSM). A comparative analysis of the two groups was performed with the chi-square test, t test and rank sum test.

Results: The difference in the overall rate of CD between the two groups was not statistically significant (p<0.05). Among the indications for CD, CD on maternal request (CDMR) and fetal distress were also significantly more common in the observation group (p<0.05) than the control group. Furthermore, we found that the weight of newborns was significantly heavier in the observation group than in the control group when considering full-term or close-to-full-term births (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The results may provide useful information to management practices regarding pregnancy and childbirth after lockdown in other cities or countries, enabling better control of the rate of CD due to CDMR, reducing fetal distress, and controlling newborn weight. We recommend that pregnant women pay more attention to controlling the weight of newborns through diet and exercise.

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Objective: To evaluate the rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with the use of universal testing in our obstetric population presenting for scheduled deliveries, as well as the concordance or discordance rate among their support persons during the initial 2-week period of testing. Additionally, we assessed the utility of a screening tool in predicting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing results in our cohort.

Methods: This was an observational study in which all women who were scheduled for a planned delivery within the Mount Sinai Health system from April 4 to April 15, 2020, were contacted and provided with an appointment for themselves as well as their support persons to undergo COVID-19 testing 1 day before their scheduled delivery. Both the patients and the support persons were administered a standardized screen specific for COVID-19 infection by telephone interview. Those support persons who screened positive were not permitted to attend the birth. All patients and screen-negative support persons underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing.

Results: During the study period, 155 patients and 146 support persons underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. The prevalence of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was 15.5% (CI 9.8-21.2%) and 9.6% (CI 4.8-14.4%) among patients and support persons, respectively. The rate of discordance among tested pairs was 7.5%. Among patients with COVID-19 infection, 58% of their support persons also had infection; in patients without infection, fewer than 3.0% of their support persons had infection.

Conclusion: We found that more than 15% of asymptomatic maternity patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection despite having screened negative with the use of a telephone screening tool. Additionally, 58% of their asymptomatic, screen-negative support persons also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Alternatively, testing of the support persons of women who had tested negative for COVID-19 infection had a low yield for positive results. This has important implications for obstetric and newborn care practices as well as for health care professionals.

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Objective: To characterize symptoms and disease severity among pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, along with laboratory findings, imaging, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Pregnant women with COVID-19 infection were identified at two affiliated hospitals in New York City from March 13 to April 19, 2020, for this case series study. Women were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection based on either universal testing on admission or testing because of COVID-19-related symptoms. Disease was classified as either 1) asymptomatic or mild or 2) moderate or severe based on dyspnea, tachypnea, or hypoxia. Clinical and demographic risk factors for moderate or severe disease were analyzed and calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. Laboratory findings and associated symptoms were compared between those with mild or asymptomatic and moderate or severe disease. The clinical courses and associated complications of women hospitalized with moderate and severe disease are described.

Results: Of 158 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection, 124 (78%) had mild or asymptomatic disease and 34 (22%) had moderate or severe disease. Of 15 hospitalized women with moderate or severe disease, 10 received respiratory support with supplemental oxygen and one required intubation. Women with moderate or severe disease had a higher likelihood of having an underlying medical comorbidity (50% vs 27%, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.26-6.02). Asthma was more common among those with moderate or severe disease (24% vs 8%, OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.26-9.75). Women with moderate or severe disease were significantly more likely to have leukopenia and elevated aspartate transaminase and ferritin. Women with moderate or severe disease were at significantly higher risk for cough and chest pain and pressure. Nine women received ICU or step-down-level care, including four for 9 days or longer. Two women underwent preterm delivery because their clinical status deteriorated.

Conclusion: One in five pregnant women who contracted COVID-19 infection developed moderate or severe disease, including a small proportion with prolonged critical illness who received ICU or step-down-level care.

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Objective: To evaluate patient satisfaction after integration of audio-only virtual visits into a pre-existing prenatal care schedule within a large, county-based system during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Methods: We implemented audio-only prenatal virtual visits in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic within a large, county-based prenatal care system serving predominantly women with low socioeconomic status and limited resources. Using a four-question telephone survey, we surveyed a cross-section of patients who had opted to participate in virtual visits to assess their level of satisfaction surrounding audio-only visits. In addition, average clinic wait times and attendance rates by visit type were examined.

Results: From March 17 to May 31, 2020, more than 4,000 audio-only virtual prenatal visits were completed in our system. After implementation, the percentage of visits conducted through the virtual platform gradually rose, with nearly 25% of weekly prenatal visits being performed through the virtual platform by the month of May. Clinic wait times trended downward after implementation of virtual visits (P<.001). On average, 88% of virtual prenatal visits were completed as scheduled, whereas only 82% of in-person visits were attended (P<.001). Hospital administration attempted to contact 431 patients who had participated in at least one virtual visit to assess patient satisfaction; 283 patients were reached and agreed to participate (65%). Ninety-nine percent of respondents reported that their needs were met during their audio-only virtual visits. The majority of patients preferred a combination of in-person and virtual visits for prenatal care, and patients reported many benefits with virtual visits.

Conclusion: Audio-only virtual prenatal visits-as a complement to in-person prenatal visits-have specific and distinct advantages compared with video-enabled telehealth in a vulnerable population of women and offer a viable option to increase access to care.

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Individual state maternal mortality review committees aim to comprehensively review all maternal deaths to not only evaluate the cause of death, but also to assess preventability and make recommendations for action to prevent future deaths. The maternal mortality review committee process remains critical during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Maternal deaths due to COVID-19 have been reported in the United States. Some state maternal mortality review committees may choose to expedite review of these deaths in an effort to quickly provide clinicians with information intended to prevent other deaths during the ongoing pandemic. If states opt to pursue rapid review, entry of data into the Maternal Mortality Review Information Application system for submission to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will allow for aggregation nationally without duplication. It will be important to review not only deaths directly attributed to COVID-19, but also those that may be indirectly related to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as those influenced by changes in care practices or delays in seeking care during the pandemic. Therefore, regardless of the timing of the review, maternal deaths that occur during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic must be evaluated within that framework to ensure that all factors contributing to the death are considered to better understand the context of each of these tragic events.

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Objective: To describe the characteristics and birth outcomes of women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection as community spread in New York City was detected in March 2020.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who gave birth from March 13 to April 12, 2020, identified at five New York City medical centers. Demographic and clinical data from delivery hospitalization records were collected, and follow-up was completed on April 20, 2020.

Results: Among this cohort (241 women), using evolving criteria for testing, 61.4% of women were asymptomatic for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the time of admission. Throughout the delivery hospitalization, 26.5% of women met World Health Organization criteria for mild COVID-19, 26.1% for severe, and 5% for critical. Cesarean birth was the mode of delivery for 52.4% of women with severe and 91.7% with critical COVID-19. The singleton preterm birth rate was 14.6%. Admission to the intensive care unit was reported for 17 women (7.1%), and nine (3.7%) were intubated during their delivery hospitalization. There were no maternal deaths. Body mass index (BMI) 30 or higher was associated with COVID-19 severity (P=.001). Nearly all newborns tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection immediately after birth (97.5%).

Conclusion: During the first month of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in New York City and with evolving testing criteria, most women with laboratory-confirmed infection admitted for delivery did not have symptoms of COVID-19. Almost one third of women who were asymptomatic on admission became symptomatic during their delivery hospitalization. Obesity was associated with COVID-19 severity. Disease severity was associated with higher rates of cesarean and preterm birth.

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Health care team training and simulation-based education are important for preparing obstetrical services to meet the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Priorities for training are identified in two key areas. First, the impact of infection prevention and control protocols on processes of care (e.g., appropriate and correct use of personal protective equipment, patient transport, preparation for emergency cesarean delivery with the potential for emergency intubation, management of simultaneous obstetric emergencies, delivery in alternate locations in the hospital, potential for increased decision-to-delivery intervals, and communication with patients). And second, the effects of COVID-19 pathophysiology on obstetrical patients (e.g., testing and diagnosis, best use of modified obstetric early warning systems, approach to maternal respiratory compromise, collaboration with critical care teams, and potential need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation). However, such training is more challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic because of the requirements for social distancing. This article outlines strategies (spatial, temporal, video-recording, video-conferencing, and virtual) to effectively engage in health care team training and simulation-based education while maintaining social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global public health emergency with the need to identify vulnerable populations who may benefit from increased screening and healthcare resources. Initial data suggests that overall, pregnancy is not a significant risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, case series have suggested that maternal obesity is one of the most important co-morbidities associated with more severe disease. In obese individuals, suppressors of cytokine signaling are upregulated and type I and III interferon responses are delayed and blunted leading to ineffective viral clearance. Obesity is also associated with changes in systemic immunity involving a wide range of immune cells and mechanisms that lead to low-grade chronic inflammation, which can compromise antiviral immunity. Macrophage activation in adipose tissue can produce low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6). Further, adipocyte secretion of leptin is pro-inflammatory and high circulating levels of leptin have been associated with mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The synergistic effects of obesity-associated delays in immune control of COVID-19 with mechanical stress of increased adipose tissue may contribute to a greater risk of pulmonary compromise in obese pregnant women. In this review, we bring together data regarding obesity as a key co-morbidity for COVID-19 in pregnancy with known changes in the antiviral immune response associated with obesity. We also describe how the global burden of obesity among reproductive age women has serious public health implications for COVID-19.

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Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over 12 million infections and more than 550,000 deaths.1 Morbidity and mortality appear partly due to host inflammatory response.2 Despite rapid, global research, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the developing fetus remains unclear. Case reports indicate that vertical transmission is uncommon; however there is evidence that placental and fetal infection can occur.3-7 Placentas from infected patients show inflammatory, thrombotic and vascular changes that have been found in other inflammatory conditions.8,9 This suggests that the inflammatory nature of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy could cause adverse obstetric and neonatal events. Exposure to intrauterine inflammation and placental changes could also potentially result in long-term, multisystemic defects in exposed infants. This review will summarize the known literature on the placenta in SARS-CoV-2 infection, evidence of vertical transmission, and possible outcomes of prenatal exposure to the virus.

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Background: Anxiety and depression symptoms in pregnancy typically affect between 10 and 25% of pregnant individuals. Elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of preterm birth, postpartum depression, and behavioural difficulties in children. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a unique stressor with potentially wide-ranging consequences for pregnancy and beyond.

Methods: We assessed symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant individuals during the current COVID-19 pandemic and determined factors that were associated with psychological distress. 1987 pregnant participants in Canada were surveyed in April 2020. The assessment included questions about COVID-19-related stress and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, and social support.

Results: We found substantially elevated anxiety and depression symptoms compared to similar pre-pandemic pregnancy cohorts, with 37% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of depression and 57% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety. Higher symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with more concern about threats of COVID-19 to the life of the mother and baby, as well as concerns about not getting the necessary prenatal care, relationship strain, and social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher levels of perceived social support and support effectiveness, as well as more physical activity, were associated with lower psychological symptoms.

Conclusion: This study shows concerningly elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, that may have long-term impacts on their children. Potential protective factors include increased social support and exercise, as these were associated with lower symptoms and thus may help mitigate long-term negative outcomes.

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COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, is thought to cause a milder illness in pregnancy with a greater proportion of asymptomatic carriers. This has important implications for the risk of patient-to-staff, staff-to-staff and staff-to-patient transmission among health professionals in maternity units. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection in health professionals from two tertiary-level maternity units in London, UK, and to determine associations between healthcare workers' characteristics, reported symptoms and serological evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 200 anaesthetists, midwives and obstetricians, with no previously confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, were tested for immune seroconversion using laboratory IgG assays. Comprehensive symptom and medical histories were also collected. Five out of 40 (12.5%; 95%CI 4.2-26.8%) anaesthetists, 7/52 (13.5%; 95%CI 5.6-25.8%) obstetricians and 17/108 (15.7%; 95%CI 9.5-24.0%) midwives were seropositive, with an overall total of 29/200 (14.5%; 95%CI 9.9-20.1%) of maternity healthcare workers testing positive for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Of those who had seroconverted, 10/29 (35.5%) were completely asymptomatic. Fever or cough were only present in 6/29 (21%) and 10/29 (35%) respectively. Anosmia was the most common symptom occurring in 15/29 (52%) seropositive participants and was the only symptom that was predictive of positive seroconversion (OR 18; 95%CI 6-55). Of those who were seropositive, 59% had not self-isolated at any point and continued to provide patient care in the hospital setting. This is the largest study of baseline immune seroconversion in maternity healthcare workers conducted to date and reveals that one out of six were seropositive, of whom one out of three were asymptomatic. This has significant implications for the risk of occupational transmission of SARS-CoV-2 for both staff and patients in maternity units. Regular testing of staff, including asymptomatic staff should be considered to reduce transmission risk.

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The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the reason of the global health crisis. Since the first case of diagnosed COVID-19 pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, the infection has spread rapidly to all over the world. The knowledge gained from previous human coronavirus infection outbreaks suggests that pregnant women and their foetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease epidemics. Moreover, a pregnancy, due to the physiological changes involving immune and cardiopulmonary systems, is a state predisposing women to respiratory complications of viral infection. The constantly increasing number of publications regarding the course of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women has been published, however, the available data remains limited and many questions remain unanswered. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature data and adjusted to current recommendations regarding pregnancy care, delivery and postpartum period. An extremely important issue is the need to register all the cases of COVID-19 affected women and the course of these pregnancies to local, regional, or international registries, which will be helpful to answer many clinical and scientific questions and to create guidelines ensuring an adequate level of care for women affected by COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, delivery and during postpartum period, as well as their newborns.

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The balance between avoiding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 contagion and reducing wider clinical risk is unclear for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) testing. Recent recommendations promote diagnostic approaches that limit collection but increase undiagnosed GDM, which potentially increases adverse pregnancy outcome risks. The most sensitive approach to detecting GDM at 24-28 weeks beyond the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a one-hour OGTT (88% sensitivity). Less sensitive approaches use fasting glucose alone (≥5.1 mmol/L: misses 44-54% GDM) or asking ~20% of women for a second visit (fasting glucose 4.7-5.0 mmol/L (62-72% sensitive)). Choices should emphasise local and patient decision-making.

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Background: Since its emergence in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to over 210 countries, with an estimated mortality rate of 3-4%. Little is understood about its effects during pregnancy.

Aims: To describe the current understanding of COVID-19 illness in pregnant women, to describe obstetric outcomes and to identify gaps in the existing knowledge.

Methods: Medline Ovid, EMBASE, World Health Organization COVID-19 research database and Cochrane COVID-19 in pregnancy spreadsheet were accessed on 18/4, 18/5 and 23/5 2020. Articles were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following were excluded: reviews, opinion pieces, guidelines, articles pertaining solely to other viruses, single case reports.

Results: Sixty articles were included in this review. Some pregnant participants may have been included in multiple publications, as admission dates overlap for reports from the same hospital. However, a total of 1287 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant cases are reported. Where universal testing was undertaken, asymptomatic infection occurred in 43.5-92% of cases. In the cohort studies, severe and critical COVID-19 illness rates approximated those of the non-pregnant population. Eight maternal deaths, six neonatal deaths, seven stillbirths and five miscarriages were reported. Thirteen neonates were SARS-CoV-2 positive, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs.

Conclusions: Where universal screening was conducted, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was often asymptomatic. Severe and critical disease rates approximate those in the general population. Vertical transmission is possible; however, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates were infected in utero, intrapartum or postpartum. Future work should assess risks of congenital syndromes and adverse perinatal outcomes where infection occurs in early and mid-pregnancy.

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Aim: To clarify the status of personal protective equipment (PPE) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tests for pregnant women, we conducted an urgent survey.

Methods: The survey was conducted online from April 27 to May 1, 2020. Questionnaires were sent to core facilities and affiliated hospitals of the obstetrics and gynecology training program and to hospitals of the national perinatal medical liaison council.

Results: A total of 296 institutions participated in our survey; however, 2 institutions were excluded. Full PPE was used by doctors in 7.1% of facilities and by midwives in 6.8%. Our study also determined that around 65.0% of facilities for doctors and 73.5% of facilities for midwives used PPE beyond the "standard gown or apron, surgical mask, goggles or face shield" during labor of asymptomatic women. N95 masks were running out of stock at 6.5% of the facilities and goggles and face shields at 2.7%. Disposable N95 masks and goggles or face shields were re-used after re-sterilization in 12% and 14% of facilities, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of asymptomatic patients was performed for 9% of vaginal deliveries, 14% of planned cesarean sections and 17% of emergency cesarean sections. The number of PCR tests for obstetrics and gynecology per a week ranged from zero to five in 92% of facilities.

Conclusion: The shortage of PPE in Japan is alarming. Sufficient stockpiling of PPE is necessary to prevent unnecessary disruptions in medical care. Appropriate guidelines for PPE usage and COVID-19 testing of pregnant women at delivery are needed in Japan.

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The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a major epidemic threat worldwide. However, the effects of neoviruses on infected pregnant women and especially on their fetuses and newborns are not well understood. Most up-to-date evidences about how SARS-CoV-2 affected patients especially in pregnancy were collected by conducting a comprehensive search of medical literature electronic databases. Immune-related data of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns were further analysis. According to the limited literature, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes angiotensin converting enzyme 2 as its receptor and causes severe hypoxemia. Insufficiency of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in pregnant women and the effects of hypoxia on the placental oxygen supply will cause severe perinatal complications. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 infection may disrupt maternal-fetal immune tolerance and cause immunological damage to embryos. Because of these reasons, pregnancy complications such as fetal demise or premature birth, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, respiratory dyspnea, nervous system dysplasia and immune system defects are likely to occur in pregnant women with COVID-19 or their newborns. Pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 should be treated as a special group and given special attention. Fetuses and newborns of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women should be given more protection to reduce the occurrence of adverse events. In this review, we intend to provide an overview of the physiological and immunological changes that induce the pregnancy complications. This article will benefit the treatment and prognosis of fetuses and newborns of SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women.

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At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus disease, COVID-19, emerged and quickly spread around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of this disease, belongs to the β-coronavirus family, together with SARS and middle east respiratory syndrome, and has similar biological characteristics to these viruses. For obstetricians, the susceptibility and prognoses of pregnant women and the effects of the infection on the fetus have been the focus of attention; however, at present, the seriousness of the disease in pregnant women is not apparent, and COVID-19 does not increase the rate of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labor or teratogenicity. Even so, carriers might transmit SARS-CoV-2 to pregnant women. Thus, we must keep in mind that all medical personnel must understand and maintain standard precautions in their clinical and laboratory practices.

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The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic sweeping across the world has severely strained health care resources (equipment and personnel) forcing us to rethink strategies to provide obstetric care while judiciously using resources. We describe the anaesthetic management of a mildly symptomatic, COVID-19 positive, 28-year-old second gravida with term pregnancy who was taken up for an elective caesarean section under subarachnoid block in a standalone maternity facility. Challenges encountered and modifications of standard procedures so as to optimize patient care and minimize exposure of health care professionals are also discussed.

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The COVID-19 pandemic is currently causing widespread infection and deaths around the world. Since the identification of the first case in Nigeria in February 2020, the number of confirmed cases has risen to over 9,800. Although pregnant women are not necessarily more susceptible to infection by the virus, changes to their immune system in pregnancy may be associated with more severe symptoms. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes have been reported among pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. However, literature is scarce on the peripartum management and pregnancy outcome of a pregnant woman with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the first successful and uncomplicated caesarean delivery of a pregnant woman with COVID-19 infection in Nigeria.

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In any given year, approximately 130 million babies are born worldwide. Previous research has shown that pregnant women may be more severely affected and vulnerable to contracting emerging infections, making them a particularly high-risk population. Therefore, special considerations should be given to treatment methods for pregnant women with COVID-19. In this narrative review, the authors evaluate scholarly journal articles and electronic databases to determine what is known about the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the associated mortality rate. Osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques to mitigate the underlying pathology were identified, and modifications for use in pregnancy and the critical care setting are described.

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Limited data are available on pregnant women with COVID-19 and their neonates. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of newborns born to women infected with COVID-19. A multicenter cohort study was conducted among newborns born to mothers with COVID-19 in 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Turkey. Pregnant women (n = 125) who had a positive RT-PCR test and their newborns were enrolled. Cesarean section, prematurity, and low-birthweight infant rates were 71.2%, 26.4%, and 12.8%, respectively. Eight of 125 mothers (6.4%) were admitted to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation, among whom six died (4.8%). Majority of the newborns (86.4%) were followed in isolation rooms in the NICU. Four of 120 newborns (3.3%) had a positive RT-PCR test result. Although samples taken on the first day were negative, one neonate became positive on the second day and the other two on the fifth day. Sample from deep tracheal aspirate was positive on the first day in an intubated case.Conclusion: COVID-19 in pregnant women has important impacts on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal mortality, higher rates of preterm birth and cesarean section, suspected risk of vertical transmission, and low rate of breastfeeding show that family support should be a part of the care in the NICU.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04401540 What is Known:

  • The common property of previous reports was the conclusions on maternal outcomes, rather than neonatal outcomes.
  • Published data showed similar outcomes between COVID-19 pregnant women and others. What is New:
    • Higher maternal mortality, higher rates of preterm birth and cesarean section, suspected risk of vertical transmission especially in a case with deep tracheal aspiration during the intubation, and the possible role of maternal disease severity on the outcomes are remarkable findings of this study.
    • In contrast to recommendation for breastfeeding, parents' preference to formula and expressed breast milk due to anxiety and lack of information shows that family support should be a part of the care in the NICU.

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The provision of safe obstetric anaesthesia services is essential during the COVID-19 global outbreak. The identification of the 'high-infection risk' parturient can be challenging especially with the rapidly changing risk criteria for COVID-19 'cases'. A multidisciplinary taskforce is required to review the infection control protocols and workflows for managing the parturient for labour analgesia and for caesarean section in order to minimize infection risk to healthcare staff and other parturients. A constant review of such processes is needed to enhance efficiency and to optimise use of finite resources. Good communication between health officials, institutional leadership and ground staff is essential for the dissemination of information.

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We report a 36-year-old woman in Iran who sought care for left shoulder pain and cough 5 days after a scheduled cesarean section. Acute pulmonary embolism and coronavirus disease were diagnosed. Physicians should be aware of the potential for these concurrent conditions in postpartum women.

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Objective: The aim of this study is to summarize currently available evidence on vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Study design: A systematic review was conducted following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Statement.

Results: A total of 22 studies comprising 83 neonates born to mothers diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 were included in the present systematic review. Among these neonates, three were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at 16, 36, and 72 hours after birth, respectively, by nasopharyngeal swab real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests; another six had elevated virus-specific antibody levels in serum samples collected after birth, but negative RT-PCR test results. However, without positive RT-PCR tests of amniotic fluid, placenta, or cord blood, there is a lack of virologic evidence for intrauterine vertical transmission.

Conclusion: There is currently no direct evidence to support intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Additional RT-PCR tests on amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood are needed to ascertain the possibility of intrauterine vertical transmission. For pregnant women infected during their first and second trimesters, further studies focusing on long-term outcomes are needed.

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An outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia occurred worldwide since December 2019, which had been named COVID-19 subsequently. It is extremely transmissive that infection in pregnant women were unavoidable. The delivery process will produce large amount of contaminated media, leaving a challenge for medical personnel to ensure both the safety of the mother and infant and good self-protection. Only rare cases of pregnant women with COVID-19 are available for reference. Here, we report a 30-year-old woman had reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 at 36 weeks 2 days of gestation. Significant low and high variability of fetal heart rate baseline and severe variable decelerations were repeated after admission. An emergency cesarean section at 37 weeks 1 day of gestation under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed with strict protection for all personnel. Anesthesia and operation went uneventfully. None of the participants were infected. We can conclude that when confronted with cesarean section in parturient with COVID-19, careful planning and detailed preparation can improve the safety of the mother and infant and reduce the risk of infection for medical staff to help preventing and controlling the epidemic.

Article here.

Objective: This study aimed to report a case series of pregnant women in New York City with confirmed or presumed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection.

Study design: Beginning March 22, 2020, all pregnant women from one large obstetrical practice in New York City were contacted regularly to inquire about symptoms of COVID-19 (fever, cough, shortness of breath, malaise, anosmia), or sick contacts. A running log was kept of these patients, as well as all patients who underwent COVID-19 testing. For this report, we included every patient with suspected COVID-19 infection, which was defined as at least two symptoms, or a positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test.

Results: From March 22, 2020 until April 30, 2020, 757 pregnant women in our practice were evaluated and 92 had known or suspected COVID-19 (12.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0-14.7%). Of these 92 women, 33 (36%) had positive COVID-19 test results. Only one woman required hospital admission for 5 days due to COVID-19 (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.2-5.9%). One other woman received home oxygen. No women required mechanical ventilation and there were no maternal deaths. One woman had an unexplained fetal demise at 14 weeks' gestation around the time of her COVID-19 symptoms. Twenty one of the 92 women have delivered, and all were uncomplicated.

Conclusions: Among 92 women with confirmed or presumed COVID-19, the overall morbidity was low. These preliminary results are encouraging for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

The COVID-19 pandemic is an extraordinary global situation, and all countries have adopted their own strategies to diminish and eliminate the spread of the virus. All measures are in line with the recommendations provided by the World Health Organization. Scientific societies, such as the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology and American Society for Reproductive Medicine, have provided recommendations and guidance to overcome and flatten the growing curve of infection in patients who undergo IVF treatments. Although there is as yet no evidence that the virus causing COVID-19 might have negative effects on IVF outcomes, fertility treatments have been postponed in order to support healthcare systems by avoiding placing them under additional stress. The possibility of the virus affecting sperm function and egg performance cannot be excluded. In addition, an indirect effect of the virus on gametes and embryos during their manipulation cannot be ruled out. This commentary aims to provide some ideas on the possible effect of the virus on gametes and embryos, as well as how it could affect the normal functioning of the embryology laboratory.

Article here.

No abstract.

Article here.

Objective: This study aimed to (1) determine to what degree prenatal care was able to be transitioned to telehealth at prenatal practices associated with two affiliated hospitals in New York City during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and (2) describe providers' experience with this transition.

Study design: Trends in whether prenatal care visits were conducted in-person or via telehealth were analyzed by week for a 5-week period from March 9 to April 12 at Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC)-affiliated prenatal practices in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic. Visits were analyzed for maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) and general obstetrical faculty practices, as well as a clinic system serving patients with public insurance. The proportion of visits that were telehealth was analyzed by visit type by week. A survey and semistructured interviews of providers were conducted evaluating resources and obstacles in the uptake of telehealth.

Results: During the study period, there were 4,248 visits, of which approximately one-third were performed by telehealth (n = 1,352, 31.8%). By the fifth week, 56.1% of generalist visits, 61.5% of MFM visits, and 41.5% of clinic visits were performed via telehealth. A total of 36 providers completed the survey and 11 were interviewed. Accessing technology and performing visits, documentation, and follow-up using the telehealth electronic medical record were all viewed favorably by providers. In transitioning to telehealth, operational challenges were more significant for health clinics than for MFM and generalist faculty practices with patients receiving public insurance experiencing greater difficulties and barriers to care. Additional resources on the patient and operational level were required to optimize attendance at in-person and video visits for clinic patients.

Conclusion: Telehealth was rapidly implemented in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic and was viewed favorably by providers. Limited barriers to care were observed for practices serving patients with commercial insurance. However, to optimize access for patients with Medicaid, additional patient-level and operational supports were required.

Article here.

Objective: Since its emergence in late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread globally. Within the United States, some of the most affected regions have been New York, and Northern New Jersey. Our objective is to describe the impact of COVID-19 in a large delivery service in Northern New Jersey, including its effects on labor and delivery (L&D), the newborn nursery, and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Materials and methods:Between April 21, 2020 and May 5, 2020, a total of 78 mothers (3.6% of deliveries) were identified by screening history or examination to either be COVID-19 positive or possible positives (persons under investigation). Of the mothers who were tested after admission to L&D, 28% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.

Discussion: Isolation between mother and infant was recommended in 62 cases, either because the mother was positive for SARS-CoV-2 or because the test was still pending. Fifty-four families (87%) agreed to isolation and separation. The majority of infants, 51 (94%), were initially isolated on the newborn nursery. Six needed NICU admission. No infants had clinical evidence of symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Fourteen infants whose mothers were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and who had been separated from the mother at birth were tested for SARS-CoV-2 postnatally. All were negative.

Results: COVID-19 posed a significant burden to mothers, infants, and staff over the 5-week study period. The yield from screening mothers for COVID-19 on L&D was high. Most families accepted the need for postnatal isolation and separation of mother and new